An Exposition on GRACE

The 2nd of the 4 Doctrinal Church Epistles. After Romans and before 1st & 2nd Thessalonians. Though chronologically the last of the 4 letters, it logically follows Ro 8:39. The "mystery" is revealed and Paul is permitted to add the second postscript to Romans (16:25-27). Romans explained "Christ in us." Ephesians explains "Us in Christ." The totality is contained in Jn 15:4-7. 


The epistle does not specifically address the church at Ephesus because it is encyclical, i.e., written to many churches. The oldest manuscripts do not contain the words "at Ephesus" (Gr. "en Epheso"), but have a blank space to be filled in. Colossians exhibits the same phenomenon and mentions an epistle to the Laodecians in Col 4:16. THISEPISTLE IS NOT LOST OR MISSING! It is the epistle we know as Ephesians.

IMPORTANT: To even entertain the thought that any part of God's Word is either missing or lost calls the entire Bible into question. If one part is lost, why not 38 parts? Which ones are they?

     - Most importantly, we would then make God a liar. Mk 13:31 is clear. If the Word is not whole, then Jesus Christ, the Word, is not whole. If Jesus Christ is not whole, then He cannot make us whole and there is no salvation (Gr. "soteria"). BEWARE LEAVEN! Do not give place to the devil.

We are warned about:

     - "good words and fair speeches"   Ro 16:18

     - "any other gospel"   Gal 1:8,9

     - "enticing words"   Col 2:4

     - "philosophy and vain deceit"   Col 2:8

     - "fables and endless genealogies"   1Ti 1:3,4

     - "foolish and unlearned questions"   2Ti 2:23

     - "fables"   2Ti 4:3,4

       MOST OF ALL: REV 22:18,19

 THE MYSTERY (Eph 3:1-12)

Jews and Christians/Gentilesare individually "called out" and gathered to form the church - the body of Christ, where there is neither Jew nor Gentile.


The six (#of man) chapters are evenly divided for all topics.

 1-3                                                  4-6

                       KNOWLEDGE                    WISDOM (application of knowledge)  

    OUR STANDING                                    OUR STATE  

            OUR POSITION                              OUR LIFESTYLE (walk)   

      CLOSED w/ DOXOLOGY                    CLOSED w/ BENEDICTION 


Chapter 1 consists of only 3 sentences. 

vv. 1,2

vv. 3-12


Ch. 1:1 - "by the will" ="not by merit"   Sets the theme of "Grace"

                 "faithful"=Gr."pistos"="steadfast" (as trustworthy)   

2 - "Grace"=Gr."charis"=Free, undeserved favor - Occ. 12 times in Ephesians

3 - "Blessed"=Gr."eulogetos" - Used only of God: Thanksgiving for something already accomplished. God is blessed as the object/source of blessing. Jas1:17

   - "spiritual blessings" The heavenly citizen has spiritual blessings, privileges, and promises - not carnal/material. This is not the O.T. prosperity and increase.

4 - "chosen"="chosen out"  A 3-step process by God:

       Accounting - Acceptance/Rejection - Taking to Himself

   - "holy and without blame" - A sacrificial metaphor meaning "consecrated and without blemish" as in Ex 29:1 and Lev 1:3,10

    NOTE: Place "in love" after "predestinated" in v.5

5,6 - "His will"   "His grace"

      - "made accepted"=Gr."charitoo"="treated with grace" Ro 2:29:8:14-16 

      - "Beloved"  (Heb. "David")  Mt 3:17

7 - What we have. What it cost. What it does for us. How it was funded.

8 - The ransom paid for us is a measure of God's wealth as a provider and supplier. Isa 52:3  1Pe 1:17-19

IMPORTANT: "wisdom and prudence" refers to the recipients (believers)

                          "prudence = insight placed into practice

                     Christians are endowed with higher knowledge. Col 1:9;3:16

9,10 - Continuation of the meaning of v.8. The "mystery" is explained.

