The Old Testament "Revelation" 

Ezekiel gives us Daniel as an example of wisdom (14:14,20) AND righteousness (28:30)


A. The dates in most Bibles are off by 110 years due to assuming an error in Scripture rather than finding a reason for the alleged "discrepancy." Most Biblical dating hinges on 1 Ki 6:1 (480 years). However, the same time frame referred to by Paul (Ac 13:17-22) covers 573 years. This 93 year difference has been dismissed as error or estimation on Paul’s part when, in fact, it is a Scriptural safeguard against error. The 573 years are according to the calendar. The 480 years are by God’s reckoning of Israel as a nation. God does not include 93 years during the period of the Judges when Israel was Lo-Ammi (not my people).

          Ac 13:17-22                                             Judges

      Wilderness       40 years                                  3:8       8 years

             Judges      450 years                                 3:14    18 years

               Saul        40 years                                  4:3     20 years

                David      40 years                                   6:1     7 years

   Solomon(1 Ki 6:1)   3 years                                  13:1   40 years

                                                 573 years             less                        93 years   = 480 years

This phenomenon is not uncommon. For example, the 42 generations of Mt 1:17 are by God’s reckoning, not literal. Many are skipped. Note that Ruth herself is omitted in the book of Ruth 4:17. God does not include every link in the royal line. He remains true to his order and structure.

Notes:1.The "four hundred and eightieth year" referenced in 1Ki 6:1 is the 480th year of the 490 years from the Exodus to theDedication of the Temple (the subject of Ch.6). The remaining 10 years include 7 years of construction (1Ki 6:38) and 3 years to complete the furnishing. 

              2. Judges 10:7-9 references an additional 18 years that  affected only a specific portion of the nation "on the other side Jordan..." and did not have national impact.

B. There is a gap of 13 years between the reigns of Amaziah and Uzziah which God ignores. There are 6 years that Athaliah usurped the throne. There is a 1 year gap between Uzziah and Jotham (2 Ki 15:2,27,32)

93 + 13 + 6 + 1 = 113 years of "Not My People"

                    Specifically: From Eli to Athaliah is off by 93 years

                                      From Joash to Amaziah is off 99 years

                                      From Uzziah to Captivity is off by 113 years

The additional 3 years result from numerous fractional years being counted. This error causes us to miss some of God’s order and sovereignty. For example, this adjustment places David’s anointing at 974 B.C. Exactly 1,000 years before the baptism of Jesus Christ in A.D. 26.

This correction will be necessary to fully appreciate the pinpoint accuracy of Daniel’s prophecies.


Daniel: God (is my ) Judge - This points to the Book’s position in the Hebrew Canon. Daniel is the Old Testament’s Revelation/Apocalypse pointing to the future. While Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel have an Israelite viewpoint, Daniel is universal.


- Dan 1:1-6:28 is Historic. ® Dan 7:1-12:13 is Prophetic.

                        - Dan 2:4-7:28 is in Aramaic. ® Dan 8:1-12:13 is in Hebrew.

The Gentile language (Aramaic/Chaldee) is therefore used for the period of Gentile supremacy relative to Israel. The prophetic portion leads us to the time when God will "restore again the kingdom of Israel" (Ac 1:6)

Luke is not the only non-Jewish author in the Bible. Chapter 4 of Daniel is written by King Nebuchadnezzar. Note the reference to Nebuchadnezzar as God’s servant(Jer 27:5-7).

The Book of Daniel is the light of 2 Pe 1:19

The Book of Daniel is not in chronological sequence.

The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls silenced hundreds of critics who maintained that the prophecies in Daniel were too accurate to have been written in advance. Not only did these critics reject God’s omniscience and control, they also had to ignore the ancient Hebrew language used by Daniel. This language all but disappeared under Babylonian rule and was replaced by "modern" Hebrew. Note that after the Exile, in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, the common people had forgotten the language (Neh 8:8).


- Daniel was of the royal seed of Judah (Dan 1:3)

- Daniel was a contemporary of Ezekiel and is mentioned 3 times in the Book of Ezekiel (14:14,20; 28:3) where Daniel is used as an example of righteousness and wisdom. The Lord refers to him in Mt 24:15 (Mk 13:14)

- Daniel covers the 70 years of Captivity with Daniel being 17 years old at the beginning, 87 years old at the end .

- Daniel is scripturally referred to by his Hebrew name unlike his 3 counterparts (Dan 1:6, 7; 2:49). This is an honor and sign of respect extended by God to indicate that Daniel, like David, never compromised his faith in God.

- Daniel refers to the writings of Jeremiah (Dan 9:2) as his basis for knowing the Captivity was coming to a close after 70 years.


There are actually 3 periods of 70 years.

                     A. SERVITUDE (496-426 B.C.) Jer 25:1-14 - Begins in the 4th year of Jehoiakim and closes with the capture of Babylon by Darius the Mede (Astyages) and the Decree of his son and co-regent Cyrus to rebuild the Temple.

                      B. CAPTIVITY (489-419 B.C.) 2 Ki 24:8-16 - Begins with the carrying away to Babylon of Jeconiah in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar in 489 B.C. When the SERVITUDE ended in 426 B.C., the CAPTIVITYhad lasted 63 years (9 (finality of judgment) x 7 (spiritual completion)).

7 years later, in 419 B.C.:

- Cyrus died. Succeeded by Cambyses.

- Nehemiah was appointed governor (Neh 5:14) (Note references are to the king’s age, not the duration of his reign)

- The wall begun in 454 B.C. is resumed and completed in 52 days (Neh 6:15) (52 = 4(creative works) x 13 (rebellion)) Begun in 5th month, ended in 7th.

 - Marks the end of the 5th of the “seven sevens” of Dan 9:25 (Note: In 9:25, the reference is to build Jerusalem, not the Temple. This was the subject of Daniel’s prayer (Dan 9:16-19).

                       C. DESOLATIONS (479-409 B.C.) 2 Ch 36:9-21 - Begins with the third and last siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 479 B.C. and ends in the second year of Darius Hystaspis. This is the fulfillment of Lev 26:32-35. Note in Dan 9:2, “understood by books” (The Book of Jeremiah). This is about the LAND. “A” & “B” are about the PEOPLE. This pattern was set in Gen 3:17, 18.

