Leviticus 26      Deuteronomy 32:1-43

Hebrew (Yirmiya or Yirmiyahu) = Whom Jehovah raises up (exalts) or launches forth. Primarily known as “The Weeping Prophet” (9:1, 13:17) because of the anguish and grief that accompany his ministry and permeate his writing, he was also forbidden to marry (16:2) and similar to Moses (Ex 3:11), was reluctant to undertake ministry (1:6). Jeremiah was a contemporary of Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Daniel and Ezekiel.

IMPORTANT: As in Daniel, the dates referenced in this study may differ from many other sources.

 THE CALENDAR

A. The dates in most Bibles are off by 110 years due to assuming an error in Scripture rather than finding a reason for the alleged “discrepancy.” Most Biblical dating hinges on 1 Ki 6:1 (480 years). However, the same time frame referred to by Paul (Ac 13:17-22) covers 573 years. This 93 year difference has been dismissed as error or estimation on Paul’s part when, in fact, it is a Scriptural safeguard against error. The 573 years are according to the calendar. The 480 years are by God’s reckoning of Israel as a nation. God does not include 93 years during the period of the Judges when Israel was Lo-Ammi (not my people).

               Ac 13:17-22                                                      Judges

Wilderness                                40 years                                   3:8       8 years

Judges                                    450 years                                   3:14    18 years

 Saul                                         40 years                                   4:3     20 years

David                                       40 years                                    6:1      7 years

Solomon (1 Ki 6:1)                    3 years                                     13:1   40 years

                                                  573 years               less                      93 years  =  480 years

This phenomenon is not uncommon. For example, the 42 generations of Mt 1:17 are by God’s reckoning, not literal. Many are skipped. Note that Ruth herself is omitted in the book of Ruth 4:17. God does not include every link in the royal line. He remains true to his order and structure.

Notes: 1.The “four hundred and eightieth year” referenced in 1Ki 6:1 is the 480th year of the 490 years from the Exodus to the Dedication of the Temple (the subject of Ch.6). The remaining 10 years include 7 years of construction (1Ki 6:38) and 3 years to complete the furnishing. 

            2. Judges 10:7-9 references an additional 18 years that  affected only a specific portion of the nation “on the other side Jordan...” and did not have national impact.

B. There is a gap of 13 years between the reigns of Amaziah and Uzziah which God ignores. There are 6 years that Athaliah usurped the throne. There is a 1 year gap between Uzziah and Jotham (2 Ki 15:2, 27, 32)

                                   93 + 13 + 6 + 1 = 113 years of “Not My People”

                    Specifically: From Eli to Athaliah is off by 93 years

                                         From Joash to Amaziah is off by 99 years

                                         From Uzziah to Captivity is off by 113 years

The additional 3 years result from numerous fractional years being counted. This error causes us to miss some of God’s order and sovereignty. For example, this adjustment places David’s anointing at 974 B.C. Exactly 1,000 years before the baptism of Jesus Christ in A.D. 26.

This correction is necessary to fully appreciate the pinpoint accuracy of Biblical prophecy.

 Jeremiah's ministry is dated (1: 2, 3) as being “in the days of Josiah ... in the thirteenth year of his reign.  It came also in the days of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah ... unto the end of the eleventh year of Zedekiah ... unto the carrying away of Jerusalem captive in the fifth month.” The 13th year of Josiah was 518 B.C. The 11th year of Zedekiah was 477 B.C. Therefore the whole period covered by Jeremiah was 41 years. It is highly probable that this period was exactly forty years (the Scriptural probationary period) before Jerusalem was destroyed and the Temple burnt like the corresponding period of probation covered by the Acts of the Apostles, before the destruction of the second Temple.  But, as the month in the thirteenth year of Josiah, at which the Word first came to Jeremiah, is not stated, the whole period has to be reckoned as 41 years.

The prophecies of Jeremiah are not chronological. The historical portions, which concern Jehoiakim and Zedekiah are impacted.  Jehoiakim “cut up the Word of Jehovah with a penknife, and cast it in the fire” (36:23).  God “cut up” his history.  Zedekiah disrespected and rejected the same Word of Jehovah. Why should God respect his history? Both the canonical and chronological portions have their own particular Structures, and both are perfect, having the same Divine Author.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK AS A WHOLE

A1: 1-3    INTRODUCTION

B1: 4-19    JEREMIAH’S COMMISSION GIVEN

C2:1 - 20: 18     PROPHECIES ADDRESSED TO JEWS

D21:1 - 35:19   HISTORY - JEHOIAKIM (Not chronological)

E36:1-32    BARUCH’S MISSION TO JEHOIAKIM.

D37:1 - 45:5    HISTORY - ZEDEKIAH (Not chronological)

C46: 1 - 51: 64    PROPHECIES ADDRESSED TO GENTILES

B51: -64    JEREMIAH’S COMMISSION ENDED

A52: 1-34    CONCLUSION

 
            There are 51 distinct prophecies, beginning with such words as "The word of the LORD came".

I. 1:4                                XIV. 21:l                             XXVII.  34:1                          XL. 45: l

II. l:11                               XV. 24:4                            XXVIII.  34:8                        XLI. 46:1

III. 1:13                            XVI. 25:1                              XXIX.  34:12                     XLII. 46:13

IV. 2:1                             XVII. 26:l                                XXX.  34:1                       XLIII. 47:l

V. 3:6                            XVIII. 27:l                              XXXI.  35:12                     XLIV. 48:1

VI. 7:1                               XIX. 28:12                            XXXII. 36: l                        XLV. 49:1

VII. 11:l                              XX. 30:l                              XXXIII. 36:27                    XLVI. 49:7

VIII. 13:3                           XXI. 32:l                               XXXIV. 37:6                     XLVII. 49:23

IX. 13:8                           XXII. 32:6                              XXXV. 39:15                  XLVIII. 49:28

X. 14:l                           XXIII. 32:26                          XXXVI. 40: l                      XLIX. 49:34

XI. 16:l                            XXIV. 33:l                            XXXVII. 42:7                            L. 50: l

XII. 18:1                           XXV. 33:19                        XXXVIII. 43:8                          LI. 51:59

XIII. 18:5                         XXVI. 33:23                          XXXIX. 44: l

 

- The title, “ LORD of hosts” (Jehovah Sabaoth) occurs 39 times in this book. It signifies that the God of Israel is Lord of all the hosts of heaven and earth.

 - Jeremiah is instructed by the LORD not to pray 3 times (7:16, 11:14, 14:11).

- Babylon is referenced 164 times, more than the rest of the Bible combined.

- “Backsliding” occurs 13 times.

- Chapter 10, verse 11 is the only verse in the book written in Chaldee. Many reference sources refer to it as Aramaic, which though not incorrect, does not point to its specific purpose. The particular dialect, Chaldean Aramaic, is used to highlight steadfast faith while in Babylonian exile under idolatry (See 10:1-9 for context). Verses 10-13 are a powerful statement of recognition of Jehovah as the one and only True God.

Ch. 1:1 - “words” - Includes historical portions with prophecies.

          - “Hilkiah...priests...Anathoth” - To distinguish this Hilkiah from the high priest descended from Eleazar (1 Ch 6:4, 13). Anathoth belonged to Ithamar’s line (1 Ch 24:3, 6).

          - “Anathoth” - 3 miles NE of Jerusalem. God had allowed Jeremiah to be persecuted there in preparation for what was to come in Jerusalem (11:21-23, 12:6).

2, 3 - “Josiah...Jehoiakim...Zedekiah - Only 3 kings of 5 named. The other two, Jehoahaz and Jehoiachin, reigned only 3 months each (2 Ki 23:31, 24:8).

          - “thirteenth year” - 518 B.C., one year into Josiah’s reformation (2 Ch 34:3).

          - “fifth month” - When Jerusalem was destroyed (52:12-15; 2 Ki 25:1-10).

FIRST PROPHECY

4 - “Then” = the 13th year of Josiah.

5 - “Before...” - See Ps 139:13-16.           

           “Named” before birth - Ishmael Gen 16:11, Isaac Gen 17:19, John Lk 1:13, Jesus Lk 1:31, Solomon 1Chr 22:9, Josiah 1Ki 13:2, Cyrus Isa 44:28

          - “sanctified” - set apart    “ordained” - “placed”

                  See John the Baptist Lk 1:15-17, Paul Gal 1:15, 16, Samson Judges 13:3-5

          - “the nations” - The masses. Jeremiah addresses many individual nations.

6 - “cannot speak” - See Ex 4:10. Customary for God’s prophets to receive words and articulation from God.

          “child” = “youth”  A reference to being a “novice”.

7, 8 - The Word of the LORD - What not to say. Where to go. What to say.

          - “Be not...” - See Ex 3:11, 12, Ps 23:4.

          - “for I am...” - God’s command almost invisibly blends into encouragement.

9 - “hand...touched” - See Isaiah (6:6,7), Ezekiel (2:8-10), Daniel (10:16-18).

          - “...My words...” - Divine inspiration. See Deu 18:18; 2 Ti 2:16

10 - “set thee” - See “ordained” v.5.

          - “to root out...” - To be declared by Jeremiah, not done. Some nations would be taken down, others (Israel and Judah) restored. See Eze 17:22-24.

SECOND PROPHECY

11 - “Moreover” - A second commission.

          - “rod...” - Denoting a strong and vigilant watchman. “an almond tree” = Heb “shaked” = “a watcher, or an early waker”. Almond trees are first to wake from winter.

12 - “I will hasten...” = “I am watching”. God is watching the early waker like a sovereign alarm clock to ensure the certainty of what will happen.

THIRD PROPHECY

13 - “second time” - The explanation of what was to be watched over.

          - “seething pot” - A strong image. A cauldron brought to a boil by blowing the fire.

          “toward” = “from”. Although Assyria was situated on the east, the invaders would skirt the desert and advance from the north through Dan.

14 - “an evil” = “the calamity”

15 - Fulfilled in 39:3.

16 - “utter” - Through His prophets.

          - “forsaken” - See Deu 28:20.

           - “them” = the people of Judah

17 - See v. 8.  “dismayed...confound” - “Be not ashamed...lest I shame thee”

18, 19 - The LORD again encourages.

          - “made thee” = “give thee as”

          - “brasen walls” = “a bronze wall”

          - “against” - 7 times (twice v.15, 5 times vv.18, 19) - It is necessarily the position of God’s prophets to be against man (kings, princes and the People). See Isa 55:8.

          - “fight...not prevail...for...” - See v.8

FOURTH PROPHECY

Ch. 2:1 - NOTE: This chapter is the first of the re-written roll after the burning of 36:22, 23. Chapter 11 is the first of the “many like words” (36:32) added afterwards.

2 - “Go” - Indicating Jeremiah was still in Anathoth and maintained his connection throughout his mission to Jerusalem (32:6, 7; 37:12).

          - “remember” - God remembers both good and bad. Israel was unfaithful in the wilderness.

3 - “firstfruits” - Therefore consecrated. Deu 18:4; 26:10.

          - “offended” - Be found guilty.

          - “holiness” - Ex 19:6.

4 - “Jacob...Israel” - “physical nation...spiritual nation”

          - “house of Jacob” - Only here, 5:20 and Amos 3:13.

          - “house of Israel” - 20 times in this book.

5 - “vanity” = “the vanity”. All that is not of God.

          - “become vain” - The fate of idolaters. See 2 Ki 17:15.

6 - They did not seek the Shepherd of Ps 23. Those who become vain are unaware that they are lost.

7 - “plentiful country” = “land of gardens”

8 - “pastors” = “shepherds”. Used of kings and other secular leaders.

          - “transgressed” = “revolted”. Those who were entrusted with the word, those who disregarded the word and those who claimed to receive the word all pursued things “leading to ruin”.

9 - “plead” = “contend with”

10 - “Chittim...Kedar” - From westernmost to easternmost.

11 - A crushing question from the LORD, Who continues past the obvious “No”.

          - “their glory” should be “My glory” as in Psalm 106:19-21.

12 - The heavens themselves are amazed by the magnitude of Israel’s behavior. Typically, the land is impacted by man’s sin since Gen 3:17-19.

          - “very desolate” = “dried up”, i.e., no moisture or clouds.   

13 - TWO EVILS (apostasy is a two-step process)

          1. Forsaking the “fountain” (a dug out well with living water).

          2. Hewing out “cisterns” (completely man-made and holding only what is placed into them).

                       The Living God forsaken for lifeless man-made idols.

14 - The questions continue for the nation that was “holiness unto the LORD” (v.3) but had “become vain” (v.4).

          - “spoiled” = “become a spoil”

15 - Now a conquered people whose land was in ruins.

16 - “Noph...Tahapanes” = Egypt

17, 18 - “You caused this yourselves and now drink from the Nile and the Euphrates.”

19 - “ LORD God of Hosts” = “Adonai Jehovah of Sabaoth”  Occurs 6 times in this book. This is the Covenant God in fulfillment of providing earthly blessings. 

20 - “high hill...green tree” - Places of sensual idol worship.

21 - “noble” = “precious”    “strange” = “foreign”  See Is 5:1-7

22 - “nitre” - alkaline mineral used as or with soap, similarly to our “washing soda”.

          - “marked” = “engraved” - Therefore cannot be washed away.

23 - “Baalim” = false gods

          - “dromedary” - Camels were unclean animals (Lev 11:4).

          - “traversing” = “entangling”

24 - “snuffeth up...” - “goes wherever she chooses”

          - “occasion”, “month” - When in heat.

25 - “Withhold...thirst” - “Remain with your Provider and stop running away!” See Deu 8:4, 9:25 and Neh 9:21 for the sense of this expression. It also contains a reference to the duration of Israel’s iniquity. A wild ass which has run from domestication long enough to become unshod. A camel which has been separated from (living) water long enough to be thirsty (Note: A desert camel can last an entire winter without water).

26 - “found” - See Eze 8:5-18 and note “in the dark”, v. 12.

         - “kings...prophets” - Indicating all classes.

27 - “stone” - Feminine to indicate “mother” corresponding to “stock” as “father”.

28, 29 - With all their lifeless idols, they (we) still turn to the True God in times of distress. The Book of Judges is an extended illustration.

30 - “smitten” - See Nu 14:29-32.

          - “devoured” - See 1 Ki 18:4; 2 Ch 24:20-22

31- “generation” - From a “chosen” generation (Ps 22:30, Isa 53:8) to a “perverse” generation (Deu 32:5; Ps 78:8; Mt 3:7).

          - “wilderness” - What Israel preferred to the LORD (v. 24).

32 - “ornaments”, “attire” - The nation chose to be “uncovered”.

33 - “trimmest” = “preparedest”

          - “ones” = “women”

34 - The guilt is obvious on the “skirts”. They are caught “red handed”.

35 - “because...sinned” - 1 Jn 1:10.

36 - A change in physical location does not impact our relationship with God (remember Jonah).

37 - “him” - Egypt or Assyria.

          - “thine hands...” - An expression of grief.

Ch. 3:1- “yet return” = “yet you think to return”. This would violate Deu 24:1-4. It is important to note that it is the New Israel referenced in Mt 21:43 that will become the betrothed of Christ.

2 - Israel’s prolific idolatry draws comparison to an Arab trader by the wayside soliciting buyers. The land is polluted as a result.

3 - “forehead” = “mentality” or “mindset”

4 - “Guide” = “Companion”

5 - “reserve” = Heb. “natar” Here and v.12 = “hold back”

          - “as thou couldest” = “whatever you chose”

FIFTH PROPHECY

6 - “days of Josiah The king” - For context on “Israel”. Here it means the Northern Kingdom separate from Judah and Benjamin. Most of  Jeremiah refers to the nation as a whole.

          “played the harlot” - A specific reference to phallic-based Canaanitish worship. Actual physical manifestation of spiritual adultery.

7 - The LORD was yet merciful.

          - “Turn thou...” = “Unto Me she will return”

          - “Judah saw it” - The activities of the “adulterous wife” were public, blatant and widespread.

8 - “And I saw” should be “Though she (Judah) saw”

          - “bill of divorce” - See Deu 24:1.

9 - “stones...stocks” - Materials used to fashion idols.

10 - “feignedly” = “falsely” - Josiah’s reformation (2 Ch 34, 35) did not extend to the hearts of the people.

11 - Judah’s treachery exceeds Israel’s.

12 - “the north” = The Northern Kingdom of Israel.

13 - “Only...” - The condition for blessing.

          - “transgressed” = “rebelled”

          - “green tree” = “Asherah pole” - Large phallic pillars of stone or wood (shaped in the “images of men” Eze 16:17) representing fertility and communion with the fertility goddess Asherah. Often translated “grove” or “groves” in the KJV. Note the 10:1 size ratio of the image set up by Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel 3:1.

14 - “married” = “(to) become your husband”, i.e., as a result of the promised Restoration (note “I will” and “in those days” v. 16).

15 - “pastors” = “shepherds” - Leaders including kings, priests and prophets who were responsible to lead the People.

16 - “they” - The returnees.

          - “neither shall that be done any more” = “neither shall that be made any more” - The ark of the covenant will be superseded by the throne of v.17. Reality will replace the symbol. The ark and the Shekinah will give way to Jehovah Himself and His throne.

17 - “imagination” = “stubbornness” - 8 times in Jeremiah

18 - “house of Judah” - 11 times in Jeremiah.

          - “walk with” = “go unto”   “come together” = “enter at the same time”

19 - The condition to be satisfied.

20 - “husband” same as “Guide” in v.4.

21 - “high places” - The places where they had sinned so grievously (See v.2).

22, 23 - The necessary confession. 1Jn 1:9.

          - “hills...mountains” - The “high places” prove to be false and empty.

24 - “shame” = “the shameful thing”, i.e., the Asherah.

          - “devoured the labour” - See vv.2,3.

          - “their sons” should be “and their sons” - All to be restored by the LORD.

25 - “lie down” - Not worthy to stand. Covered, not by the LORD, but by confusion He does not author. This verse reflects the repentant heart.