       - "having made known"="In that He made known"

         Paul's emphasis is not the mystery, but its revelation (Ro 16:25) 

       - "hath purposed..."="set before Himself" (Gr."protithemi")

       - "He might"=Gr."anakephalaioomai"="to head up(for Himself"

Christ does not only reconcile Jew and Gentile, but also heaven and earth. The redemption in Christ is more comprehensive and universal than we commonly realize. Read Gen 3:17,18 and Ro 8:19-22. Sin impacted creation, not just man. Redemption must do likewise.

11 - "obtained" should be "received" - connects to v.5

         See Jer 29:11 and Ro 8:28-30

      "counsel of His own will" See Isa 40:13

12 - Place "who first trusted" after "we." A reference to those of the Pentecostal church of the book of Acts.

13 - Ro 10:17   1Pe 1:23   Jas 1:18 

      "sealed" -showing ownership, authority, authenticity, approval, protection, distinctiveness, security. Rev 7:3  Jn 3:33

     "that" = "the" (emphatic to show the dual significance of what follows)

     "holy Spirit"=One of 28 occ. "To Pneuma To Hagion" - The Spirit The Holy - The Holy Spirit Himself - here signifying that the Giver of gifts and power is Himself a gift. We are given the Holy Spirit and His power. (Compare receiving a car, but not the keys. Without the keys (prayer,devotion,meditation) many of us attempt to "hotwire" the Holy Spirit with a few hours in church on Sunday).  

     - "promise" = "the promise" Refer to Jn 16:13

14 - "Which...possession" enclose with parentheses

       - "earnest" - Not a "pledge." The thing given must be of the same kind as the thing assured. It must be a part of the whole, the same in kind. (Compare to a downpayment). See "firstfruits" Ro 8:23.

      - "our inheritance" - "His inheritance" is in v.18

      - "praise of His glory" - connects to v.6

15-17 - A prayer with a cause (their faith and love) and a result (the knowledge of Him) which can only be obtained when God gives the spirit of wisdom and revelation.

18-23 - The effects of the prayer (enlightment) and the elements of the result (knowledge).

        (18) -  Knowledge of "the hope of His calling"  Gal 4:5-7

               - Knowledge of "the riches of His glory". His inheritance in heaven will be the church. Compare Israel as a "peculiar treasure" on earth (Ex 19:5) and Mal 3:17. This requires "in the saints" to distinguish the two.

            See Titus 2:13,14 and Rev 21:9-27

The time comes when what we "know" = what we "hope for" 

      Compare Ro  8:18-30   Read 1Co 13:12

This is guaranteed by the "earnest" of v.14 which binds both parties. The gift of the Holy Spirit is an obligation on God's part. Ro 11:29 

        (19) - "greatness"=Gr."megethos" Only occ.="magnitude" Shown in v.21

                "according to..." connect to v.5 "according to..."

        (20) - "heavenly places" connect to v.3  See Mk 14:61,62  Lk 22:66-69

        (21) - "all" should be "every"  Note the list of 5(#of Grace) things:


Every area of authority (Gr. exousia) as in Mt 28:18 

                  "world"=Gr."aion"="age"   A reference to Rev 21:22

       (22,23) - "all in all" - "All things" and "the church" are added to the list from v.21 yielding a total of 7(#of Divine Completeness).

                  - Compare the Head/body relationship to the Vine/branch relationship of Jn 15:4,5. Note that the One seated on the right hand of the Father holds something in His Own right hand. Rev 1:12-20

                  - "fulness" - Members filling the body of Christ. Christ filling all ages and times. See Jn 1:1-3, Eph 1:10,Gal 4:4

Ch 2:1 - "And you..." should be "Even you..." connecting to 1:19 

IMPORTANT: Texts include "your" before "trespasses." We are not dead due to collective sins, but our individual sins (as referenced in Ro 3:23). 

2 - "Wherein...past" = "In which once" 

     "course"=Gr."aion"="age" as in v.21  See Ro 12:2   Jas 1:27

     "prince"="ruler", i.e. Satan

     "children..."="sons of disobedience"=sons of Satan    See Deu 21:18-21.