Daniel = God (is my) Judge see Ps 23:1 Jehovah-Roi=The Lord (Is My) Shepherd

Ch. 1:1 - 3rd year of Jehoiakim (497 B.C.) Daniel is 16 (born 513 B.C.)
               -"came Nebuchadnezzar" - When he started. He was delayed by battle and did not arrive until the 4th year (Jer 46:1,2)
               -The Babylonian Servitude lasted for 70 years (496-426 B.C.)
2 - "part of" - The rest came later (2 Ch 36:7,10). Restored by Cyrus (Ezra
1:5-8) "Shinar" is Babylon (Gen 11:1,2,9)
     - "king" used prophetically. Nebuchadnezzar’s father, Nabopolassar, was king until he died in July of 496 B.C.
      -"his god" - Marduk, god of wisdom. The king’s name means "Nebo (god of learning) protect my frontier."
3 - "enunchs" = palace servants, not necessarily castrated.
      -2 Ki 24:10-16 (Note v. 12 "eighth year" includes time when Nebuchadnezzar had authority but was not technically king while his father was alive).
4 - "children" = "Youths". Only the "best were desired to incorporate into  Babylonian culture. The palace contained a special school and a huge library.
     -"Chaldeans" - Primarily in South Babylonia, a learned class distinct from the Babylonians (Jer 22:24,25 Eze 23:22,23)
5 - "three years" - the appointed time for the process not the actual elapsed time before Chapter 2. Note Dan 2:1
6 - Hananiah = God is
     Mishael - Who is God?
     Azariah - Helped by God
7 - Name changing is part of the subjection process (Gen 41:45) (2 Ki 23:34)

8 - Nothing to do with vegetarianism or temperance. The king’s food would have been prepared with the blood and sacrificed to idols. This would violate Lev 17:10-14 and Ex 34:14,15
   - "purposed in his heart" - Pr 23:6,7
9 - "tender love" = compassion, empathy
10 - Fear overcomes mercy, but Daniel has not been denied. He does not assume he has been denied. He does not force the issue. He "shakes the dust off" and finds better soil.
11-16- "Melzar" is not a proper name. It is Hebrew for the head steward. Daniel - Goes to the decision-maker. Is unsuccessful but not rejected. He LISTENS to the objections of the prince of the eunuchs, He ADDRESSES the objections, PRESENTS a proposal to the steward to alleviate the concerns, and requires only a YES or NO response. He succeeds.
    -"10" - the number of perfect order (Things are set right)
17 - "God gave…" He is always the source. Noah was not a professional shipbuilder
    - "understanding" = "discernment" visions (awake) dreams(sleeping)
18-20 - 1 Jn 4:4 - As with Moses and Esther, God raises up His people in the midst of the enemy
    - "magicians" = Heb. "chartummim" - Those who claimed to repel evil spirits and demons by incantations and spells.
    - "astrologers" Heb. "ashshaphim" - Those who claimed to be prophets who predicted the future and proclaimed the will of heaven.
21 - 426 B.C. 69 years from this point. Does not mean Daniel did not live longer than that time.
Ch. 2:1 - 2nd year of Nebuchadnezzar = 5th year of Jehoiakim (Jer 36:9)

       Jer 36 This dream occurred the same year (day?) as the burning of the roll in Jer 36 when Jehovah was rejected. The king of the Gentile world (Nebuchadnezzar) is informed of his demise.
      -"brake from him" = he awoke abruptly
2 - The king calls in his "priesthood"
        "sorcerers" = Heb. "mekashsh phim" = wizards
3 - This dreams marks the beginning and duration of Gentile dominion over Jerusalem. Daniel’s dream and vision (Ch 7) marks the end.
4 - "in Syriack" = Aramaic from here through Chapter 7
5-6 - The king doesn’t remember the details of the dream, only its impact. He offers curse or blessing. No other options. "cut in pieces.." - see 3:29
7-9 - The king warns not to stall for time in the hope that he may forget about it eventually.

THE DREAM - Connection, Content, Connection

Connection - Jer 36 - Israel must be punished, but mere fire cannot destroy God’s Word. God’s Word includes His covenant which cannot be violated. The punishment cannot be permanent (Ex 32:1-14)

Content - Ch 2: 7-9 - The King warns not to stall for time
                       10-11- The Chaldeans declare it "Mission Impossible"
                       12-13 - The king decides to clean house
                       14-16 - Daniel responds Pr 15:1, 16:32,
                       17-18 - Daniel gets his prayer warriors (note the name changes
                                    after the burning of the scroll)
Prayer of         19-23 - God supplies wisdom. Daniel gives God glory. 

Thanksgiving                              Pr 2:6-8
                       24 - Daniel intercedes for the "wise men"
25 - God moves Arioch’s heart to believe Daniel without question
IMPORTANT: 26 - Here the Holy Spirit highlights the continued use of the Hebrew name "Daniel" despite the change for his counterparts. 

27-30 - Daniel again gives God the glory and reveals the PURPOSE of the dream: God has not forgotten His covenant; Nebuchadnezzer is His servant; His kingdom is temporary; God is sovereign and the king should maintain humility.
- Rev 17:10-14  - The dream extends to the millennial kingdom of  Rev. 20.
The image = 5 kingdoms - Bablyon (Dan 2:37-38), Medo-Persians, Greeks (both v. 39), Romans (v. 40) from 31 B.C. to 636 A.D. = 666 yrs, Mohammedan (v. 41) from 636-1948 in v. 43 "they" and v. 44 "these kings"      the ten toes = the ten horns/kings of Rev 17:12
Important - The dream references the millennium, NOT the earthly ministry of Jesus Christ who is the stone of v. 44
This is the first of 3 significant opportunities given to Nebuchadnezzar to acknowledge Jehovah’s sovereignty and humble himself.

Connection - Ch 2: 31-33 - The image is top-heavy and therefore easily toppled.


2:41 - The fifth kingdom "the feet and toes". Included by God in His omniscience but hidden from human intellect until revealed by God, the giver of wisdom and the revealer of secret things.