          - “sinned...not obeyed” - Not all sin is disobedience. Sin can be through ignorance. All disobedience is sin.

Ch. 4:1 - “If...and if...then” - The conditions continue.

          - “then...remove” = “and stray not”

2 - “in truth...” = “truly, yea, justly and righteously” - Referring to how they will swear (i.e., not feignedly).

3 - “fallow ground” - In contrast to the hills and mountains of 3:23.

4 - Vv. 4-6 are the only O.T. reference to spiritual circumcision.

5 - CALL TO COMMITMENT - “Declare...publish...Blow ye...cry, gather together...say...Assemble”

          - “defenced cities” - Out of the wilderness (see 2:24).

6 - SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS - “Set up...retire...stay not”

          - “standard” = “ensign” or “flag” - Planting a flag (“raising a standard”) always a claim to ownership.

          - “stay not” - “Lay claim to the land, but certain things must come to pass before you return to it.”

          - “evil” = “calamity”   “destruction” = “breaking up”

7 - “The lion” = “A lion” - Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon.

8 - Forgiveness does not eliminate justice or consequences.

          - “sackcloth” - A sign of mourning.

9 - The pastors of 3:15. Kings, princes, priests and prophets had all been corrupted.

10 - (Jeremiah) - “hast” = “hast permitted them to be”

          - “greatly deceived” - By the false prophets who prophesied peace.

11 - “dry wind” - Simoom (many alternative spellings) (Arabic‎ samÅ«m; from the root word meaning, “to poison”) is a strong, scorching dry, dust-laden local wind that blows in the Sahara, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Syria, and the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula. Its temperature may exceed 129°F and the humidity may fall below 10%. The name means “poison wind” and is given because the sudden onset of simoom may also cause heat stroke. This is attributed to the fact that the hot wind brings more heat to the body than can be disposed of by the evaporation of perspiration. The storm generally proceeds from the south-east or south-south-east and moves in cyclone (circular) form, carrying clouds of dust and sand, and produces on humans and animals a suffocating effect as it removes moisture from plants, animals and people. It can carry mounds of dust and sand that it has scooped from the desert floor and reshapes the desert and the sand dunes through the late spring and the summer. Most of these storms produce devastating effects in a short time, as little as 15 or 20 minutes. The simoom contributes largely to the atmospheric dust over Europe; evidence of the dust from simoom winds has also been found on the seafloor at considerable distances from shore.

          The only recorded simoom wind in North America occurred on June 17, 1859 in Goleta and Santa Barbara, California. After a normal 75°F morning, around 1 PM strong super hot winds filled with dust began to blow from the direction of the Santa Ynez Mountains to the north. By 2 PM the temperature reached 133°F. This temperature was recorded by an official US coastal survey vessel operating just offshore, in the Santa Barbara Channel. At 5 PM the temperature had dropped to 122°F and by 7 PM the temperature was back to a normal 77°F. The US government report stated “Calves, rabbits and cattle died on their feet. Fruit fell from trees to the ground scorched on the windward side; all vegetable gardens were ruined. A fisherman in a rowboat made it to the Goleta Sandspit with his face and arms blistered as if he had been exposed to a blast furnace.” Many of the local inhabitants were saved from the heat by seeking shelter in the thick adobe walled houses that were the standard construction at the time. This remained the highest ever recorded temperature in the United States until the U.S. Weather Bureau recorded a temperature of 134°F in Death Valley, California on July 10, 1913.

TEACHER’S NOTE: Exodus 14 refers to a strong east(ward) wind (Heb. “qadim”), the Septuagint refers to it as south wind. A sufficiently strong overnight southeastern wind (i.e., Simoom), based on physics and fluid dynamics, would create a land bridge at certain points in the Red Sea. The water would return when the wind stopped. The God who commands the wind and the sea would consider it a light thing. We call it a miracle. Drying out the Red Sea pales in comparison to the drying out (by wind) after The Flood (Gen 8:1). Further, the Red Sea will be completely dried up later (Isa 11:15, 16) AND the Nile (Isa 19:5-10).

          - “not to fan, nor to cleanse” - to destroy

12 - “unto Me - wind blowing from the wilderness towards the LORD.

          - “them” should be “her”, i.e., Jerusalem.

13 - (Jeremiah) (“us”) - “he” = Nebuchadnezzar, God’s servant to carry out Israel’s sentence.

14, 15 - “Dan...Ephraim” - Indicating the enemy’s entry from the north.

16, 17 - Jerusalem would be encircled without allies to provide a means of escape.

18 - “thine heart” - The national heart reduces to Jeremiah’s heart in v.19.

19 - (Jeremiah) through v. 21.

          - “my very heart” = “the walls of my heart” - Indicating constriction.

          - “cannot hold my peace” - A significant phrase for the “weeping prophet”.

20 - “suddenly...in a moment” - The swift judgment of the LORD.

21 - “standard”, “trumpet” - The invading army banner could be seen and the trumpets could be heard.

22 - “known” = “acknowledged”

          - “sottish” = “stupid”

23 - “I beheld” - begins 4 consecutive verses.

          - “without form, and void” = Heb. “tohu va bohu” as in Gen 1:2.

          - “light” should be “lights” Gen 1:14-18.

24, 25 - “man” = Heb. “adam” = “mankind”

26 - (Jeremiah) - “at” = “because of”

27 - “not...full end” - The reason for the flag planting of v.6.

28 - “earth”, “heavens” - Cursed by Israel’s wickedness. See Deu 28:23.

29 - “whole city shall flee” - See Deu 28:25.

30 - “thou” - The adulterous woman.

          - “rentest thy face” = “enlarge thy eyes” - With makeup paint.

31 - The image of labor pains preceding the birth of the New Israel.

Ch. 5:1- “streets”, “broad places” - Suburbs, city

          - “find a man”, “pardon” - Compare Gen 18:23-32

          - “truth” = “faithfulness”

2 - “falsely” - Not the “truth” of vv.1, 3.

3 - “grieved” = “felt pain” See Eph 4:19 (“past feeling” - hardened)

4 - “these” - The people referenced in v.3.

          - Jeremiah reasons that they must be poor and ignorant of God (“know not”).

5 - “the great men” - The “pastors” previously referenced.

          - “have known...but” - Not ignorance, but rebellion.

          - “altogether” = “with one accord”

6 - “lion...wolf...leopard - “forest...desert (“evenings”)...trees (“watch over”) - The hunting places for each animal.

          - No escape because of their “transgressions” (revolts) and “backslidings” (apostasies).

7 - “forsaken...” - See Deu 32:15-21

8 - “in the morning” = “roaming at large”

9 - See v.29 - Repeated for emphasis. The God of the Covenant is equally faithful to its blessings and curses.

10 - “walls”, “battlements” = Man-made defenses (“not the LORD’s).

11, 12 - “belied” = “acted deceitfully” - The unbelieving Heart assumes God’s mercy and forbearance to be tolerance (2 Pe 3:8, 9).

13 - They considered the words of the prophets, including Jeremiah, to carry no weight.

14 - God’s word as fire. A continuing image in this book. See 20:9, 23:29

15 - “a nation” = The Chaldeans (Babylon)

          - “ancient” - See Gen 10:10.

16 - “quiver...open...” - Unlimited capacity to kill.

17 - “eat up” - 3 times

          - “impoverish” = “beat down”

18 - The LORD repeats the promise of a remnant to return.

19 - “ye shall say” - Others will also (Deu 29:24, 25).

20-22 - “foolish...hear not:” - Explained by v.22.

23 - “revolting” - Actively fighting against.

          - “rebellious” - Willfully disobedient.

24 - “in their heart” - Many still professed reverence with their lips.

25-28 - “yet they prosper” = “that they (the fatherless) might prosper”

29 - See v.9

30 - “wonderful” = “astounding”

31 - “by their means” - The prophets who had been raised up when the priests failed were now in accord with them. See Eze 13:1-16.

Ch. 6:1 - The tribe of Benjamin (Jeremiah’s tribe) is warned to flee.

          - “flee out” - In 4:6 “flee to”. Jerusalem would now be taken.

          - “sign of fire” - A fire signal set on a hill to indicate danger or emergency.

2 - “daughter....delicate” - To denote helplessness.

3 - “shepherds” = The Chaldean armies.

4, 5 - “noon...evening...night” - Non-stop destruction.

6 - “cast a mount” - Huge amounts of earth were poured out to make mounds to assist in scaling walls.

7 - “fountain” = Heb. “bor” - A well bored out (not dug) by man (Sometimes translated “cistern” but never a spring or fountain). A bored well delivers water under pressure, hence “casteth out”.

8, 9 - “My soul” = “I Myself”

          - “desolate...not inhabited...throughly glean” - Destruction will be non-stop (vv. 4, 5) and complete.

          - “turn back...” - Go over the branches again to ensure that nothing remains.

10 - “give warning” = “testify”

          - “ear is uncircumcised” - See Ex 6:12, 30 (“lips”) and Lev 26:41 (“hearts”).

          - “reproach” - Begins a downward progression: “rejected” (8:9), “scoffed at” (17:15) and “perverted” (23:36).

11 - “fury...pour out” - None spared.

          - “weary” - Compare Jeremiah’s weariness (20:9).

12 - “unto others” - See Deu 28:30.

13 - “every one” - See v. 11.

14 - “hurt” = “destruction”

          - “Peace, peace” = “Perfect peace” - See Isa 26:3.

15 - “could they blush” = “did they know how to blush” - Hardened to the point of being incapable of shame.

16 - An offer of grace and mercy preceding judgment.

          - “old paths” - See 18:15

          - “good way” = “right way”

17 - “watchmen” = prophets

          - “We will not hearken” - In v. 16, “We will not walk”

18, 19 - “nations...congregation...earth” - Israel would be an example to all.

20 - “incense” = “frankincense” - See Isa 1:11-15; 3:24; 65:2-5

21 - “people...fathers...sons...neighbour...friend” - everyone

22 - “people...nation” = Babylon

          - “sides of the earth” = “a great distance”

23 - Isa 5:29, 30

24, 25 - “fear on every side” = “terror round about” - No escape.

26 - “sackcloth...ashes” - Signs of mourning.

27 - “thee” = Jeremiah

          - “tower” = “assayer” (of metals)

          - “try” = “assay” - See next verse.

28 - “brass and iron” - Not gold and silver.

29 - “bellows burned”, “lead consumed” - Fire is maxed out (see Dan 3:19 “seven times...”), but the founder (“refiner”) melts in vain.

30 - “Reprobate” = “Rejected”

SIXTH PROPHECY

Ch. 7:1 - This message ties to Chapter 26 (4th year of Jehoiakim) and is directed to the Temple and its attendees.

                        Compare 7:2 to 26:2; 7:3 to 26:13; 7:12-14 to 26:4-6.

2 - “gate” = The courtyard in front of the temple

          - “proclaim” - To all who professed to worship the LORD.

3 - “the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel” - 1st of 34 occurrences in Jeremiah.

4 - 8 - Instructions and Conditions (“If...then”)

     (4) - “lying words” - False enthusiasm common to “these” (false prophets, idolaters, hypocrites).

     (5) - “throughly” - Inside and out.

               - “amend your ways and doings” - Repeated from v. 3 for emphasis. Words spoken in the absence of a heart that desires change are empty.

               - “judgment” - “justice”, “equity”

     (6) - “strangers...widow” - See Deu 24:17 

               - “innocent blood” - See Deu 19:10

               - “other gods” - See Ex 20:3; Deu 6:14, 15

     (7) - “dwell...” - See Deu 4:10

     (8) - The reason to “throughly amend”.  See v. 4.

9 - Ex 20:7-15

10 - “come” = “still come”, i.e., “You have the nerve...”

11 - Mk 11:17; Lk 19:45, 46

12 - “But...now” - “Learn this lesson”

       - “where I set...” - See Deu 12:5, 11; 1 Sa 4:4.

       - “what I did...” - See 1 Sa 4:11 where the presence of the LORD (represented by the ark) was removed.

13 - “rising up early and speaking” - 11 times in Jeremiah.

          - “speaking” - Not heard   “called” - Not answered.

14 - “I will do...as I have done”

          - IMPORTANT: “trust” - In the house, not in the LORD. Hence, the message in v. 2 to “all ye...gates”.

15 - “the whole seed of Ephraim” - The 10 tribes already in captivity.

16 - The first of 3 times Jeremiah is instructed not to pray for the People. Why? - “for I will not hear thee (emphatic).” See v.20.

17 - “Seest thou not what they (emphatic) do...?” - Disobedience has matured into outright and public rebellion.

18 - “children...fathers...women” - Representing every one. Entire families practicing idolatry.

          - “queen of heaven” - Only in Jeremiah, here and Chapter 44 (17, 18,19,25) - A chief goddess of fertility known by many names including Ishtar, Ashtoreth and Astarte. The title implies an unholy link between the goddess and Jehovah Himself and such worship involved rites of sexuality, fertility, procreation and prostitution. How could this not “provoke Me to anger”?

19 - “provoke themselves...” - They have brought judgment upon themselves.

20 - “man...beast...trees...fruit” - Man’s iniquity impacts all that pertains and depends upon the land.

          - “not be quenched” - No prayers from Jeremiah could change this.

21 - “Put” = “Add” - It has all been rendered unacceptable to the LORD.

22-24 - See Ex 15:26, 19:5, 6 and note that these verses are before the Law was given. The Law would have been unnecessary had they hearkened.

     (23) - “Obey...” - See Lev 26:3-13

25 - “came forth” - From the time of Ex 12-15.

          - “servants the prophets” - beginning with Moses.

26 - “hardened their neck” - A maneuver by an ox to prevent placement of a yoke. “neck” is singular to denote the unity of the People in their iniquity.

27 - The frustration of Jeremiah’s calling. Compare to v. 13.

          - “all these words” - The whole book of Jeremiah.

28 - “a nation” should be “the nation” - Chosen for blessing, now for destruction.

          - “correction” - Includes instruction and discipline.

          - “their” should be “your”

29 - “Cut...hair” - As a sign of mourning.

          - “O Jerusalem” - Should be “Daughter of My People” since the verb is feminine singular.

          - “cast it away” - As well as cutting it off to emphasize the completeness of the act.

          - “high places” - The sites of idolatrous worship.

          - IMPORTANT: “forsaken” = Heb. “natash” = “thrust away” - Not a contradiction of Deu 4:31

30 - “...in the house which is called by My name” - Not just what was done, but where. Evil multiplied.

31 - “burn...” - Child sacrifices

          - “commanded them not” - See Deu 18:10; Lev 18:21

          - “neither came...” - Unthinkable abomination.

32, 33 - There will be no room left for burial leaving corpses to the vultures and scavengers with no one remaining to even scare them away.

34 - “voice of mirth” = “joy” - Phrase found only in Jeremiah (3 other times - 16:9, 25:10, 33:11)

Ch. 8:1, 2 - Each class of people responsible for the idolatry is listed for emphasis. The details of their idolatrous worship are listed. They will be unworthy of burial (See 22:19 to understand).

3 - “chosen” -  They will still not hearken. See Deu 30:19

4, 5 - “arise” = “rise up again”

          - “he turn...not return” = “shall they return to Him and he not return to them?”

          - See 2 Chr 7:13, 14 and understand “perpetual” and “refuse”.

6 - “no man repented” - The reason for judgment.

7 - Mere animals (here all lower than mammals) exceed the knowledge of the People.

8, 9 - “wise men” - In their own eyes.

          - “rejected” - The 2nd of 4 downward steps (6:10, here, 17:13, 23:36).

          - “what wisdom...?” - How can one possess wisdom while rejecting its source?

10 - See Deu 28:30.

11 - Characteristic of false prophets: to tell the people what they want to hear. The message of “Perfect peace” is not for this people. See Isa 26:3.

12 - See 6:13.

13 - “no grapes” - See 6:9.

          - “the things...” should be “I have appointed them those that shall pass over them”, i.e., the Assyrians.

14 - (Jeremiah thru v. 16) - “water of gall” = “poppy water”, i.e., poisoned.

15 - “trouble” = “terror”

16 - Dan - The north. The entry point of the Assyrian army.

17 - “cockatrices” = “poisonous adders”

          - “will not be charmed” - Nothing from the People will prevent them from striking.

18 - A parenthetical lament from Jeremiah.

19 - “because of” = “due to the assault of”

          - “in Zion” (nearby) - Opposed to “far country”

          - “graven images” = “sculptures”. Same word as Deu 7:5.

20 - “...past...ended...not saved” - Final state.

21 - “black” - Indication of prolonged fasting. See Job 30:30 and Lam 5:10.

22 - “balm” = “balsam” (Highly valued for medicine and perfume. Found almost exclusively in Palestine at that time).

          - “Gilead” - Located east of the Jordan river. The land of Reuben, Gad, and half of Manasseh (Deu 32:1, 40) - See 46:11.

          - TEACHER’S NOTE: Despite some commentaries and interpretations that dissent, the answer to Jeremiah’s first question is emphatically “Yes”. Everything necessary for healing was available, but the People had not “recovered” due to the “silence” of v.14. The LORD, after not hearing from them for so long, would no longer hear them.

Ch. 9:1, 2 - (Jeremiah’s lament) - A powerful and eloquent expression of frustration and grief which is picked up by the LORD (“and...”) in v.3.

          - “slain” - Those not “recovered” or re-covered.

3 - “bend” = prepare for use

4 - “neighbour” = “friend”

          - “trust” = “confide”

          - “brother...supplant” - See Gen 25:26; 27:36

5, 6 - “taught” - See “bend” in v.3.

          - “taught...weary...commit...refuse” - Thereby forcing judgment (see next verse).

7 - “how shall I do...?” = “what else can I do...?”

8 - “shot out” = “piercing” or “pointed”

9 - “My soul” = “I Myself” emphatic. The people had violated a relationship and a covenant, not just rules.