This is a spiritual reference. Not literal "children" (See Jn 8:44)

3 - "we all" - No exceptions  Lk 18:18,19

      This is the old nature vs. new nature  2Co 5:16,17    Ro 7:5,6

4,5 - Our salvation is through God's mercy and grace, never through merit. We are "made over" through the richness of His mercy to experience the riches of His glory. Connect Jer 18:1-6 and Ro 9:14-24

      - "His great love..."  1Jn 4:19 (Omit "Him")

6 - "together" - As we abide in Christ, so must we be with Him.

7 - Our condition (v.2) affords God the opportunity to demonstrate His grace and kindness.   Ro 5:6-11

8,9 - "through faith" - Grace flows through faith as water through a faucet which must be opened. The mere possession of the gift of faith is insufficient. If our faith is "turned off" the grace cannot be accessed (only mercy). hence, the use of "stedfast" in Scripture - Col 2:5   1Pe 5:8,9   1Co 15:56-58

(Note that grace is a gift and there is a reason that it must be a gift. Study 2Co 12:6-10 and Eze 28:12-17)

To illustrate grace accessed through faith, read Mk 2:1-5. If their faith had wavered at the sight of the crowd, at the thought of the carrying and lifting, etc., they would have "turned off the faucet" and not received the grace of v.5 despite God's power, willingness and availability to heal.

Mercy is action (vv. 4,5). Grace is a gift.

10 - The image of the potter from vv. 5,6 continues.

      "before ordained" - See Jer 1:4-7  

Our predestination of Chapter 1:3-6 includes our individual calling and determines how God divides spiritual gifts. 1Co 12:4-14

11-16 - Physical differences and divisions are replaced by spiritual unity.

        (11) - "in time past" connects to v.2 as the "old" vs. "new"  as the subject continues. Circumcision of the flesh is replaced by circumcision of the heart. Phil 3:3

        (12) - "without" = "apart from"

                 "without God"=Gr."atheos"="godless" See 2Ki 19:18  2Chr 13:9

        (13,14) - "now" Emphatic.  "sometimes" = "once"  "are" = "were"

                   - "peace" Christ is peace AND its Author and Prince

                        Is 9:6  Jn 14:27; 20:19,21,26

                   - "broken down" = "destroyed" Compare Lk 23:45 and Mt 27:51

                   - "middle wall" = Gr."mesotoichon" - A 6 foot high stone wall separating the Court of the Gentiles from the Court of the Jews in the Temple. An inscription prescribed death to Gentiles who crossed.

        (15-17) - "for to make" = "so that He might create"  See Col 2:10-15

                   - "making peace" connects to v.14

                   - "preached peace" connects to v.14

18 - "access" - the "introduction" of Ro 5:2

19 - Contrast to v.12  "foreigners"="sojourners"  Heb 11:13-16

     - "household" = Gr."oikeios" = "the domestics", i.e., live-in servants

20-22 - The description of the Temple (Sanctuary) built by God using the apostles and prophets to lay the foundation. Using Jesus Christ as the cornerstone. Using the saints "harmoniously" (Gr."sunarmologeo") framed together to complete the structure.

IMPORTANT: This is a reference to the thousand year (millenial) kingdom of Rev. 20 and the palace-temple of Eze 45-48.There will be no Temple afterwards. (Rev 21:22)

Ch 3 - This entire chapter should be enclosed by parentheses. Within the chapter, vv. 2-13 should be enclosed by parentheses. Similar to Ro 9-11, Paul releases his personal thanksgiving and inner feelings within the epistle.

1 - Paul describes himself as a bondservant assigned to the Gentiles.

2 - "dispensation"=Gr."oikonomia"="stewardship" - Our gifts and callings are entrusted to us. Read Mt 25:14-30 and note the phrase "good and faithful"

3-6 - "by revelation"  - A common disclaimer for Paul  2Co 12:1,7  Gal 1:12;2:2

      - "...wrote afore..." - See Ro 16:25

      - "the mystery" - Specified in v.6 - NOT that Gentiles would be blessed, as stated in the O.T., BUT that they would be equal fellowheirs with the Jews. Read Ac 15:1-33

     - "same body"=Gr."sussomos"="joint-body"-NOT added in, but part of a new body (Eph 2:15,16)    "partakers"="joint-partakers"