- The Mohammedan kingdom did not come until 636 A.D. - AFTER the kingdom of Jesus Christ had been rejected by the Jews (Ac 28:21-29). Something only GOD could know. The Pharisees would have used such knowledge as proof that Jesus could not be the Messiah. The disciples/apostles would lack enthusiasm by anticipating failure. Jesus Christ refers to the fifth kingdom in Lk 21:22-24. Note the phrase "trodden down" relative to the "feet and toes" of Dan 2:41-43

46 - The ungodly still worship man before God. See Gen 10:8-10
47 - Note "a" instead of "the"
48 - "made Daniel a great man" = "exalted Daniel" Pr 3:5-9
49 - As always Daniel thinks of others. "in the gate" = Daniel became part of the King’s household, as did Joseph.

Ch 3:1 - (20 yrs later). The image - Not a man. Height:Breadth = 10:1. Heb-"tzelem" denotes a carving. This was an "Asherah", translated "groves" in the KJV. Mentioned 40 times in the O.T. First in Ex 34:13 They were phallic images common to all ancient religions and still found today in various forms. Note Eze 16:17 (where "of men" = "of the male"), Isa 27:9, Mic 5:12-15
The warning of the dream 20 years earlier is forgotten.
2-5 - The King requires worship on command
6 - Failure to comply is a capital offense
7,8 - Forced worship is of flesh, not spirit. It produces works, not fruit. In this case, it produces envy Gal 5:19-21.
9-12 - Envy comes disguised as righteousness...
13 - …Wrath and strife are not far behind
14 - "Is it true" = "What do you hope to accomplish?"
15 - The king offers one last chance and asks a question
16 - "are not careful" = "We don’t think this requires a response", i.e. under No circumstances will we worship your image Ex 20:1-6
17,18 - The three acknowledge God’s sovereignty
19 - The king takes offense. "seven times more" = Maximum
The king of the natural world battles THE KING of the supernatural world…
20 - …and commands his elite soldiers (2 Sa 23:8-39) to bind … (Lk 13:10-16)   
(1 Jn 4:4)
21 - Bound in clothing to increase the torture
22 - The servants of the natural king are consumed by fire
23 - "fell down" -to pray? Or simply unable to stand by
24 - The king is amazed and "can’t believe his eyes"
Important: 25 - As in 2:47, it must be "a" son of God and not "the". The significance of Chapter 4 is otherwise diluted and we must assume some incredible, unexplained revelation being given to Nebuchadnezzar.
26 - Caught up in the moment, the king finally recognizes "the most high God" (the lowercase is correct, uppercase in Ch 4 is different in Chaldee)
27 - "saw" = "stared at" - The same fire which consumed the soldiers (wood, hay, stubble) purifies the 3 men (gold, silver, precious stones).
28 - The king’s word is changed (Mk 13:31). Note that he refers to "their God" as one of many.
29 - Remember the question of v. 15. The king decrees his favorite punishment (2:5) for anyone who does what he did.
30 - Ps 27:1-6
Ch 4 - Written in 454 B.C. at the end of a 7 year period which began 13 years after Ch 3. This was issued as a proclamation by the most powerful man on Earth. It is a testimony to the sovereignty of God and is astounding because God made it a part of His Word, an entire chapter written by a pagan king named for a pagan god. We can only guess at the impact this proclamation made across the world, but we can be certain that the year it was issued, 454 B.C., is the same year that King Artaxerxes of Persia issued the decree for the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Dan 9:25, Neh 2:1-8). This year marked the beginning of the countdown to the "cutting off" of the Messiah in 29 A.D. (Dan 9:26)
         We will read Nebuchadnezzar’s testimony without notes.


BACKGROUND- Sources (Ptolemy, Josephus, Babylonian Inscriptions, Ency. Brittanica)

Chapter 4 ends after 40 years of Nebuchandnezzar’s reign (457 B.C.). He reigned for 43 years total (454 B.C.). He was succeeded by his son, Amel-marduk (also called Evil-Merodach in Jer 52:31-34). He was murdered by his brother-in-law in August of 452 B.C. (Nergal-sharezer referred to in Jer 39:3 and Jer 39:13 when he was a prince). He died and was succeeded by his son Labashi-marduk four years later (448 B.C.). Labashi-marduk was assassinated the same year by a group led by Nabonidus, who became king in 447 B.C. He reigned for eighteen years (until 429 B.C.) when he retired to Arabia and entrusted the kingdom to his son Belshazzar, who reigned for the final three years (until 426 B.C.). The inscriptions state that Nabodinus actually went to meet with Cyrus.

Chapter 5 begins in 426 B.C., the last year of the 70 years. Daniel is 87 years old. Young King Belshazzar is holding a non-stop party which has lasted for half his reign (18 months). The great feast is being held in a hall which is 60 feet wide and 172 feet long with ornately decorated walls and painted stucco designs. The seven years of humility imposed by God on Nebuchadnezzar are long forgotten and the city is unguarded. Belshazzar is slain on the night of the invasion of the 3rd of the month Marchesvan on the Babylonian calendar (Note the number of the Trinity all over him). His wife died eight days later ( 8 = new beginning). Darius, with his son and co-regent Cyrus diverted the flow of the Euphrates river and tunnelled into the city under the river bed, entered the city at both ends and fulfilled the prophecy of Jer 51:36. (We will read Jer 51:28-40). To understand how the river drying up would be unnoticed, note the references to wine in Dan 5:1-4.