10 - Understand Ro 8:20-22.

          - “habitations” = “pastures”. No place for domestic animals to feed or dwell.

11 - “dragons” = “jackals” - The scavengers of dead bodies will thrive.

12 - “Who is...understand...declare” - Only the true prophets of the LORD.

13 - “forsaken” - Deu 32:15, 21

          - “set before them” - Deu 4:8, 44

          - “therein” - refers to “My law”

14 - ‘imagination” = “stubbornness”

          - “Baalim” - Any and all idols.

15 - “gall...wormwood” - Deu 29:18-21

16 - “scatter” - Lev 26:27-33; Deu 28:64

17, 18 - “mourning women” - Professional mourners, also known as “wailing women”. 

          - “cunning women” - The most skilled of the mourners.

                  Note “us” and compare v.1.

19 - “our dwellings...” = “they have cast down our habitations”

20 - “women” - Specifically addressed as the principal instruments of idolatrous worship.

21 - No infants or potential husbands. Only barrenness/desolation as a consequence.

22 - “none shall gather” - Hence, the jackals of v.11. See Ps 79:1-3.

23, 24 - 1 Co 1:29 - Trusting in their own wisdom, might and riches led to Jerusalem’s downfall as it does for us all.

25, 26 - “circumcised with the uncircumcised” = “circumcised in uncircumcision” - Externally circumcised, but not truly circumcised (in the heart). The meaning is clarified by a list of nations which all practiced physical circumcision but are declared uncircumcised by the LORD.

          - “that are in the utmost corners” should be “all that poll the corners of their beards”. See Lev 19:27.

Ch. 10:1- Begins an exhortation on idols versus Jehovah the true God.

2 - “learn not...” - Lev 18:3, 20:23

3, 4 - “one cutteth” = “it is only”

5 - “upright” = “stiff” - Palm trees sway in the wind. The idols can’t speak, can’t move and have no power. 1 Co 8:4.

6, 7 - (Jeremiah) “there is none like...” - The phrase begins and ends these verses. Praise for Alpha and Omega.

          - “”Who would not...” - See Rev 15:3, 4 the song of the Lamb.

8 - The general declaration: the specific declaration.

9 - Idolatry - the work of men.

10-13 - Jehovah the true God.

     (10) - “God” - Plural both times to mean the triune God.

     (11) - The only verse in Jeremiah written in Chaldee (Aramaic). A striking affirmation of faith in the midst of idolatrous captivity. See Ps 137:1-7.

     (12) - “discretion” = “understanding”

     (13) - Ps 29:3-9

14 - The stupidity of idolatry.

          - “his knowledge” - Not the LORD’s truth.

          - “confounded” = Put to shame

15 - “they” = Idols

          - “errors” = “mockeries” See Gal 6:7.

16 - “The Portion of Jacob” - See Nu 18:20; Deu 32:9 - Note “Jacob”, the natural nation, not “Israel”, the spiritual nation.

          - “Former” = “Framer”, a construction term.

17 - “wares” = “bundle”. They wouldn’t be able to carry away more than that.

          - “fortress” - Jerusalem

18 - “sling out” - The force and speed of Israel’s eviction.

          - “find it so” = “realize the truth of the LORD’s words”.

19 - (Jeremiah speaking for Zion) - “grief” = “affliction”

20, 21 - No one is serving Jehovah.

22 - “bruit” = “rumor” from a root word meaning “roar”

23 - See Ps 37:23, 119:133

24 - (Jeremiah speaking for Zion) - A call for mercy in the midst of judgment.

25 - “Thy name” = “Thee” (emphatic)

SEVENTH PROPHECY

Ch. 11:1 - “word” - Marking this as a special prophecy.

2 - “words” - The utterances within the prophecy.

          - “this covenant” - See the renewal of the Exodus covenant under king Josiah (2 Ki 23:1-3).

3 - “cursed be the man...” - See Deu 27:26

4 - “iron furnace” - Gen 15:17; Deu 4:20; 1 Ki 8:51-53

          - “them” - The “words” of v.2.

          - “I will be your God” - Lev 26:3-12

5 - “the oath which I have sworn” - Deu 7:12

          - “land...milk...honey” - Found 21 times in the O.T.

          - “So be it,...” = “Amen” - Same Hebrew as Deu 27:15-26

6 - “Hear...and do” - Jeremiah (the prophet) told to “Hear...and speak” (v.2)

7, 8 - “For...Yet...therefore...” - The road map to judgment.

9, 10 - “conspiracy” - Evil has its own accord.

11-13 - “go and cry...gods” - See Deu 32:37, 38 relative to the impotence of Israel’s numerous idols.

14 - The 2nd of 3 times the LORD prohibits intercessory prayer from Jeremiah. (Also 7:16, 14:11).

15 - “holy flesh is passed from thee?” = “shall sacrifices remove your evil?”

16 - “olive tree” - The symbol of Israel’s covenant privilege (Ro 11).

          TEACHER’S NOTE: See Judges 9:8-15 where the fig tree (national privilege), the vine (spiritual privilege) and the bramble (the false nation under Antichrist) are all noted.

17 - “against themselves” - The folly of disobedience and rebellion.

18-20 - Jeremiah as a type of Messiah.

          - “land of the living” - Isa 53:8

          - “triest the reins...” - Ps 7:8, 9; 26:2

21 - Danger to Jeremiah from his “neighbors” in Anathoth.

22, 23 - “punish” = “visit upon” 1 Chron 16:21, 22

Ch. 12:1 - “Wherefore...” - The timeless question of the righteous. Psalms 10, 73

2 - “near in their mouth” - Anathoth was a city of priests.

3, 4 - Jeremiah asks for their removal for the sake of the land.

5, 6 - The LORD explains to Jeremiah that things will only get worse if allowed to continue. Jeremiah’s preaching has not inspired repentance, it has only endangered his life.

7 - “forsaken” = “rejected”

          - The names for Israel (“house”, “heritage”, “beloved of my soul”) highlight the LORD’s grief.

8 - “is” = “is become”

          - “hated” = “lowered My regard”

9 - “speckled bird” = “bird of prey” - Paired with the “lion” of v. 8, those who should be shepherds have become predators.

10, 11 - “pastors” = “rulers”

          - From “pleasant” (desired) to “desolate” (4 times).

12, 13 - “ashamed...revenues” - An embarrassing lack of produce, hence “desolate”.

14, 15 - “evil neighbors, that touch” = Egypt, Moab, Philistia and Ammon

          - “pluck out...bring them again” - Who but the LORD could destroy and disperse a nation and then restore it? This prophecy and its fulfillment stand as concrete proof of Divine authorship and sovereignty. It has no historical parallel.

16 - “if...”

          - “built” = “rebuilt”

17 - “if not...”

Ch. 13:1 - “linen girdle” - An expensive article representative of Israel being precious to the LORD.

            - “not in water” - To eliminate other causes for the “marring” of v. 7.

2 - “got” = “bought”

EIGHTH PROPHECY

3-5 - “Euphrates” - Encountered en route to Babylon.

          - “me” - Emphatic for strict obedience.

6 - “from thence” - The girdle is “dug up” from “exile”.

7 - The fine girdle has lost its beauty and glory and value and usefulness.

NINTH PROPHECY

8, 9 - “pride”, “great pride” - See Lev 26:18-20

10 - The sign is clearly stated.

11- Contrast the “good for nothing” of v. 10 with “name”, “praise”, and “glory”.

12 - “bottle” - An earthen jar, not a wineskin.

          - “filled with wine” - A sign of prosperity.

13, 14 - “drunkenness” - Compare the quail of Nu 11:31-33

15 - “ye” -Jeremiah addresses all.

16 - “darkness”, “dark”, “shadow”, “gross darkness” - When the LORD cannot be found. Understand Isa 55:6.

17 - “weep”, “weep sore”, “run down” - Combined with the emphatic “my soul”, the “Weeping Prophet” name for Jeremiah is apparent.

18 - “king and queen” - Jehoiachin and the queen mother, who exercised considerable authority since the king was only 18 at the time (2 Ki 24:12, 15).

          - “principalities” = “royal headgear.

19 - No escape for Judah.

20 - No jewels, no land, no subjects for the king.

21 - “thou”, “them” - Both emphatic. Israel  is faulted for weakening itself  and strengthening its enemies.

22 - “skirts...bare” - The nation will be completely ravaged.

23 - Judgment has come because there is no possibility of Israel returning to the LORD.

          - “accustomed” = “trained”

24 - “stubble” - Without roots, value or substance.

25 - “Me” (2nd occ.) - Emphatic. The Truth is contrasted with falsehood.

26 - The adulterous wife will be shamed

27 - “when shall it once be?” = “how long before it happens?”

TENTH PROPHECY

Ch. 14:1 - “dearth” = “famine” (Literally, “the restraints” referring to the holding back of rain and the famine caused by it). See Deu 28:23, 24.

         TEACHER’S NOTE: There was famine before the 1st siege of Jerusalem (497 B.C.) and before the 3rd (480 B.C.).

2 - “gates” - The people gathered there.

          - “are black” = “sit in black”

3 - “little ones” = “servants”

          - “to the waters” - “to fetch water”

          - “covered their heads” - Sign of mourning

4 - “chapt” = “cracked”

          - “ashamed” = suffering anxiety

5, 6 - As always, everything under man’s dominion suffers.

7-9 - Jeremiah’s confession and plea.

         (8) - “the Hope of Israel” - What the LORD should have been to Israel. Compare 1 Ti 1:1.

                   - “stranger” = “sojourner”

         (9) - “in the midst” - Lev 26:11, 12

10 - “they loved to wander” - The People left Him, not vice versa.

11 - The 3rd time Jeremiah is instructed NOT to pray for the People.

12 - “will not hear” - See Eze 8:18; Mic 3:4

          - “sword...famine...pestilence” - Often grouped together. See 21:9, 24:10.

13 - Jeremiah testifies concerning the false prophets.

14 - “sent...commanded...spake” - They lacked all qualifications as prophets.

15, 16 - The false prophets and their followers will be judged appropriately.

17, 18 - The land will be devastated beyond recognition.

19-22 - Another desperate plea from the prophet.

         (20) - “We” - Jeremiah includes himself with the People as do the other prophets.

         (21) - “throne...glory” - See 3:17

         (22) - “wait” - For deliverance. First used this way in Gen 49:18.

Ch. 15:1 - Moses and Samuel - Intercessors. See same phenomenon in Eze 14:14, 20.

2 - See Rev 13:10 for similar predestination. 

3 - “I will appoint” - See Lev 26:16, 17.

4 - “to be removed” - See Deu 28:25.

          - “because of Manasseh” - 2 Ki 21:1-17.

5, 6 - “weary with repenting” = “at the end of My patience”

7 - “fan...fan” - As chaff

8 - “him to fall...city” = “I have let anguish and terror fall suddenly on her (the young mother).” The women will be bereft of both husbands and sons.

9 - “seven” = “the seven” - Indicating a woman past childbearing age.

          - “...yet day” - Before old age.

10 - (Jeremiah) The prophet, thinking of his own mother, finds no peace or comfort among men despite having done no wrong.

11 - “thy” - Israel’s

12 - “iron” - Israel is no longer precious. Neither silver nor gold.

13 - The People will be stripped of their material possessions.

14 -“pass...into” - “serve in”

15- 18 - (Jeremiah)

        (16) - “found” - 513 B.C., the 18th year of Josiah (2 Ki 22:8)

               - “I...Thy name” = “Thy name is called upon me”

        (17) - “mockers” = “merrymakers”

               - “hand” = “guidance” - The prophet’s day to day existence is in obedience to the LORD.

        (18) - IMPORTANT: “liar” = “a deceitful, or disappointing brook or river.” By extension, “as a mirage.”

19-21 - The LORD’s promise to Jeremiah.

          - “stand before” = “serve”

               (20) - “deliver” = “rescue”

               (21) - “redeem” = Heb. “padah” = “rescue from bondage by power”. See Ex 6:6.

ELEVENTH PROPHECY

Ch. 16:1, 2 - Begins a series of prohibitions (marriage, mourning, feasting) and the reasons for each.

3, 4 - Jeremiah learns that he is to be spared what is to come.

5-8 - Death will be so widespread that there will be no time for mourning or burials.

9 - An end to celebration and merriment.

10, 11 - “Wherefore...” - See Deu 29:24, 25

12 - “imagination” = “stubbornness”

13 - “serve other gods” - See Deu 4:26-28; 28:36

14, 15 - The LORD promises to “bring again” the remnant from “the land of the north” (Babylon - geographically east but entering Israel from the north).

16 - “fishers...hunters...” - Israel’s enemies will find them no matter where they flee.

17, 18 - “double” = “in full”

          - “carcases...” - Pagan sacrifices

19 - Parenthetical thought from Jeremiah, concerned that others will doubt the LORD because of Israel’s fate. See Moses in Ex 32:11, 12.

20, 21 - The LORD knows Jeremiah’s thoughts and explains that the guilty cannot go unpunished.

          - “this once” - A lasting example.

Ch. 17:1 - “iron...diamond...graven” - Signs of permanence.

          - “your” should be “their”

2 - “their children remember” - Idolatry has become deeply ingrained and passed down.

3 - “mountain in the field” = Jerusalem

          - “give...to the spoil” - allow the invaders to take 

4 - “kindled a fire” - See Deu 32:22

           - “for ever” = Heb. “olam” = “the hidden time”, or “age” (Gr. “aion”). Here it is the 70 years of Servitude (496 B.C. - 426 B.C.)

5, 6 - The Curse - What is false.

          - “heath” - An evergreen shrub found in dry, infertile areas known as heathlands. The plants are highly resinous and flammable and capable of bursting into flames on their own. The burning bush in the desert of Ex 3:1, 2 was notable not for burning, but for not being consumed.

          - “salt land” - Where nothing grows.

7, 8 - The Blessing (Beatitude) - What is true.

          - “hope” = “confidence”

          - “as a tree” - See Ps 1:1-3. The tree does not see heat, the heath does not see good.

9 - “deceitful” = “crooked” (as to character). The source of the “innocence” of the evildoer (16:10).

          - “desperately wicked” = “sick unto death”, i.e., “incurable”. See Isa 44:19, 20.

          - “who can know it?” - Answered in v. 10.

10 - “heart” - The mind, intellect.

          - “reins” - Feelings, affections.

          - “fruit of his doings” - See 6:19, 32:19.

11 - False Trust

          - “and not by right” - Essential to rightly dividing this verse.

12, 13 - True Trust - The partridge and its eggs compared to the People and their God.

          - “the Hope of Israel”, “the Fountain of living waters” = Jehovah, the eternal God of the Covenant (“from the beginning”).

14 - (Jeremiah through v. 18)

          - “Thou art my Praise” - See Deu 10:21

15 - “they” - Emphatic. Contrasted to “I” in v. 14.

          - “Where...?...now” - See 2 Pe 3:3-9.

16 - “from” = “away from”

          - “to follow” = “who follows”

          - “woeful” - Same word as “desperately wicked” in v. 9, hence. the day that cannot be prevented.

          - “right” - Omit.

17, 18 - “be not a terror” - A reference to 1:17.

          - “double” = “complete”

19 - “the gate” - The main entrance to the Temple of the Court.

          - “all the gates” - Jeremiah’s assignment was to make a complete circuit.

20-22 - An appeal for repentance and obedience. See Ex 20:8, 23:12, 31:13.

23 - “obeyed” = “hearkened” (to Jeremiah)

24-26 - “if ye...”

          - “sacrifices of praise” - See Heb 13:15. These are necessary to complete the list and validate the preceding actions.

27 - “if ye will not...” - See 21:14; Lam 4:11

TWELFTH PROPHECY

Ch. 18:1, 2 - “potter’s house” - Representing the House of Israel, which in its current state, requires Jeremiah to go “down”. See Lam 4:1, 2

3, 4 - “he” - Emphatic to highlight Jehovah as the potter.

          - “vessel of clay” - Ro 9:21; 2 Co 4:7

          - “marred...made again” - God does not repair what man has marred. He makes something new.

The Nation was not the only thing made new:

  1. 1.      The Covenant - Heb 8:7-13
  2. 2.      Sacrifices (Ordinances) - Heb 10:1-9
  3. 3.      The Priesthood - Heb 7:11-28
  4. 4.      Man - 2 Co 5:17, 18
  5. 5.      The Body - 1 Co 15:35, 44, 46, 47
  6. 6.      Heaven and Earth - 2 Pe 3:13
  7. 7.      The Church - Eph 2:20-22; 4:4

          - “as seemed good” - See Gen 1:12, 18, 21, 25, 31

THIRTEENTH PROPHECY

5, 6 - God asserts His sovereignty as Creator.

7, 8 - The Nation’s current standing.

9, 10 - The Nation’s former standing.

11 - “frame” = work as the potter in v. 3.

12 - “no hope” - See 14:8 to understand this final rejection of the LORD.

13 - “such things” - The words spoken in v. 13. Publishing their rejection to the Gentiles was a “horrible thing”.

14 - “snow” = “snow water” - Used for mixing with wine and for washing as in Job 9:30.

          - “which cometh from” should be “for”

15 - “forgotten” - See “leave” and “forsaken” in previous verse.

          - “a way not cast up” - An unprepared highway. See Isa 57:14, 62:10

16 - “perpetual hissing” = “utter contempt”

17 - “back...face” - Repentance no longer an option.

18 - “devise devices” = “conspire”

          - “tongue” = “hard words”

19, 20 - (Jeremiah through v. 23) - Jeremiah pleads for justice.

21, 22 - “their” - 7 times in contrast to “me” and “I”. Jeremiah’s emotions turn from grief to anger.

          - “troop” = “raiding party”

23 - “Thou”, “me” - Both emphatic to connect Jeremiah’s anger to “Thine anger”.

Ch. 19:1 - “bottle” = “pitcher”

          - “ancients” = “elders”

2 - “east gate” = “potter’s gate”. Where the potters formed vessels for the nearby Temple. The Hebrew for “potsherd” ("heres") and for “east” ("haras") led to the two names.