7 - IMPORTANT: Omit "a" - Paul alone entrusted with the mystery. Selected by the sovereign will of God, not by his own merit. (Gal 1:1)

8,9 - "The" minister of "the mystery" who once "wasted" the church (Gal 1:13) is humbled by the "gift of grace" of v.7

     - "less than..."=Gr."elachistoteros" - Used as a title for himself by Paul to describe what he was (old man) versus what he became (new man). See 1Co 15:9,10.  Read Isa 40:29-31 and note the regression from flying to walking as the natural man experiences the grace of God and exchanges his power and will for God's. Paul's description of himself in 1Ti 1:15 is noteworthy for saints.

     - "unsearchable riches" - See Ro 11:33.  Paul was entrusted to "preach" and "make...see" (enlighten). The direct function of all pastoring and ministry.

     - "fellowship" should be "stewardship" Same word as v.2.

     - "hid"=Gr."apokrupto"="kept secret"

10 - This ministry was designed to reveal God's wisdom to heavenly beings also.

     - "manifold"=Gr."polupoikilos"="infinitely diverse"  See 1Pe 1:9-12

11-15 - Introduced by v.10, the subject is the universality of God's plan and design. Extending beyond mankind to all of creation, both natural and supernatural.

       (11) - "eternal purpose"="purpose of the ages" -"Framed" by the word of God (Heb 11:3) where "worlds"=Gr."aion"="ages" and "framed"="prepared" and "the word of God"=Jesus Christ (Jn 1:1-3  Rev 19:11-13)

       (12) - Repeat of 2:18  "confidence"="assurance"

       (13) - "desire"="beg"    "faint"="be downcast"

The parentheses end here for vv. 2-13 and v.14 picks up v.1 by repeating the phrase "For this cause."

       (14) - Place a period after "Father." Omit "of our Lord Jesus Christ"

IMPORTANT: (15) - "Of Whom" connects to "Father", not to "Jesus Christ."

             - "the whole family"=Gr."pasa patria"="every family"

To limit this to the church is to wrongly divide the Word. "Patria" refers to an entire lineage from a single father. Some of the families of heaven mentioned in Scripture include principalities, mights, dominions (Eph 1;21;3:10), thrones (Col 1:16), angels and authorities (1Pe 3:22), and archangels (1Th 4:16, Jude 9). The earthly families include the nation of Israel, the church of God (1Co 10:32), the Israel of God (Gal 6:16), etc.

             - "named" - A right of dominion  (Gen 2:19,20   Rev 3:12)

16 - "according to..."  the keynote phrase for this epistle regarding God's sovereign will.      "grant"="give" (Grace)

     - "strenghtened...might" = God's innate power (dunamis) used to achieve a specific result.

17 - "dwell"="to take up residence" 

       "grounded"="founded" See 1Jn 4:7-19

18 - "able"=Gr."exischuo" Only occ.="fully able" To comprehend God's love in Christ

           - breadth - boundless

           - length - endless

           - depth - bottomless

           - height - measureless

19 - Joins v.18 to make the point of Chapters 1-3 leading to 4-6

        "to comprehend...And to know..."  Compare Dan 9:22,23

         Consider the weight of Pr 3:7 + 4:7

20,21 - A closing doxology (praise) for the first half of the epistle.

         - "exceeding abundantly"="infinitely"

         - "glory"="the glory"  Read Gen 18:14a and Jas 1:17 to personally explore living short of God's grace and blessings.

NOTE: "the power that worketh in us" - The indwelt Holy Spirit is the presence, power and consciousness of God in us. This is a direct link to v.16 and points to prayer as the "activator" for the Holy Spirit as faith is the "activator" for grace. This is best illustrated by the intense, repeated prayer of Jesus Christ in the garden (Mt 26:36-46) after the prayer of Jn 17  for the necessary "strengthening" to endure and stand fast. This is the "power of prayer." It is rooted in surrender (Mt 26:42).

Ch 4: The epistle moves from knowledge to wisdom (application), from our Position to our Practice, from Christ in us to us in Christ.