1 - "wine" = Chaldee (chamra), Heb. (chemer) = Strong red wine normally diluted with water to lessen the effect
2 - "father" = "ancestor" In this case, grandfather (See Jer 27:6,7). Compare this blasphemy to Dan 4:28-33 (Heb 10:31)
3 - Step 2 of the blasphemy, the drinking from the vessels
4 - Step 3 of the blasphemy, the idolatry (note Dam 3:29)
5 - "same hour" = "at the same time" "candlestick" = "lampstand". (Note: fingers only. Not an entire hand. The true power is in the fingers. See Lk 11:20, Ps 8:3 Emphasized by the end of this verse).
6 - "countenance" = "bright looks" see Dan 2:1, 4:5. Note the lack of a "Fear not" in this heavenly presence. Is 13:11
7 - Compare to 2:2 "scarlet" = "purple", an expensive, royal color because of the rarity of the necessary dyes (Ac 16:14)
       - "third ruler" - Nabodinus was 1st, Belshazzar 2nd
8,9 - 1 Co 2:14
10 - The queen - Nitrocis, mother of Nabodinus, daughter-in-law of Nebuchandezzar. This is certain because she "came into" the hall and v.2 shows that Belshazzar’s wife/wives was/were present. She is of sufficient age to be familiar with Daniel. Who but God even sent her into the banquet house?
11 - The queen gives Daniel’s resume and is certain that he…
12 - "…will know ("he willshew the interpretation")
13 - The king had obviously never even met Daniel before
14,15 - The frightened, desperate king needs Daniel’s help and tries to make Daniel feel important NOW, even though the king has never bothered to make contact. "I have even heard of thee…?" - Just now, or before?
16 - The king again tries to appeal to Daniel’s pride and offers reward.
         Note this pattern: Gen 3:4,5
17 -    Note Daniel’s response: 1 Jn 2:15-17    Mt 6:1,2 19-21
          Note "gave" and compare to Rev 6:2,4,8 "given". God is in control.
20 - Compare to Eze 28:17 Note Pr 16:4-12 and Pr 6:16-19
21 - Pr 3:33-35 Isa 45:22,23
22 - Failure to heed warnings. Failure to remember past lessons = Judgment    See Lk 17:32 (from Gen 19:17,26)
23 - 1 Jn 5:21
24 - "Then" = "As a result" Note: What is written may be READ by anyone. It can only be understood through the Holy Spirit.
25 - "MENE" = numbered (repeated for emphasis)
        "TEKEL" = weighed
        "UPHARSIN" = and divided/broken "U" = "and"
26-28 - No further interpretation of what Scripture interprets
29 - Belshazzar keeps his promise to Daniel, and holds a ceremony and issues a proclamation. He has no sense of urgency to repent. (Lk 12:16-21)
30 - Rev 22:12
31 - "Darius" is a title, not a name. This is Astyages (born 488 B.C.). This means that Cyrus, his son and co-regent was 40 (born 466 B.C.). The city was taken in the name of Cyrus by his general, Gobryas. (Isa 45:1-6)
Note: The 1845 translation of the trilingual inscriptions on the 1,700 ft. tall Rock of Bahistan on the high road from Baghdad to Teheran has the genealogy of the Persian kings carved 500 ft above the level of the plain, so we know:

ASTYAGES = Darius the Median (Dan 5:31) =Ahasuerus (Est 1:1) = Artaxerxes (Ez 6:14, Neh 2:1). This is Cyrus "The Persian’s" father. He married Esther (Est 2:17), making Esther Cyrus’ mother, meaning Cyrus was raised by Esther and Mordecai. Isa 44:28 makes sense. The Presence of the (Heb. "ha-shegal") "foreign queen" in Neh 2:6 also makes sense.

Ch. 6:1 - Human leadership changes. God is still in control. Daniel remains in a position of leadership authority. Compare Gal 1:1

"an hundred and twenty" - Added by the king - 7 in (Esther 1:10) + 120 = 127 (Est 1:1) - A note on the precise historical accuracy of Scripture.

2 - presidents = ministers safeguarding the assets of the kingdom Cp. Gen 39:1-6
3 - The action
4 - The reaction Cp. Lk 23:1-5 see Mt 5:11 1 Pe 3:13-17
6-9 - Once again, the spirit of the enemy appeals to pride as they butter up the king  see Jas 1:14,15
                  Note their zeal - "statute" AND "decree" …. "that it not be changed"
10 - Daniel knew of this, he was not fooled or trapped.

         - "toward Jerusalem" is tradition based on Solomon’s prayer (1 Ki 8:46-53)
11 - Easily done because of the open window of v.10
12,13 - Cp. Dan 3:9-12
14 - The king realizes that he’s been duped, and struggles to find a loophole
15 - The enemy stays in his ear to apply pressure
16 - The king recognizes the need for higher authority and power
17 - Cp. Mt 27:62-66 Note: Despite the Pharisees words, sealing is to keep in.
18 - The king is deeply disturbed by his role in this. Cp. Mt 27:17-19
19 - Cp. Jn 20:1
20 - Although Darius is king, note how he refers to Daniel
21,22 - "shut the lions’ mouths" - God doesn’t just allow Daniel to survive, He provides a good night’s sleep for the man in the lions’ den. The man in the palace got no rest. Eph 3:20 Note: "forasmuch"
23 - The decree did not require that Daniel be killed, so he is released, "because"
24 - Evil is recompensed  Ps 7:14-17   Est 7:9-10 (same king)
25-27 - Darius issues a decree/testimony. Cp. Dan 4 Note Jn 4:48
28 - Ps 1:1-3
Ch. 7:1 - It is 429 B.C., 3 years BEFORE Chapter 5. Daniel is 84 years old. This is the last chapter written in Chaldee because it marks the ends of Gentile dominion under Belshazzar, the last king of Babylon. In Chapter 2, Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, interpreted by Daniel, concerned the start and duration of Gentile dominance over Israel. In Chapter 7, Daniel’s dream and vision, interpreted by the Angel, concerns the end of the Gentile dominance. As always, since Scripture interprets the dream and vision for us, we may comment, but further interpretation is unnecessary and unwise.
- "first year" - see above
- "dream and vision" - started during sleep, continued after awakening
- "wrote… and told" - written and spoken (v.2)
2 - "four winds" - Rev 7:1 Zec 2:6-9 AND Zec 6:4,5
3 - "four beasts" - These are not the dominions of Ch.2. These exist simultaneously.
4 - This is not, cannot be Babylon which is not included here, Nebuchadnezzar had been dead for 23 years and Babylon had only 2 years remaining.
5,6 - "on one side" = "partially"
7 - "great iron teeth" = "two rows of teeth"
- "the residue" = "the rest" i.e., the other 3 kingdoms which co-existed and did not succeed one another as in Ch. 2.
- See Rev 13:1-9. The 4th devours the first 3 and combines them
- "ten horns" - Rev 17:12
8 - "little horn" = "a horn of small beginnings"
     "speaking great things" - Rev 13:5,6 2 Th 2:3,4
Important 9 - "cast down" = In Eastern cultures, cushions were placed for seats of judgment. See Ps 9:7 AND Rev 4:2
- "Ancient of Days" = "The Everlasting One" s 90:2
- garment, etc - Rev 1:14
- "wheels" - Ez 1:15-20,26-28; 10:1-7
10 - "the judgment" = "The Judge" Rev
- The beast did not cease talking. Rev 19:19-20
12 - The 3 beasts of vv. 4-6
13,14 - Rev 14:14  Ps 8:4-9
15 - This verse makes it ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN that this dream/vision is distinct from Ch. 2. Daniel, the interpreter of Ch. 2, is disturbed and baffled.
16 - Daniel seeks understanding from one of "them" in v.10
17,18 - THE INTERPRETATION   Note "shall arise" which again eliminates Babylon and the Persians which had already "risen". Another Scriptural safeguard. This is the "ten toes", the unspecified fifth power of Ch 2:41-44.
19-21 - "made war" points us to Rev 13:7
22 - See Rev 21:5-8
23,24 - "ten kings" - Rev 17:12 "he" = "the little horn"
25 - "change times and laws" - The enemy is desperate to write a "new end" to the Word. "time and times…" = 3 ½ yrs = 42 mos. (Rev 11:2=1260 days(Rev 11:3), but most importantly, ½ of the one week of Dan 9:27
26,27 - As before, each interpretation points to the end. Mt 24:9-31