3 - “...ears shall tingle” - See 1 Sa 3:11 and 2 Ki 21:12.

4 - “forsaken” - See Deu 28:20, 32:15

          - “...have known” - See Deu 32:17

5 - “burn their sons” - See Lev 18:21

6 - See 7:31, 32

7 - “...by the sword...” - See Lev 26:17; Deu 28:25

8 - See 18:16

9 - See Lev 26:23-32; Deu 28:52-57

10 - The LORD instructs Jeremiah to give an object lesson.

11 - The People and the city will be shattered.

12 - “as Tophet” - The valley of slaughter.

13 - Even the houses were defiled. See 32:29

14, 15 - Jeremiah goes from the gate to the Temple court.

          - “all the People” - Hence, the change of location.

          - “because...” - The reason for judgment.

Ch. 20 - 497 B.C. the 3rd year of Jehoiakim just prior to Nebuchadnezzar’s first arrival. Chapter 21 is 19 years later.

1 - “Pashur” = Aramaic name meaning “most noble”- First person named other than Jeremiah in this book. NOT the same “Pashur” as in Chapter 21.

          - “Immer” - See 1 Ch 24:14

          - “chief governor” - Pashur, not Immer

          - “prophesied” should be “was prophesying

          - “these things” - Calling Pashur’s family (among others) false prophets.

2 - “smote” - See Deu 25:3 for the severity of the punishment

 

STOCKS Jer 20:2      

            Any of the wooden restraining devices for wrists, ankles or neck can be referred to as “stocks”. A stock is simply a wooden board with one or more semicircles cut into one edge. When adjoined to another stock, the semicircles form holes and become stocks (plural). The stocks hinged together at one end and, at the other end, a hasp and staple for a padlock. The lower stock is fixed to the ground. The stocks confine the victim’s ankles, who is obliged to sit in that position, either on the ground or on a wooden bench. Some stocks have posts at each end, with runners in which the upper stock can slide up and down. A pillory is a specific device that holds neck and wrists only. The stocks are similar to the pillory and the pranger, as each consists of large, hinged, wooden boards usually made by a craftsman. The difference, however, is that when a person is seated in the stocks, their feet as well their hands or head, are locked in place, or chained. With stocks, boards are placed around the legs and the wrists in some cases, whereas in the pillory they are placed around the arms and neck and fixed to a pole, and the victim stands. However, the terms can be confused, and many people refer to the pillory as the stocks.

            In the stocks, an offender's hands and head, or sometimes their ankles, would be placed and locked through two or three holes in the center of a board. Either before or after this the wrongdoer might have their footwear removed, exposing their bare feet. Exhibiting an offender's bare feet was considered a form of humiliation and often led to the victim's feet being tickled, usually by children. Since stocks served as an outdoor public form of punishment offenders were forced to carry out their punishments in the rain, during the heat of summer, or in freezing weather, and generally would receive only bread and water, plus anything brought by their friends. As a consequence it was not uncommon for people kept in stocks over several days to die from heat exhaustion or hypothermia. Finger pillories often went by the name of “finger stocks”.

         Stocks were typically positioned in the most public place available, as public humiliation was a critical aspect of such punishment. Since the purpose of putting offenders in the stocks was to expose them to ridicule and mockery, passers-by were encouraged to throw mud, rotten eggs, moldy fruit and vegetables, smelly fish, excrement (both animal and human), dead rats, and even stones at those being punished. Insulting, kicking, spitting and in some cases urinating and defecating on its victims could be applied at the free will of any of those present. The abuses sometimes included the paddling and whipping of the unprotected feet (referred to as “bastinado”). Some individuals had their ears nailed to the stocks to prevent them moving even more. Sometimes in order to avoid the rotten vegetables and other items that were thrown at them, the accused would move and in the process rip their ears. Occasionally, an enemy of the person locked in the stocks would come by and cut off a hand and there was nothing the victim could do because they were immobilized in the stocks. Eventually, if they had their hand cut off they would die from loss of blood, turning public humiliation to capital punishment.

           - “high” = “upper” - North of the Temple, highly visible

3 - “The LORD hath not called thy name...” - Pashur, despite being the son of a chief priest, had been given a heathen name by his parents. Jeremiah interprets (not translates) his name as if it were Hebrew (Isaiah does the same in Isa 8:1-3). In Hebrew “pash” = “to stay” and “gur”= “to wander in a strange land”. The meaning is “Your name isn’t staying, it’s wandering.” (see v. 6).

          - “Magor-missabib” = “Terror (or fear) on every side” - (Aramaic “shur” = Hebrew “sabib”).

4 - The LORD manifests His sovereignty by changing Pashur’s name and pronouncing that his attempts to terrorize and intimidate Jeremiah will return to him (“...a terror to thyself and...”). See Esther 7:10

          - “the king of Babylon” - 1st occ. in Jeremiah

5 - The deportation will be total.

          - “strength” = Wealth and power.

6 - “house”, “friends” - The polluted priesthood is condemned to die in captivity.

7, 8 - (Jeremiah through v. 18) - The physically weakened prophet after delivering the LORD’s message to Pashur, laments his calling.

          - “deceived” = “persuaded”

          - “stronger” = Heb. “hazak” referring to strength to hold fast.

          - “derision daily” - Twice, to emphasize the mental and spiritual exhaustion of the recently scourged and bound prophet.

          - “mocketh” = “is laughing at”

          - “since I spake” = “from day one with no time off”

          - “made a reproach” - The derision and laughter was due to the word of the LORD.

9 - The prophet resolves to end his misery by remaining silent. He rightfully connects his troubles to his calling, BUT the servants of this generation must understand:

                  Mt 5:10-12; Ro 8:18; Phil 2:8, 3:8-11; 1 Pe 4:12-14. Compare Moses in Nu 11:10-15.

          - “I said” - Spoken aloud by Jeremiah.

          - IMPORTANT: “was” = “became” - The LORD Who established a pattern of rest in Genesis provides renewal for His true servants. See Elijah in 1 Ki 19:1-12 and Isa 40:31.

          - “in my heart” - The residence of the Word within the true servant. Contrast Isa 29:13.

          - “burning fire” - See 5:14, 23:29; Lam 1:13

          - “weary with forbearing” - The true servant, who pours out to the point of exhaustion, will then become “tired of being tired” (“could not stay”). Understand Ps 126:5, 6; Gal 6:9; 2 Th 3:13.

10 - “fear on every side” = “magor-missabib” as in v. 3.

          - “Report...” - Said mockingly.

          - “familiars” = “acquaintances”

          - “enticed” = “persuaded to recant”

11 - Ps 105:15

12, 13 - The call for “Thy” vengeance followed by praise. An O.T. pattern reflecting the release afforded by honesty in prayer. The term Imprecatory Psalms is used to denote Psalms exhibiting this phenomenon (See Pss 69 and 109 as examples). Despite much scholarly debate as to appropriateness and dispensational differences, there is no room for a lack of openness and honesty in prayer. Whether it is Jeremiah desiring vengeance or Jesus Christ asking if “the cup” can “pass from Me” (Mt 26:39), our communion with God does not preclude “venting” or anything else we perceive as negative. All communication with God requires truth. The praise that follows is a result of being unburdened (“opened my cause”).

          - “poor” = Heb “ebyon” = “helpless”

14, 15 - Note the “U-Turn” back to himself. See Job 3:2, 3. This is the tug-o’-war described in Gal 5:17. Active spiritual warfare against the ministrations of the Spirit.

16 - “as the cities” - See Gen 19:24, 25

          - “cry” - from those besieged.

          - “shout” - from the victors

17, 18 - The question is answered in 1:5

FOURTEENTH PROPHECY

Ch. 21 - 19 years later. Here through chapter 35 is logical, not chronological. The book moves from Zedekiah (Ch. 21) to his 3 predecessors, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim and Jechoniah (Ch. 22) to Jehoiakim (Chs. 25-27) back to Zedekiah (Ch. 28). Chapter 21 details the judgment, the following chapters give the reasons.

1 - “king Zedekiah sent...” -The priesthood had descended from the power of old to not being worthy of face-to-face meetings with the king.

          - “Pashur” - Not the same as Chapter 20. This Pashur is a priest long after the deportation had taken place.

          - Melchiah - See 1 Ch 9:12 (“Malchijah”).

          - “Zephaniah...” should be “Zephaniah the priest”

2 - Nebuchadrezzar - 1st occ. in Jeremiah

3, 4 - “ye”, “them” - Both emphatic.

5-8 - All connected by “And”

     (5, 6) - “strong” = Heb. “hazak” = strong for holding fast as in 20:7.

               - “anger”, “fury”, “wrath”, “man and beast” - The fullness of judgment.

     (7) - “deliver Zedekiah” - The last king of Judah

                - “he shall not spare” - See Deu 28:47-52

     (8) - “I set...” - See Deu 30:19.

9 - “goeth out” - See 39:9, 52:15

          - “be unto him for a prey” - Phrase unique to Jeremiah indicating that one’s life could be spared, but at great cost, i.e., captivity.

10 - “I have set...” - See Lev 17:10; Eze 15:7

          - “evil” = “calamity”

11 - “king of Judah” = Zedekiah

12 - “house of David” - Only occ. in Jeremiah

          - “in the morning” = “speedily”

          - “your” should be “their”

13 - “inhabitant” - Feminine for Zion, as “rock of the plain”.

          - “Who...?” - See similar question and similar answer in Rev 13:4.

          - “kindle a fire” - See Deu 32:22.

          - “the forest thereof” = “her forest” referring to the timber from Lebanon used in the great buildings of Zion.

          - “shall devour” - See fulfillment in 52:12, 13.

Ch. 22 - 10 years earlier

1 - “king of Judah” = Jehoiakim

2, 3 - The LORD tells the king and the people to avoid His judgment by changing their ways.

4 - “...if...then...” - The consequences of obedience.

5 - “But...” - The consequences of disobedience.

          - “swear by Myself” - Note Heb 6:13.

6 - “Gilead” - Land of beautiful, fertile pastures (contrast “wilderness”).

          - “Lebanon” - Land of majestic cedars used for great buildings including the king’s palace (contrast “not inhabited”).

7 - “prepare” = “set apart” for service.

          - “cedars” - for the houses built with them.

8, 9 - The consequences of idolatry.

10 - “the dead” = king Josiah

          - “him” = king Jehoiachin (Jeconiah)

          - “him that goeth away” = the followers of the false shepherds

11, 12 - “Shallum” (aka Jehoahaz) - See 1 Chron 3:15. First king of Israel to die in Egypt. 2 Ki 23:31, 34.

13 - “wrong” = “injustice”

          - “neighbor’s service...” - See Lev 19:13.

14 - “cieled” = “panelled”

15, 16 - “thy father” = Josiah

17 - “But...” - “You have neither eyes nor heart for anything but...”

18, 19 - “buried...ass” = Not buried at all, but left for scavengers (“drawn and cast forth”). Jehoiachin is the only king of Israel whose burial is not recorded.

20 - “the passages” - The mountain range beyond Jordan overlooking the valley and the Dead Sea (Nu 27:12).

21 - “prosperity” - See Ps 30:6.

22 - “wind...pastors” - They shall be as chaff, worthless and without substance.

23 - “inhabitant” - Feminine, for Zion.

          - “gracious” = “greatly to be pitied”

          - “pangs” - A sign of tribulation. See Mt 24:8 “sorrows”

24 - “Coniah” (Jehoiachin) - 1st syllable of “Jeconiah” (“Let Jehovah establish), “Je” (for “JAH” or “Jehovah”) is cut off by the LORD to indicate His departure and that Jeconiah would be cut off.

          - “signet” - See Hag 2:23

25-27 - The LORD pronounces judgment.

          - “thy mother” - See 2 Ki 24:12.

28 - Statements posed as questions to impress the object lesson upon us.

29, 30 - “childless” - As related to the “throne”. Jehoiachin had 7 sons (1 Chron 3:17, 18), none of which sat on the throne.

          - TEACHER’S NOTE: He appears in the genealogy of Joseph (legal), not Mary (physical). There is no error in the prophecy that would disqualify Jesus Christ from being King.

Ch. 23:1 - “pastors” - All of the unrighteous rulers.

2 - “Ye” - Emphatic. The false shepherds.

          - “them” - Emphatic. The sheep: scattered, driven away, not visited = “destroyed” (v.1).

3 - “I” - Emphatic. The Restoration.

4-6 - The True Shepherd

     (4) - No fear, dismay or lack.

     (5) - “Branch” = Heb. “Zemach” - A sprout from a root. See Isa 11:1, 53:2.

        TEACHER’S NOTE: Zemach is the name of the brightest star in the Zodiac constellation Virgo (The Virgin).

          - “King” - See Isa 9:6, 7; Zec 6:12, 13.

          - “judgment and justice” - See Ps 72:1, 2.

     (6) - “Israel...safely” - See 32:37, 33:6. Also Lev 25:18, 19; 26:5 and Deu 33:12, 28

          - THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS = Heb “Jehovah Zidkenu”

7, 8 - The Restoration will transcend the Exodus (removal and relocation). This stands as a unique and undeniable fulfillment of Divine prophecy. To destroy and scatter a nation, and then restore the nation, as a nation, to its own “land” (“soil”) has no parallel.

9 - (Jeremiah) - Brokenhearted, shaken, (as) drunken, overcome = The weeping prophet.

10 - “their” - refers to the false prophets. They are incriminated in the following verses.

11 - “prophet and priest” - Counted together although “priest” not specified again until v.33.

12 - “...their visitation” - 4th of 8 occ. in Jeremiah.

13, 14 - The prophets sin and lead others astray.

          - “Sodom...” - destroyed in Gen 19.

15 - “wormwood”, “gall” - Poisonous and narcotic.

          - “profaneness” - “worldliness”. Converse of righteousness.

16 - “they”, “you” - Both emphatic.

          - “...own heart...” - Understand Ro 10:15 and 2 Pe 1:20, 21.

17 - “say still” = “keep on saying”

18 - Answer: No one.

          - “counsel” = “secret council” as in Ps 25:14 (“secret “).

19 - “fall grievously” = “burst”

20 - See Phil 1:6 for this Divine characteristic. The wrath of God is no less complete than His grace (Heb 10:31).

          - “latter days” = “end of days”. Exact words first uttered by Jacob in Gen 49:1 (14 occ. in O.T.) showing prophecy extending through the Second Advent.

21 - Definition of false prophets.

22 - “and had caused” should be “they would have caused”

23, 24 - Rhetorical questions all answered “Yes”.

25 - “I have dreamed...” - A catchphrase for the false prophets of that day.

26-28 - The dreams of man compared to the word of God = “chaff to the wheat”

          - “chaff” = Heb. “teben” = broken straw.

29 - Again, the answer is “Yes”.

30 - “against” - See Deu 18:20-22

         - “steal My words” - pretend to receive prophecy sent to others.

31 - “say, He saith” - pretend that God is the source of their own words.

32 - “lightness” = “empty boasting”

33 - "forsake" = "reject"

34 - "and his house" - The sin of the false prophet is not self-contained. It acts as leaven ("cause to err" v.32).

35, 36 - To the people. Instructed not to even seek a word from the Lord. He has rejected them. No more mention of "the burden" (oracle) of the LORD.

          - "perverted" - The final stage of the downgrading of the Word of God. ("reproach" (6:10), "rejected" (8:9), "scoffed at" (17:15))

37, 38 - To the prophets - Who continue to "prophesy".

          - 2nd occ. of "ye say" = "you keep on saying"

39 - "you" - 1st two occ. are emphatic. See Lk 9:26.

40 - "everlasting", "perpetual" - Within the context of the time until the promised Restoration.

Ch. 24:1 - “shewed me” = “made me to see”

         - “carpenters and smiths” = craftsmen and makers of armor.

2 - “naughty” = “worthless”, i.e, “worth naught”

3, 4 - The LORD introduces the prophecy with a question.

FIFTEENTH PROPHECY

5 - The LORD explains the symbol.

          - “acknowledge” = “own”, in the sense of caring for.

          - “for their good” - Connects to “acknowledge”. The false prophets had scattered them to their destruction.

6 - “For” = “And”

          - “build...plant” - See 1:10; 18:7-9.

7 - “I will give...” - See Deu 30:6

          - “they shall be...” - See Lev 26:12

          - “whole heart” - Anything less is not a return.

8 - The inedible evil figs are for those the LORD has rejected and will no longer feed.

9 - “to be removed into” = “to be tossed to and fro” (by the “whirlwind” of 23:19) - See Deu 28:25.

          - “for their hurt” - Compare “for their good” v. 5.

10 - “sword...famine...pestilence” - See Lev 26:25, 26.

SIXTEENTH PROPHECY

Ch. 25:1 - “fourth year of Jehoiakim” = “the first year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon” (496 B.C.)

2 - “Jeremiah the prophet spake” - 1st occ. of this phrase.

          - NOTE: In 36:2 the prophet is told to “write” since the people had been dispersed.

3 - “thirteenth year of Josiah” - The beginning of Jeremiah’s prophesying (1:2).

          - “three and twentieth year” - Of Jeremiah’s prophesying (18 under Josiah, 3 months under Jehoahaz (Shallum), 4 years under Jehoiakim).

4 - “all His servants...” - The LORD’s messengers had been disobeyed long before Jeremiah’s 23 years.

5, 6 - The words sent through the prophets.

          - “do you no hurt” = “bring no calamity upon you”

7 - The disobedience causing the consequence.

          - “provoke to anger” - See Deu 32:21.

8 - The reason for the pronouncement of judgment.

9 - “My servant” - Raised up by the LORD to fulfill His purpose. See Pharaoh in Ex 9:16.

10 - See Rev 18:23.

11 - “seventy years” - 496 to 426 B.C.

12 - The subject is now the seventy years.