1 - "prisoner" connects to 3:1.    "vocation"="calling"

     We are called to a standard as good stewards of the gifts entrusted to us. We are ambassadors, labourers and servants as well as children and fellowheirs with Christ. Briefly stated, Christians must represent!

2 - The standard is defined.

   - "lowliness" - An attitude of humility   1Pe 5:5   Phil 2:3

   - "meekness"(Gr."prautes") - Gentleness (not powerless, but controlled)

        Mt 5:5 (from Ps 37:11)

   - "longsuffering" - Willing patience despite having alternatives

   - "forbearing" - Exercising longsuffering. The manifestation of the inner attitude.

3 - "Endeavouring" (translated "study(ing)" in 2Ti 2:15) - "Being diligent"

      The keyword is "unity." See 1Co 1:10-13 as a warning of the sects and denominations which have risen over time. See Jas 1:27 for "pure religion" versus our common understanding. Unity "in the bond of peace" as opposed to the divisions and strife which troubled Paul. We do not bond through peace. Peace IS a bond because we are united in Christ Who is our peace. (2:14-16)

4-6 - The list of 7 "one"s has 3 on each side with Christ in the middle as the "bond."

     (4) - "There is" should be "Ye are"

            "one body" See 1:10         "one hope" See 1:12

     (5) - "one faith"=doctrine    See Gal 1:6-9

            "one baptism"=the baptism of the Holy Spirit into the "body"

     (6) - of all, above all, through all, in all (omit "you") - Expressing sovereignty, omnipotence, omnipresence and the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (presence, power and consciousness of God) 

7,8 - "Every one of us"  Compare to 3:7 for Paul's "measure"

         NOT a contradiction to 1Co 12:11 re: spiritual gifts. the quote is from Ps 68:18 which reads "received" instead of "gave". The Hebrew word "lakah" has a twofold meaning of both "receiving" and "giving". Christ gave what He received, as we are to do with mercy, love and forgiveness (Mt 16:19,18:18). the risen Christ was given all power (authority) Mt 28:18 and functions in complete accord with the Father and Spirit.

9,10 - A parenthetical aside best understood as Jesus Christ fulfilling O.T. Scripture regarding the scapegoat (Azazel) released in defiance of the Evil One, freed by the atoning grace of God (Lev 16:1-10).

       - "lower parts..." = Hades (An unseen world inhabited by those in a state of death according to Greek thought).

IMPORTANT: Read 1Pe 3:18,19 where "preached"=Gr."kerusso"="heralded" (in triumph) AND Jude 6. 2Pe 2:4 defines the "spirits in prison" as the fallen angels of Gen 6:2,4. To avoid error, note that humans are NEVER referred to as "spirits" in Scripture. Christ published victory over sin.

      - "fill all things" (See 1:23) All gifts and all grace.

11 - apostles - Sent forth for special messages and errands

     - prophets - Receive inspired revelation from God to comfort, exhort, educate and testify

     - evangelists - Seed planters who bring the good news (gospel) with an emphasis on reaching the unsaved.

     - pastors/teachers - Shepherds/Instructors - All pastors must be teachers, hence the connecting "and". 

12 - A threefold statement on the objective of spiritual giftedness.

       No gift is for personal gain or glory  Heb 5:12 - 6:12

13 - The goal of spiritual giftedness - To attain full knowledge of the Lord.

            1 Co 13:9-12    1Jn 3:1,2

        - "perfect" = Complete, fully matured

14 - The mission of spiritual giftedness

       - "children" = Gr."nepios" = "not old enough to speak"

       - "tossed to and fro" = Gr."kludonizomai" Only occ.= "fluctuating"

       - "sleight" = Gr."kubeia" Only occ.= "fraud" (English "cube" as in dice)

       - "cunning craftiness" = "with subtilty"  See Gen 3:1

       - "whereby...deceive" = "with a view to a strategy of error"

             Read and understand Jas 1:5-8

Note: The Greek word "methodeia" is used only here and 6:11 ("wiles") in reference to the operations of Satan, not simply error.

15 - "Speaking the truth" = Gr."aletheuo" = "Truthing it" - Not just speaking truth, but living in truth, walking in truth.