28 - "in my heart" Cp to Mary Lk 2:18,19

The Book of Daniel now switches to Hebrew, as Gentile dominion draws to a close.

Ch. 8:1 - "third year…" - 2 years after Ch. 7. Same year as Ch. 5. Daniel is 87.
2 - "Shushan in the palace" - Shushan was the chief city in Persia, so Daniel must have left Babylon sometime after Nebuchadnezzar’s conversion. He was employed by Astyages (v. 27). Since Daniel’s administrative duties required travel, note how God arranged his absence (3:12) and his presence (5:13).
3 - Interpreted by v.20. The ram was always the symbol of Persia. Rams were depicted on ancient Persian coins. The kings wore golden ram heads. Astyages is the first horn, Cyrus is the latter.
4 - "became great" = "acted proudly"
5 - "goat" = the symbol of Greece (v.21) "from the west" = the direction from which the Greeks would conquer, not the location of Greece. "notable horn" = Alexander the Great
6 - Alexander the Great conquered the world in a span of only 13 years.
7 - No deliverer for Persia. Ordained by God to come to its end.
8 - 4 kingdoms - Ptolemy (Egypt, Palestine, Asia Minor)
                       Cassander (Macedonia, Greece)
                       Lysimachus (Bithynia, Thrace, Mysia)
                       Seleucus (Syria, Armenia, E.of Euphrates)
9,10 - The "little horn" of Ch. 7:8. This is completing Rev. 12 which extends through the entire time of the Bible. "the host…" = "the starry host"
11 - "Prince of the host" = God. The ruler of the angels. The Lord of Hosts. Jehovah Sabbioth. 1st used in 1 Sam 1:3. Occurs 281 times - Commander-in-Chief.
 - "magnified" = Eze 28:17, 2 Th 2:4 "daily sacrifice" Nu 28:3, 1 Chr 16:40. For our time, the daily sacrifice is prayer and praise. Note: Schools, Dan 6:7
12-14 - See Rev. 11:1,2 "an host" - a military reference. The truth of God will be cast down, i.e. what is revealed by God (Revelation).

IMPORTANT - "two thousand three hundred days" - We know that the end of the 2300 coincides with the end of the seventy (seven) weeks. Counting back we arrive 220 days into the start of the seventieth seven. God does not specify an event, BUT it will be recognized by some (Dan 12:8-10). Since the prophecy is given in "days", it will be of God and signify our final rejection before judgment (see "full" v. 23).

15,16 - "man" = Heb. "geber" = mighty man = Gabriel; (Mighty Man of God)
17 - "son of Man" - used only of Ezekiel, Daniel and Jesus Christ
18 - Daniel falls into a deep sleep (2 Co 12:2). When the vision is over, (v. 27)Daniel is ill (compare to 2 Co 12:7)
19 - "indignation" - the wrath of God
"time appointed…." It is written. Not subject to change.
20 - Astyages and Cyrus
21 - Alexander the Great
22 - The 4 lesser kingdoms
23 - "transgressors" = "rebellions"
"fierce countenance" = mighty presence
"understanding…" = skilled at deception Rev 13:11-14 2 Th
24 - "not by his own power" - Rev 13:2
   - "destroy" - Rev 6:9-11
25 - "craft" = deceit "by peace" = careless security and prosperity
    - "Prince of princes" = Messiah
    - "broken without hand" - 2 Th 2:8
26 - "is true" should be "is truth"
27 - "understood" = "became aware of", i.e. Daniel told no one.

Ch. 9:1- 426 B.C. Daniel is 87. Astyages (Darius the Median of 5:31) has pronounced his son, Cyrus, (Darius the son of Ahasuerus), King of Babylon. (Darius = the Restrainer. Ahasuerus = the Mighty. and Artaxeres = Great King. THESE ARE TITLES, NOT PROPER NAMES!)
    - "seed of the Medes" - see Gen 25:1,2
2 - "by books: should be "by the books" = Jer 25:11, 29:10 (479-409 B.C. see CALENDAR)
3-6 - Daniel prays (through v.19) for "we and "us" Jas 4:10 Lev 26:32-46
7,8 - "confusion of face" = shame Ps 109:29
9-14 - Daniel acknowledges that God’s Word required the punishment.
          v.11 - "the curse is poured…." contrast Mal 3:10
                   "oath that is written" Deu 28:15-20.
           v.12 - "evil" = "calamity"
           vv.13,14 - 2 Ch 7:13,14
15 - 1 Jn 1:8-10
16,17 - This is the supplication referenced in v.3. Compare to Nu 6:22-27
18,19 - Note the sequence of Daniel’s request
                  Hear - Forgive -Hearken - Do - Defer Not
v.18 - "we" and "our" indicate that Daniel was praying separately, but not alone (see 2:17,18)