          - “punish” - The LORD will punish Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon for what He allowed them to do to Israel.

          - “it” - Masculine, meaning the people, not the land.

13 - The land is now addressed.

14 - “of them” - The Chaldeans.

15 - “I”, “thee” - Both emphatic.

16 - “be moved” = “reel to and fro”

          - “sword” - See Lev 26:33.

17, 18 - “Jerusalem” - See 1 Pe 4:17 and v.29.

19 -25 - The LORD details “all the inhabitants of the earth” (v.29). They are divided into 4 groups: Jerusalem and Judah; Egypt; the mingled people; the more distant nations.

26 - “Sheshach” - A cypher for “Babel”. Both “Sheshach” and “Babylon” are used in 51:41. The final judgment of all these nations will be when “great Babylon” (Rev 14:8; 16:19-17:6) will “drink after them” and fall in “one hour” (Rev 18) whereas ancient Babylon’s downfall was gradual.

27 - “Drink...drunken...spue...fall...rise no more” - As always, the LORD completes the process.

28 - “...certainly...” - No alternative to God’s judgment.

29 - “I” - Emphatic both times.   “ye” - Emphatic.

          - “ LORD of hosts” - Commander-in-chief of all spiritual forces. See next verse.

          - “unpunished” = “guiltless”.

30 - “roar” - See “as a lion” in v.38.

          - “upon His habitation” = “against His fold”

31 - “plead with” = “judge”

32 - “coasts” = “outermost parts”

33 - “the slain” - By the sword. See Isa 66:16.

34 - “Howl”, “cry” - Jehoiakim, Jehoachin, and Zedekiah all suffered unpleasant ends.

          - “principal” = “strong ones” in contrast to “pleasant” = “fragile”.

35, 36 - “no way to flee...escape” - For the LORD hath spoiled.

37 - “the peaceable habitations are cut down” = “the pastures of peace are silenced”

38 - “His covert” = Jerusalem

          - “as the lion” - The Lion of Judah will later return.

SEVENTEENTH PROPHECY

Ch. 26:1 - “in the beginning” - The 3rd year of Jehoiakim (498 B.C.), therefore before the siege. Two years before Ch. 25.

2 - “Stand in the court” - This announcement was to be as public as possible.

          - “all the words”, “diminish not” - Necessary for a true prophet.

3 - “If so be...” - A prophecy of warning. An offer of mercy (for obedience) before judgment.

4-6 - The message for disobedience. “If ye will not...” - See Lev 26:14; Deu 28:15.

7, 8 - The path of disobedience is chosen. Jeremiah is seized.

          - “thou shalt surely die” - In accordance with Deu 18:20.

9 - All the people in the house...

10 - The princes come up from the king’s house.

          NOTE: From the king’s house to the LORD’s house is always “up”.

          - “new gate” = “east gate”

11 - “priests”, “prophets”, “princes”, “all the people” - Jeremiah seems to be alone.

          - “This man is worthy to die” = “Death’s judgment is for this man.”

12, 13 - Jeremiah stands on the word of God.

14, 15 - See Ps 105:15.

16 - The princes speak out on Jeremiah’s behalf.

17 - The elders speak next.

18 - “Micah the Morasthite” - Of the Book of Micah.

          - See Mic 3:12. NOTE: Micah’s prophecy referred to Jewish Zion south of Moriah. Traditional Zion is SW of Jerusalem.

19 - The elders close their case. See Ac 5:34-39.

20 - IMPORTANT: “And” should be “But”. These are Jeremiah’s adversaries.

21-23 - Jehoiakim is in contrast to Hezekiah.

24 - Ahikam - His son, Gedaliah, also stood as a friend of Jeremiah and was later appointed governor by Nebuchadnezzar. See 40:1-6.

EIGHTEENTH PROPHECY

Ch. 27:1 - “In the beginning...came” - This prophecy was given to Jeremiah at that time but not spoken until 13 years later (485 B.C.) in the 4th year of Zedekiah (v.12).

2 - “to me” - Chapters 27 and 28 dictated by Jeremiah to his scribe (See 28:1).

          - “...bands and yokes...” - The prophetic symbol for what would happen to Zedekiah.

3 - “which come” = “are coming” - Eleven years later.

4, 5 - The LORD’s sovereignty over the “kings” and “masters” of v.3.

          - “unto whom it seemed meet...” - See next verse.

6 - “these lands” - See v.3.

          - “My servant” - See Dan 2:37, 38.

7 - “him...son’s son” - Nebuchadnezzar was succeed by Evil-Merodach, Nergelissar, and Nabodinus (for 17 years until Babylon was taken by Cyrus).

          - “the very time” = “the appointed end”

          - “great kings” - The Persians and Medes (See Dan 2:39).

8 - Disobedience. Consequences.

          - “by his hand” - Nebuchadnezzar specifically raised by the LORD for this purpose.

9 - “diviners”, “dreamers”, “enchanters” (observers of clouds), “sorcerers” (mediums and necromancers) = Guides to destruction.

10 - “a lie” - All contradiction to God is such.

          - “to remove you” = “to bring about your removal”

11 - Obedience. Consequences.

12 - “I spake” - 13 years after “came” in v. 1.

          - “the yoke” - See v. 2.

          - “serve him...and live” - The choice to obey or disobey.

13 - “Why would you doubt what the LORD has spoken?”

14, 15 - If “they prophesy a lie” then “I have not sent them.”

          - “prophesy unto you” - “that ye might perish”

                     The result of lies (all that is false). See Rev 21:8.

16 - “priests...People” - No mention of Jeremiah addressing the other kings of v. 3.

          - “brought again” - False prophecy that the vessels taken by Nebuchadnezzar during the reigns of Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin would be returned. See 2 Ki 24:13; 2 Chron 36:7-10; Dan 1:2.

17 - “serve...and live” - A message for all believers.

18 - THE TEST. “if the word of the LORD be” = “if the word of the LORD exists”

19, 20 - “remain” - The items listed were too heavy and cumbersome to be taken.

21, 22 - The LORD decrees that all that remains in the Temple and in the palace will also be carried to Babylon until His appointed time.

           - “then will I...” - Fulfilled by Cyrus (426 B.C.). See Ezra 1:7-11; 5:13-15.

Ch. 28:1 - “the same year” - As 27:12, not 27:1.

          - “Hananiah” - A false prophet.

          - “Gibeon” - A city of priests, indicating that Hananiah, like Jeremiah, was a priest.

          - “in the presence...” - Show time for Hananiah. 1st of 4 occ. of this phrase in this chapter.

2 - See 23:31.

          - “I have broken...” - Completely false.

3, 4 - Hananiah gives a timeframe and details.

5 - “Jeremiah” - Spelled in abbreviated form in Hebrew in this chapter to show familiarity with the LORD in contrast to Hananiah. This spelling is also found in 27:1; Ezra 1:1; Dan 9:2.

          - “in the presence” - Twice in this verse to show its significance: the reason God later ordered Jeremiah to return.

6 - Jeremiah expresses that it would be nice if Hananiah’s words were true.

7 - “Nevertheless” = “But”

           - “I” - Emphatic.

8, 9 - Prophets speak truth, good or bad. Prophets do not scratch itching ears.

10 - Jeremiah is still wearing the wooden yoke of 27:2.

11 - “in the presence” - Again for emphasis.

          - Hananiah repeats his “prophecy”. Jeremiah leaves. See Pr 26:4.

NINETEENTH PROPHECY

12 - “Then”, “after” - Shortly thereafter while the people were still present.

13 - “Go and tell...” - See Pr 26:5. The specific reason is at the end of v. 15.

          - “for” = “instead of”

          - “yokes of iron” - Something obviously never used. It makes the point.

14 - “I have put...” - See Deu 28:48.

          - “beasts of the field” - Power that could only come from God.

15 - Jeremiah’s words to Hananiah.

          - Jeremiah applies the test (Deu 18:20-22).

          - “thou (emphatic) makest this people to trust in a lie” - The condemning sin of all false prophets.

16 - “this year” - Hananiah’s false prophecy extended two years.

          - “taught...” - See Deu 13:5.

          - “rebellion against the LORD” - A sin unto death. King Zedekiah was guilty of this after taking an oath of allegiance to Nebuchadnezzar.

                          See 2 Ki 24:17-20; 2 Chron 36:11-13; Eze 17:12-21.

17 - Hananiah died 2 months later instead of two years.

Ch. 29:1 - 4 years earlier than Chapter 28 (489 B.C.).

1 - “words”, “letter” = written prophecies

          - “the prophets” - Ezekiel (Eze 1:1) and Daniel (Dan 1:1-4) were still there.

2 - In parentheses to emphasize “residue”.

          - “Jeconiah” = “Jehoiachin”

          - “queen” = “queen mother” - Jehoiakim’s wife, Nehusta (2 Ki 24:12, 15).

          - “eunuchs” = “chamberlains”

3 - The writings were sent by the sons of Shaphan (a scribe) and Zilkiah (a priest). See 2 Ki 22:3, 4.

4 - “ LORD of hosts, God of Israel” - Repeated vv. 8, 21, 25 - Divine Authority

5-7 - The Command. This was not going to be a “two year” stay. The LORD tells them what and why.

          - “peace” = “welfare”

          - “in the peace...” - An everyday instruction for believers experiencing strife, stress or persecution.

          - “captives” - 63 years (until 426 B.C.). See v. 10 and below.

8, 9 - “Lord of hosts...” - Repeated. A reminder and warning against false prophets.

10 - “seventy years” - See 25:11, 12 (re: land, desolations) and below.

There are actually 3 periods of 70 years.

                     A. SERVITUDE (496-426 B.C.) Jer 25:1-14 - Begins in the 4th year of Jehoiakim and closes with the capture of Babylon by Darius the Mede (Astyages) and the Decree of his son and co-regent Cyrus to rebuild the Temple.

                      B. CAPTIVITY (489-419 B.C.) 2 Ki 24:8-16 - Begins with the carrying away to Babylon of Jeconiah in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar in 489 B.C. When the SERVITUDE ended in 426 B.C., the CAPTIVITYhad lasted 63 years (9 (finality of judgment) x 7 (spiritual completion)).

7 years later, in 419 B.C.:

- Cyrus died. Succeeded by Cambyses.

- Nehemiah was appointed governor (Neh 5:14) (Note references are to the king’s age, not the duration of his reign)

- The wall begun in 454 B.C. is resumed and completed in 52 days (Neh 6:15) (52 = 4(creative works) x 13 (rebellion)) Begun in 5th month, ended in 7th.

- Marks the end of the 5th of the “seven sevens” of Dan 9:25 (Note: In 9:25, the reference is to build Jerusalem, not the Temple. This was the subject of Daniel’s prayer (Dan 9:16-19).

                       C. DESOLATIONS (479-409 B.C.) 2 Ch 36:9-21 - Begins with the third and last siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 479 B.C. and ends in the second year of Darius Hystaspis. This is the fulfillment of Lev 26:32-35. Note in Dan 9:2, “understood by books” (The Book of Jeremiah). This is about the LAND. “A” & “B” are about the PEOPLE. This pattern was set in Gen 3:17, 18.

11- “an expected end” = “an end and an expectation” = The end He has caused us to hope for. See Ro 8:28, 35-39.

                      God is faithful. His character is not altered by our behavior, faithlessness or disobedience.

12 - “Then” - after the return of v. 10.

13 - “ye shall seek Me...” - “Me” is emphatic. See Deu 4:29; 30:2  Heb 11:6

14 - “And I will be found...” - Isa 55:6

          - “(gather) you” - The 1st of 4 emphatic occ. in this verse, highlighting this unique prophecy: The nation, as a nation, removed and restored to its original location.

15-19 - “Because...” - 1st of 6 (# of man) occ. this chapter

     (17) - Who they listened to. The false prophets who grow “vile figs”.

                - “sword...famine...pestilence” - Twice for emphasis.

     (18) - The clear pronouncement of judgment.

     (19) - “Because...” - Who they did not listen to.

20 - “sent” = “caused to be carried away”

21, 22 - “Ahab”, “Zedekiah” - False prophets. Their judgment.

23 - “Because...” - 3rd occ.

          - “committed villainy” - “worshipped idols”

          - “...I know...witness” - Understand Heb 6:13.

24 - “Nehelamite” = “dreamer”

25 - “Because...” - 4th occ.

          - “in thy name” - Self-appointed, therefore false.

          - “Jerusalem” - The letter was sent from captivity to the residue.

26 - Shemaiah claimed that the LORD had installed him as high priest to imprison all the prophets.

27 - He asks, “Why is Jeremiah still free?”

          - “maketh himself” - The wicked will often accuse others of their own transgressions.

28 - “he sent us...” - he actually blames Jeremiah for the captivity.

29 - “this letter” - Shemaiah’s letter.

30, 31 - “Because...” - 5th occ.

          - “I sent him not...he caused you...” - The false prophet is defined, then charged.

32 - The false prophet sentenced. He and his seed to be cut off before the Return (“neither shall he behold”).

          - “...because...” - 6th occ.

TWENTIETH PROPHECY

Ch. 30:1, 2 - “in a book” - Written before the deportation for comfort during the Captivity and for posterity. The prelude to comfort is in 31:37.

                         NOTE: It is not until 31:26 that we are told that this prophecy comes in a dream.

3 - “Israel” - The northern tribes now known as the Samaritans.

4 - “these are the words” - Introduction to Chapters 30 and 31.

5-7 - Tribulation before Restoration - Not only here, but also Revelation.

          - “a voice” - Those not trusting His message of 29:11.

     (6) - “a man” = Heb. “zakar” = “a male”

     (7) - “that day” - The time of Babylon’s fall to Cyrus.

               - “great...like it” = “too great to be equalled”

               - “Jacob’s” (not “Israel’s) - The natural nation is referred to here.

               - “but...” - See v. 3.

8 - “his yoke” - In the LORDs time. See 28:10, 11.

9 - “they” = the “strangers” of v. 8. Another then hidden O.T. reference to the saving of the Gentiles.

          - “David their king” - The everlasting covenant 2 Sam 7:8-16 is the basis. See Isa 55:3 and Eze 34:23, 24; 37:24, 25.

10 - “fear thou not...” - See Isa 41:10; 43:5; 44:2.

          - “be in rest” = “be again in rest”

11 - “...I am with thee...to save thee:” - An eternal truth. The “I” is emphatic.

          - “in measure” = “as you deserve”

          - “unpunished” = “guiltless” -  See Ex 20:7; 34:7 and Nu 14:18.

12, 13 - “incurable”, “grievous”, etc. - Spiritually, the old nation will be “put off”, the new nation “put on”.

14 - “lovers” - The pagan nations. See 3:6-8.

          - “...with the wound of an enemy” - The LORD used Nebuchadnezzar as His instrument of punishment.

15 - “Why criest...?” - See Pr 19:18 and note the change from a marital image to a parental one.

16 - Israel’s punishers will be punished.

17, 18 - “restore”, “heal” - See v. 11 “...not make a full end”. The restoration and healing are natural, Zion is literal.

     (18) - “tents” - Indicating the captivity is temporary.

               - “upon her own heap” - In its original location. This was written 10 years before the actual siege of 479 B.C.

               - “palace” = “fortress”

               -  “after the manner thereof.”  - In its original location.

19 - “them” - The restored cities and palaces are addressed here..

          - The abundance of the LORD - “multiply...not be few”    “glorify...not be small (in number)”.

20 - Now the “common” people are addressed: They will be protected as “aforetime”.

21 - “their nobles” should be “his (Jacob’s) Prince”

          - “their governor” should be “his (Jacob’s) Ruler.

          - “cause him to draw near” - See Nu 16:1-5 and Jas 4:8

          - “who is this...?” - See Ps 24:3-6

          - “engaged” = “pledged”

22 - The only true Restoration.

23 - “continuing whirlwind” = “roaring tempest”

          “the wicked” - Plural.

24 - “consider” = “understand”. Same as 23:20

Ch. 31 - Verses 1-22 are about Israel (Northern Kingdom). Verses 23-26 about Judah (Southern Kingdom). Verses 27-40 include both.

1 -“At the same time” - The “latter days” of 30:24.

          - “they shall...” - See 32:38 and Lev 26:12

2 - “grace in the wilderness” - A message to all believers.

          - “I went...” - See Nu 10:33 and Deu 1:30-33.

3 - “everlasting love” - The covenant is everlasting. So is the nation of Israel. See Rev 21:2.

4 - “Again...again...” - Restoration

5 - “vines” = “vineyards”

          - “plant...and eat” - For themselves, not as laborers for others.

6 - “there shall be” = Heb. “yesh” = “there is”, i.e., an appointed day.

7 - “Jacob” - As always, the natural nation.

          - “sing...shout...publish...praise...say...” - Joy due to God’s grace, hence 5 actions.

8 - “company” = “organized community” - Not just a lot of people, but an orderly return.

9 - The end of the sorrow.

          - “Ephraim...firstborn” - The ten tribes counted as firstborn of the two kingdoms.

10 - The time of blessing begins.

11 - “redeemed” = Heb. “padah” = liberated by power.

          - “ransomed” = Heb. “ga`al” = “avenged”, “redeemed by blood”

          - “stronger...” - Not just the Chaldeans, but sin itself.

12 - “flow together” - As a community.

          - “...to the goodness of the LORD” - Otherwise it is not fruit, only evil figs.

          - “not sorrow...” - See the application in Rev 21:4.

13 - See the application of Ps 30, a psalm of dedication.

14 - “satiate” - The priests will be fed and nourished by the Shepherd of v. 10. The people will be “satisfied” as a result.

15 - “in Ramah” - A high place near Bethlehem. See Mt 2:16-18

          - “Rahel” = “Rachel”, the mother of “Ephraim” (Joseph and Benjamin), linking the two kingdoms.

16, 17 - The voice that “was heard” in v. 15 is comforted by the LORD.

          - “come again” - As in resurrection (see “they were not” in v. 15).