My sin - My people - My God

21-23 - Gabriel sent to provide clarity. God does not want us to be confused. We are to understand, consider and believe, This is actually the process described by Phil 4:6,7
     - "evening oblation" = 3 P.M.
24 - "Seventy weeks" is literally "seven sevens" (of years)
         "prophecy" should be "prophet"
IMPORTANT "the most Holy" should be "a Holy of Holies" and refers to cleansing the Sanctuary (see 8:13,14), NOT to a person.
Note that there are SIX things to be accomplished. (# of man)
24- Seventy weeks = "Seventy sevens" = 490 years
         7x7 (divine perfection intensified) x 10 (divine order)
            - "are determined" should be "is determined"


a. "to finish the trangression" = "to put an end to the transgression" 
     Lit. "the revolt" Dan 8:12,13
b. "to make an end of sins" = "to seal up sin" Heb. "chata" = acts of sin  (Jas 4:17)
c. "to make reconciliation for iniquity" = "to make atonement for iniquity" Heb.       avah = (heart) condition of sin. This is the difference between sin and iniquity as used in Scripture. "Sin" refers to what we do when we "stumble" of "fall short". "Iniquity" refers to the condition of our hearts. The Hebrew word is from a root word meaning to be crooked or bent (Deu 32:5, Ps 125:5, and My 7:13,14)
d. "to bring in everlasting righteousness" = This is the righteousness of God. "Eternal" is from now on. "Everlasting" means "has always been and will always be." Read Rev 19:11-13 add Jn 1:1,2
5. e. "to seal up the vision and prophecy" - "Prophecy" should be "Prophet." - ALL prophecy will be fulfilled. There will be no more prophets. Prophets, originally called "seers" resulted from the failure of the Levites (priests). (See 1 Sa 9:9). There were prophets before there were priests. (Gen 20:7) (Rev 22:18,19
6. f. "to anoint the most Holy" = "to anoint a Holy of Holies" hence, a sanctuary, not a person. Referred to in Dan 8:14, Foreshadowed in Jn 2:13-17 The person is "everlasting righteousness" (#4 of the 6)
25 - "know and understand (compare v.23) "understand and consider")
    - "…the going forth…" = 454 B.C. Referring to the city, not the Temple. The city was the subject of Daniel’s prayer (vv 16-18). See Neh 2:1-6
- "Messiah the Prince" = A King Priest, i.e. Jesus Christ
- "seven…threescore and two" = 7+ 62 = 69 seven years periods = 483 yrs.

454 B.C. + 483 years = 29 A.D. the year of the crucifixion

- "the street.." - 49 years to the complete restoration of Jerusalem.

454 B.C.

-The "seventy sevens" begin here. (9:24-27)

- The "seven sevens" begin here, end at 405 B.C. the completion and dedication of the second Temple (9:25)

- The "threescore and two sevens" (434 yrs) begin in 405 B.C. and end in 29 A.D. the year of the Crucifixion (9:26)
- The first four of the "seven sevens" ended in 426 B.C., the end of the seventy years of Babylonian Servitude and the Decree of Cyrus.
THEREFORE, the last seven year period is future. In Dan 9:24, "Seventy weeks are determined" actually says "Seventy sevens is cut off." The verb is, and must be, singular because God has separated this block of time, regardless of its division (cp Mt 28:19  where "name" is singular).There has been no nation of Israel since Christ was rejected! Just as God disregarded 93 years during the time of Judges, we are currently Lo-Ammi (not My people). The new Israel will be formed during the last seven years to withstand the "prince" of vv. 26,27 during the last 3 ½ years. The new Israel is necessary because of the divorce of Jer 3:8. There can be no remarriage (Deut 24:1-4) AND the bride of Jesus, the King-Priest, must be a virgin (Lev 21:10-15). This new Israel will supply 144,000 of Rev 7:4, but will not be Israelites based on ethnicity, but by virtue of having put on Christ   (Gal 3:26-29, 1 Pe 2:9,10)
-"Messiah the Prince" = Priest and King, i.e. Jesus Christ
26 - "after" - immediately after. Decree issued in Nisan, same month as the Crucifixion! (See Neh 2:1-8). (MAXIMUM 2 week difference, if any!)
     - "but not for Himself" - For nothing He had done (Isa 53:3-12)
     - "the prince" = the little horn of Dan 8:9-12
     - "the end" = his end "flood" see Rev 12:13-17
     - "war" - the war of Rev 13:17
     -"desolations" - (Mt 24 should begin at 23:37-39)
27 - The False Messiah/The Antichrist/Satan’s Prophet
- "covenant" - The impostor will establish a "new" covenant with "the" many." 2 Ti 4:3,4 1 Jn 4:1-3     Rev 13:7,8 connects to 2 Th 2:9-13
- "one week" - The beginning of the last 7 years (to complete the seventy  sevens of 9:24)
- "midst of the week" - after the first 3 ½ years of the Seven Rev 11:1-4
- "sacrifice and oblation to cease" - No need in the presence of the "Lord."
       Rev 21:22 cp. Mt. 9:14,15
Important - "overspreading….desolate" - should be "in its place will be the         abomination of the desolator" 2 Th 2:3,4 Mt 24:15,16 Mk 13:11-14
              - "consummation" - Fulfillment of 9:24, Eze 28:16-19, Rev 19:20
Ch. 10:1 - 2 years after Ch. 9. 73 years after Daniels’ deportation. It is now 424 B.C. and Daniel is 89. This is the latest date of the Book of Daniel.
       - "Hiddekel"- The Tigris, see Gen 2:19
5, 6 - Cp. Description to Rev 1:13-17
7-10 - The power of Divine presence Ac 22:6-11 Mt 28:1-4 Dan 5:5,6
11-12 - Daniel’s prayer was heard on the 3rd, answered on the 24th cp. Jer 42:4-7   See Ps 27:14 Ps 37:7-9 Ps 130:5,6 Hab 2:3
13 - "prince" = "ruler" )Heb. "sar" from which we get Czar, Caesar, Tsar, etc.)here  are angelic beings (good, evil) associated with nations. (See Eph 6:12 and Eze  9:1-6). Michael ("Who is like God?") is the angelic ruler for Israel (understand Rev 12:7)
Important- Remove "I". Gabriel left Michael there while he went to Daniel.
 Note: the "prince" withstood Gabriel. Michael can handle "the kings" alone.
14,15 - Daniel is overwhelmed by the revelation to come from Gabriel.
16-18 - Cp. Isa 6:1-8 Note Daniel’s humility in v. 17
     - "strengthened" = Heb. "hazak" strength for endurance
      - Another "fear not" cp. Jn 14:27
20,21- "scripture of truth" - Written by God, not yet transcribed by man. Known only to Gabriel and Michael at that point.  Note - "your prince"

Ch. 11:1 - "Darius the Mede" = Cyrus. Gabriel mentions that 2 years earlier, i.e., 426 B.C., he had assisted Michael, indicating heightened spiritual warfare during the events of Chapters 5 and 6 (the handwriting on the wall, lions den, etc.)2 - Back to the "present" (424 B.C.), to give truth about the future. There would be exactly 4 Persian kings after Cyrus.
3,4 - Alexander the Great - "not to his posterity" = Alexander died at age 34 and his generals took over. Dan 8:4-8,21,22
Verses 5-20 cover the subsequent kings. At verse 21, the time is still the future.
5 - "king of the south" - Ptolemy Soter (Ptolemy I), son of Lagus, "king" of Egypt. (Lagus’ title was governor, Ptolemy took the title of king) "one of his princes" = Seleucus I, also called Nicator ("conqueror"). Over 40 years, Ptolemy seized Egypt, then Jerusalem by deceit. He entered Jerusalem on a Sabbath, pretending to offer a sacrifice and gained the city with almost no trouble. The Jews were at rest and quiet that day and did not recognize him as an enemy. He became a cruel ruler and took many of the Jews captive and settled them in Egypt. Many other Jews voluntarily went to Egypt.
     - "great dominion" - Ptolemy added Syria to Babylon and Media.
6 - "end of years" = 63 years = 21 years after the reign of Ptolemy I.
- "king’s daughter of the south = Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy II (Philadelphus)
- "king of the north" = Antiochus
Berenice married Antiochus who divorced his wife, Laodice, and disinherited her son, Seleucus Callinicus.
- "given up" - Berenice was murdered, as well as her son, by Laodice.This murder was avenged by Philadelphus (Berenice’s father).
(Additional Info) - Philadelphus, who married his sister (a common royal practice in Persia and Egypt), freed all the Jews, redeeming them from their masters at 20 drachmas (10 shekels, 1/3 of the O.T. amount) and concentrated on building a huge library. He realized he had no one who could translate ancient Hebrew so he sent a letter to Eleazar, the high priest along with lavish gifts for the Temple. Eleazar sent six priests from each tribe (72). The translation of the O.T. law into Greek was completed in 72 days.
7 - "a branch of her roots" = Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III, Evergetes, son of Ptolemy II, Philadelphus (Berenice’s father), who defeated Antiochus
8,9 - Ptolemy III returned artifacts to Egypt which had been seized by the Persians. Hence, the Egyptians called him Evergetes ("Benefactor")
   - "more years" = 46 years (4 more than Antiochus)
10 - "his sons" = The sons of Antiochus (Seleucus Callinicus II and his brother Antiochus III (Antiochus II, not missing, he died in a fall from a horse). It is Antiochus III who is the "one". 
   - "he shall return" - Ptolemy III, who defeated Antiochus III.
11,12 - "king of the south" = Ptolemy III, who, after establishing dominance, gave himself over to reprobate life (cp. Belshazzar in Ch. 5)
13 - Antiochus III renews the war
14 - "king of the south" = Ptolemy V, Epiphanes, age 12 (Ptolemy IV, is dead).
   - "exalt…fall" - Many apostate Jews saw an opportunity for independence, but unwittingly only helped to strengthen Antiochus (2 Th 2:8-12).
15 - "king of the north" - Antiochus III (the Great) - a type of Antichrist, defeats Ptolemy V (Epiphanes)
    -"neither his chosen people" should be "but his people will flee"
16 - Foreshadowing of v.36 "consumed" = desolated
17 - "and upright…shall he do" = "he will come to equitable terms with him" (Ptolemy V).
 Antiochus makes an alliance with Ptolemy V (Age 12) by giving him his daughter, Cleopatra (age 11) to marry. (Many political alliances were forged this way and accounted for many, if not most, of Solomon’s 700 wives - note 1 Ki 7:8). In addition to Cleopatra, Ptolemy also receives Celesyria, Samaria, Judea and Phoenicia as well as a 50-50 split on taxes.
-"not stand" - she would side with her husband (and the Romans, against her father)
      Note: Antiochus named his son Seleucus (Soter) as ruler of Asia. Seleucus    died 7 years later and his brother, Antiochus Epiphanes, became king and is  most closely identified with the specific activities of the Antichrist. It is this Antiochus who was defeated by the Maccabees after his relentless oppression of the Jews.
18,19 - "a prince" - the Roman general (Lucius) Scipio defeated Antiochus III at Magnesia (near Smyrna), and Antiochus withdrew to Syria
20 - (This is Selucus) Sent Heliodorus to Judea to collect money and to plunder the Temple.
   - "neither in anger" = "not with hands" - Seleucus was poisoned.
IMPORTANT- The rest of Chapter 11 closely matches the activities of Antiochus Epiphanes, BUT it cannot be the fulfillment of the Antichrist as some "scholars" claim. Among many reasons, from v. 21 this king does not achieve the throne through succession (Epiphanes succeeded his brother) and, from v.40 this king will be attacked by both the king of the south and the king of the north. Therefore, he cannot be the king of north, as Epiphanes was.
21 - This section parallels the prophecies of Dan 7-9 "vile" = "despicable"
    -"to whom....kingdom" = "to whom was not given the dignity of the
 He will come in "peaceably" (should be "unexpectedly") refers to Dan 8:25, (a time of careless security) as Eze 16:49.
22 - "flood" - the same flood of lies mentioned in Rev 12:15
     -"prince" - the false Christ will turn on someone he is in league with.