18 - “...bemoaning himself” - The sinner recognizes the need to be saved.

          - “turn Thou to me” = “cause Thou me to be turned” - The sinner recognizes that he cannot cleanse himself. See 1 Jn 1:7.

          - “my God” - acceptance as Lord and Savior.

19 - Repentance, conviction, shame, reproach - Rejection of the “old man” which must be “put off”.

20 - The unconditional love of a parental God.

21 - “make thee” = “set up”

          - “high heaps” = “finger posts”, an old term for guideposts. Signs giving directions to specific locales, often shaped like pointing fingers.

          - “turn again” = return without straying.

22 - “go about” - to avoid capture by moving backwards.

          - “in the earth” =  “in the land”, i.e., not elsewhere.

          - “A woman shall compass a man” - The new thing defined.

                - “compass” = “to return to seek the favor of” - The significance is that the “new thing” is for the woman, “the backsliding daughter”, to play the role of suitor. The virgin of Israel will cease “going about” to seek and cleave to the LORD.

23, 24 - The blessing is pronounced for Judah as the “habitation of justice and mountain of holiness”.

          - “in the cities” - Compare to “all the families” in v.1.

25 - See Isa 40:29-31.

26 - (Jeremiah) - Since 30:1 Jeremiah has received this prophecy in a dream.

27 - The two houses, Israel and Judah, united.

28 - “watched over” = superintended. Same Hebrew as 1:12 (“hasten my word to perform it”).

29, 30 - A proverb stated, then corrected.

31-34 - Quoted in Heb 8:8-12 and 10:16, 17.

     (31) - “new covenant” - See Mt 26:28.

     (32) - “although I was a husband unto them” - In Hebrew, a homonym with 2 meanings. See Heb 8:9 “and I regarded them not...”

     (33) - “house of Israel” - the entire nation.

     (34) - “they shall all know me” - See 9:24.

35 - “ordinances” = “statutes” - See Gen 8:22.

          - “divideth” = “stirs up”

36, 37 - The absolute surety of the LORD’s prophecies concerning Israel’s restoration. See v. 27.

38 - “...tower...corner” = NE to NW.

39 - “Gareb”, “Goath” - Not mentioned elsewhere in Scripture. Presumably at opposite corners to v. 38.

40 - From west to east.

          - “holy” - set apart for the LORD.

          - “for ever” = to the end of the age.

TWENTY-FIRST PROPHECY

Ch. 32 - 478 B.C. Two years before the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. This Chapter is the “first” word. Chapter 33 is the second.

1 - “tenth...eighteenth year” - The intersection of Biblical and secular time allows for accurate dating.

2 - “besieged” = “was besieging”, i.e., during the siege.

          - “shut up in the court(yard) of the prison” - Adjacent to the palace.

              TEACHER’S NOTE: Unlike today, prison was for holding until guilt or innocence was established, not for serving sentences. Punishments almost always involved some type of payment or restoration or death. There were guards for the open space but visitors had free access. Thus, Jeremiah could not leave, but continued to prophesy: a sort of “free custody”. To have Jeremiah in such close proximity to the king and his soldiers during the siege was probably not Zedekiah’s best idea.

3 - Zedekiah was displeased with God’s word and His prophet, since the king didn’t like the message.

4 - The king would be captured and delivered directly to Nebuchadnezzar to be led to Babylon.

          - “his eyes shall behold His eyes” - See Eze 12:13 where the prophecy states that Zedekiah would “not see” Babylon. 2 Ki 25:6, 7 makes both prophecies true with Zedekiah’s eyes being put out at Riblah before he was led to Babylon.

5 - “though ye fight...” - The LORD decreed surrender.

TWENTY-SECOND PROPHECY

6, 7 - “thine uncle” = Shallum. Hanameel was Jeremiah’s cousin.

          - “my field” - Somewhere within 2,000 cubits (less than1 mile) of Anathoth. See Nu 35:4, 5.

          - “right of redemption” - Lev 25:24, 25, 32

8 - “Then I knew...” - Prophecy is often, not always, confirmed. This particular confirmation extends to the LORD’s promise of restoration. Why else purchase land that is about to be taken in siege?

9 - The purchase/redemption.

10-16 - “evidence” = “deed”, i.e., confirmation, proof. Appears 7 times. An 8th occ. is in v. 44 signifying new beginnings. See “substance” in Heb 11:1.

     (10) - “subscribed...sealed...witnesses...weighed” - The redemption process.

     (11) - “sealed” - Official record. “open” - Personal record. - Each confirming the other.

     (12) - “Baruch” - Jeremiah’s scribe.

               - “subscribed” = “whose names were written”

     (13, 14) - “many days” - At this point there were 52 more years of servitude (70 - 18 years from the 4th year of Jehoiakim to the 10th year of Zedekiah).

     (15) - Jeremiah’s faith was the evidence to believe the word of the LORD in making this purchase.

     (16) - “evidence” - The 7th occ. of this set.

               - The actions are followed by prayer.

17-23 - The LORD reassures Jeremiah by bringing to his remembrance Who He is (Lord GOD; the Great; the Mighty GOD; the LORD of Hosts) and what He has already done.

          - “...there is nothing too hard for thee” - The basis for trusting the LORD in the land deal. (See v. 25).

     (18, 19) - Ex 20:6; 34:7

     (20) - “signs and wonders” - Deu 4:34; 6:22; 7:19; 26:8; 28:46; 29:3; Ps 78:43; 105:27; 135:9; Neh 9:10

               - “other men” = Heb. “adam” = “mankind”

               - “made thee a name’ - See Ex 9:16

     (21) - “with a strong hand...” - See Ex 14:19-21

     (22) - “milk and honey” - See Ex 3:8, 17.

     (23) - “but...” - See Deu 9:6-19

24 - “mounts” - Huge mounds of dirt used by enemy forces to aid in scaling walls.

25 - “for the city is given” - The reason the commandment to buy the land was so surprising.

TWENTY-THIRD PROPHECY

26 - “Jeremiah” should be “me”. This is still Jeremiah’s response to Zedekiah.

27 - “the God of all flesh” - See Nu 16:22.

         - “is there...?” - Omnipotence.

28, 29 - The LORD details the invasion.

30, 31 - “from their youth”, “from the day...” - The LORD is longsuffering.

          - “this city” = Jerusalem.

32 - “the children” - Listed in detail for emphasis.

33 - “...yet they have not hearkened...” - Willful ignorance comes from a rebellious heart.

34, 35 - “to pass through the fire” - See Lev 18:21

          - “neither came it to My mind” - A Hebraism meaning something is unspeakably abominable.

36 - “ye say” = “you have said” - A reference to Jeremiah’s prophesying. The restoration of the city.

37 - “gather them...” - See Deu 30:1-3

          - “dwell safely” = “settle down”

38, 39 - “fear” = “reverence”

40, 41 - “do them good” (Twice) - See “the good of them” in v. 39

     (41) - “plant” - See 1:10.

42 - Omnipotence and sovereignty.

43, 44 - The repossession of the People.

     (43) - “ye say” - Same as v.36.

               - “desolate” - Contrasted to Benjamin...Jerusalem...Judah...cities, etc.

                - “captivity” = “captives”

     (44) - “Men shall...” - As Jeremiah, His servant, had already done.

TWENTY-FOURTH PROPHECY

Ch. 33 - vv. 4-14 - The desolation, blessing and restoration: the houses (4-6); Judah (7-11); Judah and Benjamin (12-14).

                      vv. 15-18 - Jehovah’s Branch

                      vv. 19-26 - Jehovah’s faithfulness
1 -
“the second time” - Chapter 32 was the first.

2 - “the Maker” = “the Doer” ( the Accomplisher of His Word).

          - “the LORD is His name - Only 3 other occ. (Ex 15:3; Amos 5:8; 9:6)

3 - “mighty” = “inaccessible” - Things Jeremiah could not know without Divine revelation.

4 - “thrown down by...” - Houses were demolished to build fences against the mounts and swords.

5 - “They come...” = “They were intended ...” - The wood for defense would serve to make coffins.

6-8 - “it” = the city

     (7, 8) - “as at the first” - The keynote phrase of restoration. Repeated in v. 11.

                   - “return...build...cleanse...pardon” - The LORD’s actions.

     (9) - “joy...praise...honor” - The LORD’s purpose. The other nations will see that He is LORD. They shall “fear and tremble” as He cleanses, blesses and restores what He had the power to destroy.

10 - “ye say” - Again the LORD references the prophecies He sent through Jeremiah.

11 - “The voice...” - Compare Babylon in Rev 18:22-24.

          - “for His mercy endureth forever” - See Psalm 136, a congregational psalm of praise preceded by Psalm 135, a psalm in praise of the LORD’s sovereignty, and followed by Psalm 137, Israel’s deliverance from Babylon.

      - “them that shall bring” = A united congregation.

          - “sacrifice of praise” = “thank offering”

          - “as at the first” - See v. 7.

12-14 - The completeness of the Restoration.

          - “shepherds”, “flocks” - Natural and spiritual.

15 - “the Branch of righteousness” - Raised up to reign, prosper and execute judgment and righteousness. See Isa 61:11.

16 - See Rev 21:2 (“new Jerusalem”) and note here that the bride takes the husband’s name (See 23:6).

17, 18 - Sacred and secular power under the LORD.

          - ‘priests and Levites” - See Nu 25:10-13.

TWENTY-FIFTH PROPHECY

19, 20 - “If..” - If the impossible happens. The Lord recalls Gen 8:21, 22.

21 - “My covenant...with David” - Unconditional. See 2 Sa 7:1-17.

22 - “David”, “the Levites” - Note “two families” in next 2 verses.

TWENTY-SIXTH PROPHECY

23, 24 - Ignore the naysayers.

25 - Again, Gen 8:21, 22.

26 - “Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” - Frequently mentioned together in Scripture. Ex 2:24; 3:6; Ps 105:9, 10. Also see “your fathers” in Deu 11:21.

          - “mercy” = Heb. “raham” = “compassion”

TWENTY-SEVENTH PROPHECY

Ch. 34 - Chapter 32:1-5 is retold in more detail. Zedekiah, then the People, harshly addressed.

1- “...Nebuchadnezzar and...and...and...” - The totality of Judgment.

          “fought” = “were fighting”

2, 3 - The words given to Jeremiah.

4, 5 - “Yet...” - Zedekiah would not die by the sword, nor in disgrace.

          “burn odours” - See 2 Chron 16:14.

6, 7 - “cities...that were left” - This was Nebuchadnezzar’s third siege (of 3).

TWENTY-EIGHTH PROPHECY

8 - Zedekiah’s covenant (8-10). The LORD’s covenant (12, 13).

          - “to proclaim liberty” - Lev 25:10, 39-46.

9 - “go free” - This covenant was made during a temporary withdrawal (see “gone up from you” v. 21) of Nebuchadnezzar to battle the Egyptians (see 37:5).

          - “serve himself of them’ = “use them for bondservants”

TWENTY-NINTH PROPHECY

 

10, 11 - “then” - Only after they knew it applied to everyone, and only for a short time ( see “afterward”).

12-14 - The LORD’s covenant, Sabbatical years of release. See Deu 15:1-18.

15 - “now turned” - They had finally done the right thing.

16 - “But...” - “polluted”, same Heb. as “profane” in Lev 19:12.

17 - “liberty” - Used 2 different ways by the LORD in this verse.

          - “make you to be removed” - See Deu 28:25, 64.

18 - “cut the calf...passed between” - See Gen 15:9, 10, 17.

19, 20 - “princes...priests” - The breachers of the covenant will receive judgment.

21 - The king is sentenced to fall into the hands of the temporarily departed army.

22 - The LORD proclaims Nebuchadnezzar’s return to finish the siege.

          - “a desolation...” = “too desolate to be inhabited”

THIRTIETH PROPHECY

 Ch. 35 - Now 496 B.C., 17 years earlier than Chapter 34 (see 25:1 and 26:1).

1 - “in the days...” - Jehoiakim’s fourth year, immediately before Nebuchadnezzar’s advance.

2 - “Rechabites” - Named for Rechab, the father of Jonadab (v.6). They went with Israel to Canaan (See Nu 10:29). They inhabited the wilderness south of Judah and worshipped Jehovah even when the Israelites had turned idolatrous.

3 - “Rechabites” - A Kenite tribe of proselytes that migrated with Israel to Canaan (Nu 10:29-33). Note 1 Sa 15:6.

4 - “Igdaliah, a man of God” - A title reserved for only 7 prophets named: Moses (Deu 33:1); Samuel (1 Sa 9:6-10); David (Neh 12:24); Elijah (1 Ki 17:18); Elisha (2 Ki 4:7); Shemaiah (2 Chron 11:2). There are 4 unnamed “men of God” (1 Sa 2:27; 1 Ki 13:1, 20:28; 2 Chron 25:7).

          - “keeper of the door” (also “porter”) - One of three. See 2 Ki 25:18.

5 - “pots” = “bowls”

6, 7 - “Jonadab” = “Jehovah is willing” -  Chief and Lawgiver of the Rechabites. He was an ally of Jehu in opposing the house of Ahab and the Baal worshippers in Samaria (See 2 Ki 9:30-10:28).

          - “our father”, “live many days” - See Ex 20:12.

8-10 - The stark contrast to the Israelites.

11 - Their explanation for temporarily leaving the wilderness.

THIRTY-FIRST PROPHECY

12, 13 - “receive” = take to heart

14-16 - The Israelites are incriminated for their disobedience. The Rechabites are commended for their obedience.

            - TEACHER’S NOTE: Rightly divide the commendation. It applies to their obedience, not the specific ordinances.

17 - “The LORD God of hosts, the God of Israel” = Heb. “Jehovah Elohim Sabaoth, Elohim of Israel”. A full and therefore solemn title used only here, 38:17 and 44:7.

          - The judgment. The cause.

18, 19 - The blessing of the Rechabites. The cause.

THIRTY-SECOND PROPHECY

Ch. 36:1 - “fourth year of Jehoiakim” - 496 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar had left Jerusalem with a large group of young captives, including Daniel.

2 - “roll” = Heb. “megillah” = “writing scroll”  Twenty-one occ. in Scripture, 14 in Jeremiah

          - “write...Israel...Judah” - Israel had been dispersed for 114 years and thus couldn’t be “spoken” to.

          - “from the days of Josiah” - Therefore all that God had spoken to/through Jeremiah for the past 23 years.

3 - “Judah...hear” - Only Judah could “hear” (see v.2) and possibly learn from Israel’s history

4 - Baruch (Heb. “blessed”) - 1st chronological mention (32:12 was 478 B.C.). Brother to Seraiah (51:34).

5 - “shut up” = “in hiding”, not imprisoned.

6, 7 - “...from my mouth, the words of the LORD” - Defines the Book of Jeremiah as Scripture.

          - “the fasting day” - Since this was the 9th month (v. 9) it was not a fast day prescribed in the Law (See 7th month in Lev 16:29, 23:27).

8-10 - Baruch’s obedience.

     (9) - “fifth year” - After a period of 9 months.

               - “ninth month” - December by our calendar.

    (10) - “Gemariah” - Not the same as 29:3 (“son of Hilkiah”). This Gemariah was the brother of Ahikam (24:24).

              - “scribe” - Shaphan was the scribe during Josiah’s reign. The scribe at this time was Elishana (vv. 12, 20, 21).

11-13 - The report to the princes.

     (11) - Michaiah - Shaphan’s grandson.

     (12) - Elnathan - See 26:22, 23.

     (13) - “the book” should be “in the book”

14 - The princes order the roll to be brought to them.

15 - “Sit down” - A favorable sign for Baruch.

16 - “afraid” - Of judgment, not the king. They were anxious to make the report.

17-19 - The favorable princes order Baruch to join Jeremiah in hiding.

20 - The princes go to the king without the scroll.

21 - The king, who has been “told all the words”, sends for the scroll to have it read to him.

          - “stood” - Contrast to Baruch sitting (v. 15).

22 - “ninth month” - December, therefore winter.

          - “on the hearth” = “in the brazier” - A pan to hold burning coals.

23 - “leaves” = “columns”

          - “he” = the king

          - “cut it” - Into fragments.

          - “penknife” - A scribe’s knife. In our times attempts to cut up God’s Word employ scribes’ pens.

TEACHER'S NOTE: This is at the same time as Nebuchadnezzar's dream in Daniel 2.

24 - “...not afraid” - Unlike the princes (v.16). Hardened hearts do not contain holy fear.

25 - “Nevertheless” = “Moreover”

          - Even Elnathan is discomforted with the king’s action.

           - “whom” = Zedekiah

26 - “Hammelech” - Not a proper name, should be “the king”.

          - “...the LORD hid them” - Ps 105:14, 15 for Jehoiakim.

THIRTY-THIRD PROPHECY

27 - “...in the words” = “...the very words” - The burning immediately followed by “the word” coming to Jeremiah. The “consuming fire” of Deu 4:24 cannot be consumed by fire.

28 - “another roll” - The one found by Nehemiah when he visited the temple ruins.

29 - “thou shalt say” - Not verbally to the king, but in the scroll since Jeremiah was in hiding.

30, 31 - Jehoiakim’s judgment pronounced.

          - “none to sit” - His son reigned only 3 months in Jerusalem (2 Ki 24:8).

32 - “like words” - Include to complete the Book of Jeremiah.

Ch. 37 - Chapters 37 and 38 revert to King Zedekiah’s last two years (478 B.C.) during the siege of Jerusalem.

1 - “Coniah” - Also called “Jeconiah” and “Jehoiachin”

          - “whom” = Zedekiah

2 - “he...servants...People” - Total disregard of Jehovah’s words.

3 - Not unusual for non-believers to ask for prayer.

4 - “not...into prison” - See v.15.

5 - “Pharaoh” - Pharaoh Hopra, known by the Greeks as Apries of Herodotus. He came to Zedekiah’s aid (Eze 17:15-17) but was defeated. Egypt was also taken later (2 Ki 24:7). This was the cause of Zedekiah’s destruction. Eze 29-32 details this time.