                                         DANIEL 11:22 "overflown ... broken", literally "swept out...broken in pieces"
         This is a classic Biblical image of a mother eagle "cleaning out" the nest and teaching the young to fly by dropping them and then swooping down to catch them before they crash. In this case, the eagle is, in fact, a vulture. Many times in Scripture, the word "eagle" would be more accurately translated "vulture." One can easily be mistaken for the other. The magnificent California condor, an endangered species, can have a wingspan up to 10 feet. They can reach a cruising speed of 110 mph and soar for tremendous distances, sometimes flapping their wings only once per hour. They can easily be mistaken for eagles by the UNTRAINED, UNKNOWLEDGEABLE observer just as the Antichrist will be mistaken for the true Christ. This image clarifies some "difficult" Scripture in Eze 13:17-23. Note that the references are feminine to support the imagery of the mother eagle. To be overflown and broken is to become the prey instead of the protected. Eagles can pick up large animals in their talons, fly the prey over rocks and kill the animal by dropping from a great height. (Video)
Eze 13:18 - "pillows to armholes" - Impossible to flap wings and fly. The literal translation refers to covering God's outstretched hands.
                - "kerchiefs upon the head" - To cover the eyes so God's hands cannot be seen.
        v.20 - "hunt the souls to make them fly"- So that they can be "overflown and broken." 
23 - "small people" - he will amass power from "the many" of 9:27.
24 - He will use bribery, deceit and treachery
       -"even for a time" = 1 year (of the 3 ½ years) cp. Dan 7:25
25, 26 - He will defeat the king of the south, who will be betrayed from within (Mk
       - "great army" = the locusts of Rev 9:3-11
27 - The two kings will join together for evil
      -"yet…." This prophecy extends through the end.
28 - He now shows his true purpose, to break the covenant of 9:27
    - "do exploits" = "accomplish his purpose"
29 - "the former" = vv. 25,26
      -"the latter" = vv. 42,43
      - "grieved" = the head wound of Rev 13:3, see Gen 3:15
            He now breaks the covenant, as he had plotted all along.
     - "have intelligence" = "bonds together"
Important31 - This marks the middle of the 7 weeks (3 ½ years) Dan 9:27
     - "they shall place…" - see 2 Th 2:4 and Mt 24:15-24, 32-35
               Rev 13:5-10 Rev 7:1-4 Rev 2:8-11
36 - See Dan 11:3 (Quoted in 2 Th 2:3,4), Dan 8:11,24,25
           -"indignation" = God’s indignation (Dan 8:19, Isa 10:23-25
          -"determined" = "decreed" - It will happen as it is written!
37 - Even the traditional idols, fertility gods, etc. will be discarded.
38 - Since he knows that he is not really God, he will secretly have his own superstitions and worship "the God of fortresses"
39 - Note: This is the true significance of 2 Co 10:4
      -"whom…glory" should read "whosoever acknowledges him he will increase with glory"
40 - This verse locks in the future reference to the Antichrist and eliminates Antiochus Epiphanes as the fulfillment of these verses.
41 - "the glorious land" = Israel
      - "Edom, Moab, Ammon" - related by blood to Israel, but enemies, as are the nations which currently surround Israel
42,43 - He will have a widespread economic and political base.  Rev 13:13-17
44 - "tidings out of the east" - The two witnesses Rev 11:3-7
    -"make away many" = "devote many to extermination" Rev 13:7
45 - "plant" = "spreads out" between Jerusalem and the Mediterranean
     -"none shall help him" - God Himself will strike him
             Eze 28:18,19    Rev 19:19,20     2 Th 2:8
Ch. 12 - Verses 1-3 conclude the prophecy started at Dan 10:20
1 - "at the time" = The end of the "Great Tribulation"
      -"written in the book" - Rev 20:12, 3:5 Ex 32:31-33 Lk 10:17-20
2 - 1 Co 15:35-44, 51-55
3 - Dan 11:33 "they that be wise" should be "they that make wise"
        -note Heb 5:12 and Col 3:16 - We all teach each other.
4 - "shut up" - Seals unbroken until Revelation (see Rev 5:1-7 ff)
        - "knowledge" should be "wickedness"
5,6 - 2 other angels, one on each side of the Tigris (10:4). A third angel above the water. Daniel asks "How long (will it last)?"
7 - Daniel receives an answer from the 3rd angel.
        "he" = the antiChrist
8 - After asking "How long?", Daniel now asks, "What…?"
9 - "the words" - Once again, what is written, is not yet transcribed.
       It would be well over 500 years before the book of Revelation.
10 - Rev 3:5,6; 12,13; 21,22
11-13AFTER the 1260 DAYS of Rev 11:2, 3
Daniel 12:11 - There will be 30 days (1260 + 30 = 1290) to build the new sanctuary of Ezekiel 40-43.
Daniel 12:12 - There will be 45 additional days (1290 + 45 = 1335) to the wedding.
 The purification of the church (Eph 5:27) - without spot or wrinkle that it should become holy and without blemish (Gr. “amomos” = “faultless” same as in Jude 24)) for the marriage to the king (See Esther 2:8-13) will take place during this time. See Malachi 3:2-4 for clarity. “Without spot or wrinkle” refers to being laundered (“fullers’ sope”). Purification is done by refiners.
          This verse contains the only Beatitude in the book of Daniel.
 The total of 75 days (30 + 45) is tied to the Psalms just as the 69 weeks of Daniel 9:25 connect to Psalm 69.
    Psalm 30 - The dedication (Rev 19:1-6)
+  Psalm 45 - The marriage (Rev 19:7-9)
=  Psalm 75 - Judgment (Rev 20:11-15)
This all originates from Psalm 20 - The 1260 days of Jacob's trouble
- "stand" - in the resurrection   See Ps 1:5