THIRTY-FOURTH PROPHECY

6-10 - The response to the king’s request for prayer.

     (7) - “you” - Emphatic. The king has not bothered to show in person. He sent emissaries (v. 3).

     (9, 10) - The LORD emphasizes the surety of the prophecy.

11, 12 - “to separate himself thence” - Jeremiah went to Anathoth, his home, about 3 ½ miles NE of Jerusalem.

          - “in the midst” - To conceal himself from the angry king.

13 - Jeremiah is spotted and accused of defecting.

          - “gate of Benjamin” - The north gate leading to Anathoth.

14 - “princes” - Named in 38:1.

15 - “smote” = “scourged”

          - “prison” = “the house of bonds”

          - “the prison” = “the house of detention”

16 - “When” = “For”

          - “dungeon” = Heb. “bor” = “house of the pit”

          - “cabins” = “cells”

17 - The fearful king asks, Jeremiah answers.

18, 19 - “offended” = “sinned”

          - “your prophets” - Not the LORD’s.

20 - Jeremiah requests better conditions.

21 - “prison” = “guard house”

          - “piece of bread” = “cake” A day’s ration for soldiers was 3 cakes (See Lk 11:5).

          - “remained” - Until 38:28

Ch. 38:1 - The princes of 37:14.

2, 3 - The prophecy recounted.

4 - They demand Jeremiah’s execution without making a criminal charge.

          - "the princes" - See Eze 11:1-4         

5 - Cowardly Zedekiah “washes his hands”.

6 - Jeremiah is put into a miry pit while Zedekiah (spiritually) sinks into his own miry pit.

          - “Hammelech” = “the king”

7-9 - Ebed-melech serves as intercessor and comes to Jeremiah’s defense.

     (7, 8) - “eunuch” - A chamberlain. Because of his position in the palace, he heard what had been done to Jeremiah and left the palace to find the king.

                    - “spake to the king” - Only allowed because the king was “sitting in the gate”, i.e., in public. Within the palace, a eunuch would have needed a formal request and permission to approach the king.

     (9) - The Ethiopian warns the double-minded king that Jeremiah might die in the dungeon.

10 - Zedekiah, after permitting Jeremiah’s imprisonment (v. 5), now orders his release from the pit.

          - “thirty men” - For fear of the princes.

11, 12 - Jeremiah is lifted out of the mire with old castoff clothing to protect his armpits.

13 - Jeremiah is remanded back to the house of detention.

14 - “third entry” - An inner door used for secrecy.

15 - Jeremiah is hesitant to answer.

          - The last clause is not a question. “wilt thou not” should be “thou wilt not”.

16 - “May He Who gave us both our lives take mine away if I take thine or give thee...”

17, 18 - The choices and the consequences of each choice.  

19 - The ever fearful king dreads being handed over to and mocked by the Jews already in captivity.

20 - Jeremiah tells Zedekiah that his fears are unfounded and he still has a chance to obey the LORD.

21 - “But if...” - Alternative again presented.

22 - “princes” - Nebuchadnezzar didn’t arrive until later (39:1).

          - “set thee on” = “persuaded thee”

23 - “Thou shalt cause...burned” should be “thou wilt burn”.

24 -27 - The king is now afraid of the princes.

     (24) - “Let no man know...” - A new condition added to v. 16.

     (25, 26) -  The king now puts his words into the mouth of the LORD’s prophet.

     (27) - “matter not perceived” - The king’s words effectively dealt with the princes, not Jehovah.

28 - “abode...until...” - Jeremiah taken to Ramah later (40:1-4)

Ch. 39:1 - “ninth year” - 479 B.C., tenth month and tenth day (52:4)

2 - “eleventh year” - 477 B.C.

          - “broken up” - See 52:6  and note that famine had already set prior to this time.

3- “princes of the King Of Babylon” - Not six names. Four names, two titles.

          - “Rabsaris” = chief of chamberlains

          - “Rab-mag” = chief of the magi

          - “middle gate” - The gate with a huge tower for defense of the north. Used for military planning sessions.

4 - Zedekiah flees by night.

          - “the gate...” - The dung gate at the southern end.

          - “the plain” - Necessary to avoid the Jordan river.

5 - Jericho - Site of Israel’s first victory (Jos 6) and final defeat.

          - Riblah - Chaldean headquarters. The same place where Pharaoh-nechoh had put Jehoahaz in bonds to be taken to Egypt (2 Ki 23:31-33).

          - “gave judgment” = “pronounced sentence” - For the crime of perjury ( 2 Chron 36:10-13).

6, 7 - The last thing Zedekiah is allowed to see is the slaying of his sons.

          (7) - “put out his eyes” - See Eze 12:13

                - “with chains” = A pair of leg irons. See 52:11.

8 -“burned...” - Tenth day, fifth month. Exactly one month after v. 2. See 52:12, 13.

             NOTE: The same date that the Romans captured the city in 69 A.D.

9 - “the guard” - The king’s executioners.

10 - The poor (“impoverished”) inherit land.

11-14 - Nebuchadnezzar commands Jeremiah’s liberation.

     (12) - “look well” - A prophet rejected by the Jews is honored by the Gentiles.

     (14) - “carry him home” - Not directly. Detailed in chapter 40.

THIRTY-FIFTH PROPHECY

15 - Soon after Jeremiah was liberated from the pit.

16-18 - The LORD’s promise to Ebed-melech.

     (18) - “because...” - The basis of deliverance.

THIRTY-SIXTH PROPHECY

Ch. 40:1 - “from Ramah” - Jeremiah had been taken north with the other captives before being set free.

2-4 - Nebuzar-adan takes all the credit for Jeremiah’s freedom (“I loose...”).

5, 6 - “Now while...back” = Before Jeremiah could even respond.

          - “Gedaliah” - son of Ahikam (26:24)         

          - “reward” = “gift”

          - Mizpah - North of Jerusalem, near Anathoth. The site of a fortress built by king Asa (41:9 where “pit” = “cistern”).

7 - “captains...men” - The remainder of The Jews’ armed forces.

          - “governor” - No more king due to Zedekiah’s perjury.

8 - TEACHER’S NOTE: The name of Ishmael has the Divine name “El” obliterated in the manuscripts by the Massorites (the authorized custodians of the Sacred Text) due to his abominable behavior. The memory of his treachery was perpetuated by a fast in the seventh month (Zec 7:5, 8:19).

          - “sons of Kareah” should be “son of Kareah”

9, 10 - Gedaliah reaches out to restore normalcy.

11, 12 - The repatriation begins as many return to the land.

13, 14 - Gedaliah is warned by the officers that Ishmael has been commissioned by the Ammonites to assassinate him, but doesn’t believe it.

15 - Johanan secretly appeals to the governor to be allowed to slay Ishmael to avoid angering the Chaldeans.

16 - Gedaliah remains unconvinced.

Ch. 41:1 - Eleven men, Ishmael and 10 others, come to dine with the governor.

2-4 - A bloodbath ensues. Ishmael leaves no witnesses. It remains secret for two days.

5 - The 3rd day 80 pilgrims approach with meal offerings for the feast of unleavened bread on the 15th.

6 - Ishmael leaves to intercept them and pretends to be in mourning.

7 - Ishmael escorts them into Mizpah and kills 70 of the pilgrims. He disposes of their bodies in a “pit”.

8 - Ishmael’s greed causes him to spare the lives of ten of the pilgrims.

9 - “pit” = “cistern” - Too many to bury. Burning would be noticed from afar.

          - “because of” should be “besides”

          - “was it” should be “was a large pit which” (See 2 Chron 16:6).

10 - “king’s daughters” = Zedekiah’s daughters (his sons were slain in 39:16).

          - “departed...” - Ishmael goes to get paid and find refuge.

11, 12 - Johanan finally discovers Ishmael’s treachery and successfully sets out to overtake him.

13, 14 - The captives are rescued.

15 - “eight men” - Ishmael lost 2 of his men during the liberation of the captives. Ishmael escapes to the Ammonites.

16, 17 - “habitation” = Chald. “Khan” Only occ. = “inn” - Near where Joseph and Mary could “find no room”.

          - the captives and their liberators head back to Mizpah intent upon making their way to Egypt.

18 - Their fear of Nebuchadnezzar’s reaction to the murder of his appointee spurred them to flight.

Ch. 42 - Chapter 41 details Ishmael’s treachery. Chapter 42 details Johanan’s disobedience.

1 - “Jezaniah” - Called “Azariah” in 43:2. Mentioned because he became a catalyst to disobedience.

2 - “beseech”, “supplication”, “pray”  - The properly spoken words

          - “thy” should be “our” here and v. 3.

          - “a few” - Parentheses to indicate the attitude behind the words. See Deu 28:62

3 - More properly spoken words.

4 - Jeremiah’s promise.

5, 6 - More properly spoken words. The word “they” is emphatic.

THIRTY-SEVENTH PROPHECY

7-9 - Ten days later, Jeremiah returns with the answer.

10 - The LORD’s promise conditioned on remaining in the Land.

          - “build...pull you down...plant...pluck you up” - See 1:10. First 4 occurrences of “you” are emphatic.

          - “I repent...” - See Gen 6:6 and Deu 32:36.

11, 12 - Jehovah’s promise to abide with them, to “save”, “deliver”, “shew mercies”. He begins with instruction to “Be not afraid”. He ends by directly addressing their fear in remaining in the Land by promising mercy from the king of Babylon.

13, 14 - The promise conditioned on leaving the Land.

15 -18 - The warning from the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel (a pronouncer of judgment).

          (15) - “sojourn” - Contrasted to “abide” in v.10.

          (16-18) - Their faithlessness will result in shame and death.

19 - The longstanding prohibition against going to Egypt is flatly stated. See Deu 17:16; Isa 31:1

20 - The LORD’s omniscience reveals their hearts to his prophet.

21, 22 - Jeremiah speaks of their disobedience as a done deal (prophetic perfect tense).

Ch. 43 - 1, 2 - “Thou speakest falsely” - The speakers of the deceitful words of Chapter 42 accuse Jeremiah of lying...

3 - ...and betrayal.  “Baruch” - Closely linked to Jeremiah, therefore also accused.

4 - The disobedience of the People comes to pass.

5, 6 - The rebels take everyone else along with themselves, including Jeremiah and Baruch.

7 - “Tahpanhes” - The site of Pharaoh’s palace and fortress.

THIRTY-EIGHTH PROPHECY

8, 9 - “brickkiln” - A brick platform, called a “mastaba”, on the side of a block of buildings projecting from the fort used for conducting business. It was actually across a roadway from the entrance to the palace.

          - “in the sight” - An object lesson.

10 - This prophecy came true 5 years after the destruction of Jerusalem in 477 B.C..

11-13 - The LORD’s “servant” would conquer Egypt, destroy the religious statues and “go forth from thence in peace”. All fulfilled.

            TEACHER’S NOTE: There are details of this in Josephus’ Antiquity Ch. 10. 9, 10. A search of Egyptian history is fruitless since Egyptian history records no negative events. There are simply gaps in time. It is not surprising that scholars still debate over the identity of Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus. His humiliating death in the Red Sea (Ex 14:6 ff) preceded by the death of his firstborn (Ex 12:29) leaves him unmentioned by the Egyptians and simply creates a gap in their history. No amount of juggling dates and names overrides God’s choice to leave unnamed the Pharaoh He “raised up” (Ex 9:16) any more than He named the fish He prepared for Jonah.

          - “Bethshemesh...in...Egypt” - There is another Bethshemesh in Judah. (Jos 15:10).

THIRTY-NINTH PROPHECY

Ch. 44 - Jeremiah’s latest prophecy concerning Israel. Chapter 45 concerns Baruch. Chapters 46-51 concern the Gentile nations.

1, 2 - The LORD’s INFLICTION

3 - The LORD’s DISPLEASURE

         - Provoked to anger (incensed) by the incense.

4 - The LORD’s DISPOSITION

5 - Israel’s DISREGARD

6 - The LORD’s INFLICTION

7, 8 - The LORD’s DISPLEASURE

          - Provoked to wrath (action) by the actions.

9 - The LORD’s DISPOSITION

          - “wickedness” = “wicked ways” 5 times

10 - Israel’s DISREGARD

11-14 - The LORD’s FUTURE INFLICTION

          - “such as shall escape” - A remnant of the Egyptian sojourners (v. 28).

15, 16 - “their wives”, “all the women” - The women do the actual speaking for the People in a completely negative response to Jeremiah. Compare another time of disarray in Judges 4:8.

17 - “Things were better when we worshipped idols.”

          - “queen of heaven” - (Also see 7:18) - A title referring to Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess of fertility (also called Ashtoreth, Astarte, Isis, etc.). She was worshipped as the wife of the false god Baal (also known as Molech). Ashtoreth worship was fully involved in sexuality (fertility, procreation, temple prostitution). Since childbearing was of paramount importance to the women of that time, worship of this “queen of heaven” was almost universal among pagan civilizations. It became commonplace among the Israelites as well and disintegrated into attributing a natural, procreative relationship to the LORD. To credit Jehovah’s grace, mercy and forbearing to the “queen of heaven” was intolerable to the LORD. The very concept of a “queen of heaven” is idolatrous, and blatantly ignorant scripturally. Jehovah, Who is Spirit, the King of Heaven, has no need of or use for a “queen”.

18 - “Things are worse since we stopped.”

19 - “We didn’t do it by ourselves.”

20 - “all...and...all...” - Emphasizing that everyone should pay careful attention.

21-25 - Jeremiah’s answer. He begins with a rhetorical question.

     (21) - “them” = your families

                - “it” = the incense

     (22, 23) - “...because...Because...”

     (24) - “...to all the women” - Once again emphasized.

     (25) - “...and your wives” - They vow a vow. The LORD swears (v. 26).

26, 27 - The LORD pronounces judgment, swearing by the only One by whom He can swear (Heb 6:13).

28, 29 - The remnant shall bear witness to the sovereignty of the Word of God.

30 - “them that seek his life” - His own soldiers who revolted against him.

FORTIETH PROPHECY

Ch. 45 - Spoken in 496 B.C. (Ch. 36)

1 - Baruch - Jeremiah’s scribe. Son of Neriah. Grandson of Maaseiah, governor of Jerusalem during Josiah’s reign (2 Chron 34:8). Brother of Seraiah, chief chamberlain (51:59).

2, 3 - Baruch had lamented his circumstance.

4 - See 1:10.

5 - The question concerns Baruch leaning on his own understanding.

      - The LORD’s promise to Baruch.

FORTY-FIRST PROPHECY

Ch. 46:1 - Here through Chapter 51 are prophecies addressed to the Gentile nations to show God’s Word, sent through Jeremiah, as sovereign.

2 - EGYPT (Ezekiel 29 provides additional background)

           - Egypt addressed first as the place Judah looked to instead of listening to Jeremiah.

           - “...fourth year of Jehoiakim...” - 496 B.C. Frequently referenced in Jeremiah as one of the most significant periods in the histories of Judah, Babylon, Egypt and the world. This single verse highlights this fact. Four years earlier (500 B.C.) Pharaoh-necho, en route to Carchemish, had defeated and slain king Josiah at Megiddo. He then took Josiah’s son Jehoahaz (aka Shallum) in bonds to Egypt and set up Jehoiakim as king. This sealed Israel’s final rejection of the LORD (2 Ki 23:29-35).

3 - “Order” = “Prepare”

4 - “brigandines” = “suits of armor”

5 - After all their preparations the Egyptians are still terrorized to flight.

6 - Their flight will be futile.

          - “the north” - The LORD’s chosen place of sacrifice. See v.10.

7 - The question.

8 - The answer: The proud and powerful Egyptian army.

9 - “...Ethiopians...Libyans...Lydians” - The African mercenaries who comprised the bulk of the Egyptian forces.

10 - “day of vengeance” - On the Egyptians.

          - “made drunk” = “bathed” See Deu 32:42

11 - “take” = “fetch”

          - “for thou shalt not be cured” = “there is no healing for you”

12 - There will only be shame.     "mighty...against mighty" See 2 Chr 20:21-24

FORTY-SECOND PROPHECY

13, 14 - The LORD’s Declaration

          - “Migdol...Noph...Tahphanes” - Compare 44:1

15 - “swept away” = “laid prostrate”

16, 17 - The defeat will be as complete as the LORD’s display against the gods of Egypt prior to the Exodus.

     (17) - “noise” = “sound”

18, 19 - “daughter dwelling in Egypt” = The Jews who sought refuge there.

20 - “heifer” - A reference to (and feminization of) Apis, the Egyptian sacred bull.

          - “destruction” = Heb “kerez” Only occ. = “piercing” (i.e., the Babylonians)

          - “the north” - Babylon was east but would enter from the north from Palestine.

21 - “fatted bullocks” - Another reference to Apis.

          TEACHER’S NOTE: A fatted, or stalled, calf was kept confined in a small pen for life. Its inactivity maximized the weight and tenderness by resulting in incredibly weak muscles.

          - “did not stand” = “made no stand” - They didn’t put up a fight.

22-24 - The Chaldean Army

          - “voice...serpent” = “silently”. Snakes have no vocal cords.

25, 26 - “I will punish”, “I will deliver”

27, 28 - “Jacob” - the natural nation

                - “in measure” - As they deserve.          

FORTY-THIRD PROPHECY

Ch. 47 - THE PHILISTINES

1 - “before” - Therefore prophetic

          - “Pharaoh” = Pharaoh-necho after defeating Josiah at Meggido.

2 - “waters” - The symbol for Nebuchadnezzar’s army.

          - “men shall cry...” - Widespread mourning.

3, 4 - An invasion of such violence that fathers will desert their children. Mourning followed by feebleness.

5-7 - The sword of the LORD. (Deu 32:41)

       - “Baldness”, “cut” - Further signs of mourning.

FORTY-FOURTH PROPHECY

Ch. 48 - MOAB - Always hostile to Israel, they joined the Chaldeans during Jehoiakim’s reign.

1 - “Misgab” - The high fort.

2-5 - The Moabite principal cities.

6 - “heath” = “bare tree”

7 - Chemosh - Their chief god. See Nu 21:29.

8 - “spoiler” = “destroyer”

9 - “wings” - The only possible means of escape.

10 - “deceitfully” = “without diligence”. Judgment, as all of God’s work, must be thorough.

11 - “been at ease” - Since Deu 2:10-12 (1452 B.C.)

          - “stood” = “remained” - As undecanted wine.

12 - “wanderers” = “tilters” - A continuation of the wine analogy.

13 - “Bethel” - Because of Jeroboam’s calves. (1 Ki 12:26-30).

14 - The Moabites were as arrogant as the Egyptians.

15 - “spoiled” = “destroyed”

          - “gone up” - In flames.

          - “gone down” - In defeat and death.

16 - See Deu 32:35

17, 18 - “the spoiler of Moab” = Nebuchadnezzar

19 - “inhabitant” - feminine to correspond with “daughter” (v. 18)

20-25 - Moab’s judgment - “confounded”, “broken down”, “arm...broken”

          - “Arnon...Bozrah” = The cities named combine to encompass all of Moab (“all the cities”)

26 - “magnified ...against the LORD - ALWAYS leads to judgment.

          - “wallow” = “stagger”

27 - Moab’s recompense for its treatment of Israel.

28 - “dove” - See v. 9 “wings”

29 - 6 (# of man) terms for Moab - “pride”, “proud”, “loftiness”, “arrogancy”, “pride”, “haughtiness”

30, 31 - The Lord’s response to mighty Moab is to mourn.

32-36 - Places of Moab

     (32) - “Sibmah”, “Jazer” - Two fertile areas east of Jordan

               - “plants” = “branches”

               - “the sea” = “the Dead Sea”

     (33) - Desolation. Unfruitful land.

     (34) - “as an heifer” should be “the third Eglath” (Eglath-Shelishiyah) to distinguish from 2 other cities of the same name.

     (35) - End of idolaters.

     (36) - “pipes” - Instruments used for mourning at funerals.

37 - Outward signs of mourning.

38 - “housetops” - Where the Moabites prayed to their gods.

39 - “derision”, “shame” - Contrast to v. 29

40, 41 - “he” = “Nebuchadnezzar”

          - “eagle” - See Deu 28:49

42 - The reason.

43 - “Fear” = “Terror”

44 - “year of their visitation” - Prescribed time of judgment.

45 - “stood...force” = “limped”

          - “fire...Heshbon” - See Nu 21:28

46, 47 - The LORD will not make a complete end of Moab.

FORTY-FIFTH PROPHECY

Ch. 49:1-6 - AMMON

1 - “Ammonites” - Located North of Moab. See 2 Ki 15:29 - In 634 B.C. the king of Assyria, Tiglath-pileser, carried away all the tribes east of Jordan. Ammon took over the land formerly belonging to Gad.

          -  3 questions - The LORD does not recognize their claim on the land.

2 - “Rabbah” - Located in Gilead. Rebuilt 4 centuries later by the Romans as “Philadelphia”.

          - “daughters” = “villages”

3 - “hedges” = “fences”. Note “by” not “through” indicating no escape.

4 - “flowing” - with blood

5 - Judgment pronounced.

6 - As with Moab, the LORD will not make a complete end.

FORTY-SIXTH PROPHECY

7-22 - EDOM - Named for Esau, judged for unbrotherly conduct towards Israel. See Nu 20:14-20; Ps 137:7; Eze 25:12-14

TEACHER’S NOTE: The Book of Obadiah specifically addresses Edom and thus has correspondence with this part of Jeremiah. Notations are in red.

7 - Obad. 1 - 3 questions.

          - Obad. 8 - “Teman” - A grandson of Esau. Eliphaz (Job 4:1) was a Temanite, from a country named for his son, Teman (Gen 36:10, 11). The area was noted as a seat of wisdom.

8 - “dwell deep” = “attempt to hide out”

9, 10 - Obad. 5,6 - The LORD promises complete desolation.

11 - No condemnation for the wives in contrast to Israel in Ch. 44.

12 - “cup” - See 25:15

     - “...not to drink...” - The punishment of a nation necessarily includes some who may not be individually guilty.

13 - “Bozrah” - SE of the Dead Sea but not the same as 48:24.

14 - Obad. 1 ,2 -  (Jeremiah) - “rumour” = “announcement”

       - “together” = “out to war”

15 - The call to war is for their defeat.

16 - Obad. 3, 4 - “terribleness” = “monstrous thing” - A reference to the Edomite objects of worship (Asherah).

     - “pride” = “insolence”

     - “eagle” = “vulture”

17 - “desolation” = “astonishment”

18 - “overthrow” - See Gen 19:25

19 - “he” = Nebuchadnezzar

      - “from the swelling” - Lions often hid in the undergrowth on the banks of the Jordan.

     - “him” = Edom

     - “her” = Idumea

     - “a chosen man” = Nebuchadnezzar, the answer to the “who is” questions.

20 - “draw them out” - As an animal drags a dead body.

     - “habitations” = “(sheep)folds”

21, 22 - Obad. 9 - “fly as the eagle” - See Deu 28:49

FORTY-SEVENTH PROPHECY

23 - DAMASCUS - Representing all of Syria as its principal city.

     - Reports from surrounding nations have Syria terrified.

24, 25 - “not left” = “not restored”, or “not strengthened”

     - “joy” - See Jn 16:21 to understand the imagery of “travail”.

26, 27 - The pronouncement of destruction.

     - “Ben-hadad” - An official title similar to “Caesar”.

FORTY-EIGHTH PROPHECY

28 - KEDAR and HAZOR - Kedar (A Bedouin people, not a country) was named for a descendant of Abraham and Hagar (Gen 25:13). Hazor was located near the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf.

29 - The Bedouins lived in tents and thus would flee with their dwellings.

30 - The LORD’s advice to Hazor.

31 - The LORD’s command to Nebuchadnezzar.

      - “neither gates nor bars” - No walled city for the tent dwellers.

      - “dwell alone” - See Nu 23:9

32 - “that are in...corners” should be “that have the corners of their beards polled”. See Lev 21:5.

33 - “dragons” = “jackals”

FORTY-NINTH PROPHECY

34 - ELAM - A countryeast of the Tigris.

     - “beginning...” - 487 B.C.

35 - “break” - Elam will be debilitated.

36 - “scatter” - Elam will be dispersed.

37 - Elam will be dismayed.

38 - Elam will be destroyed.

39 - The destruction will not be permanent.

FIFTIETH PROPHECY

Ch. 50:1, 2 - BABYLON - This prophecy will be fully realized in the Book of Revelation. Compare Isa 13.

     - “set up a standard” = “lift up a flag” - Flags are planted by discoverers and conquerors.

     - “Babylon is taken” - See Rev 14:8; 18:6, 10, 21

     - “Bel”, “Merodach” - 2 names for the same national god of Babylon.

3 - “out of the north” - The Medo-Persians (Darius the Mede, then Cyrus) were NW of Chaldea.

     - “none shall dwell” - Must refer to a future time since it did not happen  at that time.

4 - “In those days” - Partially (naturally) fulfilled in 1948 with the formation of the nation of Israel. Spiritually, still future.

5 - “thitherward” - Proving Jeremiah was in Egypt at this time.

     - “perpetual covenant” - Still future. 

6 - “lost sheep” - See Mt 10:6, 15:24

          - “turned them away” = “seduced” - A reference to the idolatrous practices

7 - “we offend not...” - Contrast to 2:3 when Israel was “holiness unto the LORD”.

          - “Habitation” = “Pasturage”

          - “justice” = “righteousness”

8 - Removal

          - “go forth” - See 51:6

9, 10 - Invasion

     (9) - “assembly” = A gathered host.

               - “satisfied” - See 49:9

11-13 - Reason

     (12) - “hindermost” = “last” - The last of the heathen nations to receive this prophecy of destruction.

     (13) - “not be inhabited...” - Not yet fulfilled. Note 1 Pe 5:13.

14, 15 - Invasion

     (15) - “given her hand” - In submission.

              - “as she hath done...” - Rev 18:6, 7.

16 - Flight

17 - “scattered” - As well as “lost”

          - “last” - same as “hindermost”

18 - After serving the LORD’s purpose, Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon will be punished for what he has done.

19, 20 - The LORD will return those He has reserved,

21 - “Merathaim” = “Double rebellion” - A symbolic name for Babylon which was so founded, rebelling against both Sennacherib and Esarhaddon.

          - “Pekod” = “Visitation” - Another symbolic name indicating judgment. See “Sheshach” (25:26 and 51:41).

          - “destroy” = Heb. “karam” = “devote to extermination”.

22 - “destruction” = Heb. “shabar” = “breaking down”

23 - “the hammer of the whole earth” - A wonderfully descriptive name for the LORD’s usage of Babylon.

24, 25 - The “weapon” forgot to subject itself to the Weapon maker.

26, 27 - “utmost border” - All that Babylon had conquered would rise up against them.

28 - “vengeance” = “avenging” See Dan 5:17-28

29-32 - Pride- v. 24

     (30) - Pride’s price.

33, 34 - “Redeemer” = Heb. “ga’al” = “Kinsman-redeemer” - redeeming by payment.

         - “strong” = Heb. “hazak” = strong to hold fast

35 - “A sword” - begins 3 straight verses.

36 - “dote” = “be made to look foolish”

37 - “mingled people” should be “rabble”

38 - “A drought”

          - “idols” = “horrors”

39 - The land will be devoid of humanity.

          - “no more...for ever” - marking this as future.

40 - See 49:18.

41, 42 - “a great nation” - The Medo-Persians

               - “coasts” = “remote areas”

43 - “king of Babylon” =  “Belshazzar” - fulfilled in Dan 5:6

44 -46 - Compare Edom in 49:19

Ch. 51:1 - destroying” = Heb. “shahath” = “laying waste”

2 - “fanners” = “winnowers”

3, 4 - “Let not the archer bend his bow, nor stand up in his coat of mail” (to defend Babylon).

5 - Note Israel and Judah together again.

6 - “recompence” - For the evil done to Israel.

7 - See Rev 17:1-4

8 - “suddenly...” - Must be future. The present decline occurred gradually.  Rev 14:8; 18:8, 10, 17, 19

          - “take balm” = “fetch balm”

9, 10 - “We” - This use of the plural connects to the “Elohim” of “the LORD our God” (“Jehovah Elohim”) - The Covenant God of Creation. Note the phrase “:reacheth unto heaven”.

          - “lifted up” = “mounts”

11 - “kings of the Medes” = Cyrus and his successors. This portion of the prophecy was current.

          - “of His temple” - Babylon’s action as well as attitude (pride).

12 - “watch” - See Isa 21:5, 6.

13 - “upon many waters” - Rev 17:1, 15.

14 - “caterpillers” = “locusts”

          - “they” = the attackers

15-19 - Repeated from 10:12-16

          - The Sovereign God - “power”, “wisdom”, “understanding”

20-24 - Cyrus

          - “Thou” = Cyrus: Now the LORD’s “hammer”.

          - “with thee” - Used 10 times (# of order).

          - “break in pieces” = “beat down”

25, 26 - The pronouncement of desolation.

27, 28 - “Prepare” = “Sanctify”

               - “nations” - The LORD will gather together nations against the Chaldeans.

29 - The pronouncement repeated. 

30 - “her” should be “their”.

31, 32 - “post” = “runner”

               - “one end” should be “each end” - This was fulfilled when Cyrus diverted the Euphrates and entered Babylon by the dried up riverbed from both ends. (See notes on Daniel 5 for additional information).

                - “passages...stopped” = “fords (crossing places)...seized”

33 - The imagery of desolation for Babylon.

34, 35 - Zion speaks.

36 - “dry up the sea” - Done by Cyrus to breach the city. See notes on v. 31.

37 - “without an inhabitant” - Extends the prophecy to the future.

38 - “yell” = “shake their manes” - Lion cubs will sometimes pounce on twigs, clamping down on the twig with their teeth and shaking their heads as if it were prey. This is an image of Babylon’s loss of real power. Their pride makes them continue to feel powerful.

39 - “In their heat” = “While they are stirred up (inflamed)” - While they are aroused, the LORD will cause them to sleep. See Dan 5:1-4

40-42 - The wrath of the LORD will completely inundate Babylon.

43 - “no man dwelleth” - yet future.

44 - The nations “taken in” by the false god will be regurgitated.

          - “wall” - THE WALLS OF BABYLON - One of the original 7 Ancient wonders of the world.

       The outer brick wall was 56 miles long, 300 feet high, 25 feet thick with another wall 75 feet behind the first wall, and the wall extended 35 feet below the ground. Nebuchadnezzar fortified the double walls, adding another triple wall outside the old wall. In addition, he erected another wall, the Median Wall, north of the city between the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers. According to Greek estimates, the Median Wall may have been about 100 feet high. There were 250 towers that were each 450 feet high. They were placed along its outer and inner edge, tower facing tower, with a wide space between them (according to Herodotus “enough for a four-horse chariot to turn in”). Additionally, a wide and deep moat encircled the city. Eight massive gates led to the inner city plus there were 100 brass gates within the city. Streets were paved with stone slabs 3 feet square.

       The Euphrates River flowed through the middle of the city with drawbridges which were closed at night. The famed Hanging Gardens (one of the wonders of the ancient world) were maintained with water raised from the river by hydraulic pumps. Cyrus' troops diverted the Euphrates river upstream, causing the Euphrates to drop to wading level or to dry up altogether in some spots. The soldiers marched under the walls through the lowered water. The Persian army took the city by surprise through the 8 gates along the loading platforms, conquering the outlying areas of the city's interior while a majority of Babylonians at the city center were oblivious to the breach.

       Architecturally, the city featured the great Tower (“Ziggura” - pyramid-like structures) and 53 temples including the “Great Temple of Marduk.” There were 180 altars to Ishtar, a golden image of Baal (Bel) and the Golden Table (each weighing over 50,000 lbs of solid gold), 2 massive golden lions, a solid gold human figure (18 feet high) and Nebuchadnezzar’s palace which was once considered to be the most magnificent building ever erected on earth.

45 - Still today, to go out of Babylon is to deliver one’s soul.

46 - Compare Mt 24:6

47, 48 - See Rev 19:1-3

49 - “the slain of all the earth” - Conqueror Babylon will be added to all the nations it conquered. See Isa 14:16-18 where “lie” = Heb. “shakab” = “sleep”

50 - “go away...remember” - To leave Babylon is not enough if the destination is not proper.

51 - (Jeremiah) - “confounded” - Home no longer seems like home.

52 - Judgment on the “images”.

53-56 - The “spoiler”. “The LORD GOD of recompences” - The Hebrew reads “El (Almighty) of recompences, Jehovah. The dispenser of justice (“requite”).

     (55) - “destroyed” = “caused to perish”

57 - Superiority over mighty men.

58 - Superiority over man’s defenses.

          - “be weary” = “faint”

FIFTY-FIRST PROPHECY

59 - “Seraiah” - Brother of Baruch

          - “fourth year...” = 484 B.C.

          - “quiet prince” = “chief chamberlain” - On the journey to Babylon, he would have been responsible for preparing a place to camp.

60 - “a book” = “one scroll”

61, 62 - “shalt see...” = “shall look out...” - The reading begins.

63, 64 - The reading ends. The scroll is sunk as an object lesson.

             - “Thus far...” - See notes for Chapter 52.

Ch. 52 - HISTORY - Very similar to chapter 39, with additional details. Serves as an appendix to the Book of Jeremiah.

1 - “Zedekiah” - See 2 Ki 24:18-20

          - “eleven years” = 489-477 B.C.

2, 3 - Zedekiah’s overall deeds. His specific rebellion against Nebuchadnezzar.

4, 5 - “ninth year...” - See 2 Ki 25:1-21

6 - “fourth month...ninth day” - Exactly 18 months.

          - “famine” - described in the Book of Lamentations.

7 - See 2 Ki 25:4

          - “broken up” = “breached” - After the failed Egyptian intercession. See Jer 37:5-11

8, 9 - Zedekiah captured and taken to Nebuchadnezzar.

10, 11 - Zedekiah carried to Babylon, but never sees it. 2 Ki 25:6, 7.

12 - TEACHER’S NOTE: 2 Ki 25:8 reads “seventh” day. That was “unto Jerusalem”. Here it reads “tenth” day “into Jerusalem”.  

13, 14 - The destruction of Jerusalem.

15, 16 - Some of the “poor” (“impoverished”) taken, some left to work the land.

17-23 - The looting of the Temple.

     (21) - “cubit” - Approx. 2 ft.

                - “fillet” - A flat moulding.

     (22) - “chapiter” = “capital” - The weight-bearing crown on a column.

24 -27 - The executions at Riblah.

     (24) - 5 (# of grace) in this group of priests and porters.

     (25) - 69 ((3 x 13 (# of rebellion)) in this group of military men.

28 - “seventh year” = 490 B.C. The beginning of the second siege, the year before Jehoiachin’s capture.

29 - “eighteenth year” = 478 B.C. The second year of Nebuchadnezzar’s third (last) siege.

30 - “three and twentieth year” = 473 B.C. Four years after the fall of Jerusalem.

31 - “seven and thirtieth year” = 452 B.C. See 2 Ki 25:27-30.

          - “five and twentieth day” - When the order was given. 2 Ki 25:27 reads “seven and twentieth day” when the order was carried out.

          - “Evil-merodach” - Son of Nebuchadnezzar.

32-34 - “Jehoiachin” - Only here in Jeremiah. Elsewhere “Jeconiah” or “Coniah”.

         - “lifted up...” = “released”

         - “kings with him” - The kings of other conquered nations.