     - "growing up"  See 1:22,23 and 2:21

The image of a child growing to maturity is applied to the entire church (body) as well as the individual saints. The body must grow to match the Head, or it will topple.

16 - "fitly joined" = "being perfectly fitted"

     - "compacted" = "knitted together"  See Ps 139:13 where "covered" = "woven"

     - "joint" = "ligament"  See 'bond of peace" in 4:3

     - "of itself" - The body (church) must not depend on outside resources.

17 - Paul makes a summary statement "for the record"

     - Omit "other"  Compare Pr 3:5-7   Ro 1:21-25

18 - "the life (Gr."zoe") of God" - Only occ. in Scripture. This alienation is from the resurrection life and eternal life.

IMPORTANT: This verse refers to ignorance due to hardness ("blindness") of the heart.

 Compare 2Pe 3:5  Contrast Lk 23:34  1Ti 1:12,13  Nu 15:28  Understand "eyes to see" and "ears to hear"

19 - "being" = "having become"

       "past feeling"=Gr."apalgeo" Only occ.="apathetic"

       "to work"=Gr."ergasia"="to pursue as a craft/profession for gain"

        Contrast this "work" with the "vocation" of 4:1

20,21 - Omit "the"  Compare Jn 14:6   Contrast Jn 8:43-45

22 - The old nature and behavior must be put away (Ro 6:6)

      "deceitful lusts"="the lusts of the deceiver" This refers to the devil, along with the "error" of v.14, as the enemy of truth. See Rev 12:9; 20:3,8,10

23 - Compare to Ro 12:2 where the "renewing" refers to renovation.

       This "renewed" (Gr."ananeoo" Only occ.) refers to redirection.

Another reference to the devil's battlefield - our minds  2Co 5:17; 10:3-6

24 - Only after the old man is put off can the new man be put on.

 One suit of armor cannot fit over another.

     - "is created...holiness" Should be "was created in the righteousness and holiness of the truth."

This is a pointed reference to the original state of Gen 1:27 and the circuit from Genesis to Revelation to return us to immortality in paradise. The "new man" is actually the original man as created by God before sin entered.

25 - "Put off", "Put on", now  "Put away"

         IMPORTANT - "lying"="the lie" as it does in Ro 1:25 and 2Th 2:11

     - "speak...neighbor" from Zech 8:16,17

       "for..." - As parts of the same body, we should not damage one another.

This verse encompasses more than honesty. Speaking the truth (which is Jesus Christ) necessarily includes witnessing. 

26a - "Be ye..." - Imperative statement. We are to feel righteous indignation when confronted with sin and evil. Our emotions are not sinful of themselves, hence the phrase "and sin not." (see FAQ) Christians are not to be led or controlled by feelings and emotions (flesh)

26b - Easily misread/misunderstood. "Anger" (emotion) is addressed in 26a.

        "Wrath" (Gr."parorgismos" Only occ.) is the effects/manifestation of anger.

        The imagery of the sunset, the end of the day, means that we are not to act upon, or respond in accordance with our anger - including its negative effects on ourselves.  Pr 19:19  Jas 1:19,20

27 - "place"="opportunity"   "the devil" - "the deceiver" of vv.14,22, "the lie" of v.25, "ruler of darkness" of 6:12.

IMPORTANT: This "place" is most commonly given by doubting the inerrancy of God's Word. Doubt is the devil's doorway (Gen 3:1-5). For these 2 verses, it points to strife and division within the body (Gal 5:13-15,19,20).

28 - Connects to the "redirection" of v.23 of the "work" done in v.19.Many criminals work as hard, or harder at their craft than those with legitimate occupations. The emphasis is on doing "that which is good"   Ro 12:13

29 - "corrupt communication"=Literally "putrid word" A reference to conversation which cannot nourish (edify) the body. The grace given ("minister") is the proper use of our giftedness (v.7, 1Co 12:7). The spoken word imparts our giftedness, is counted among our deeds, and we are accountable (Mt 12:35-37). The simple absence of destructive talk is not enough.

30 - Misuse of our spiritual gifts is doubly distressful to the Holy Spirit in His dual role as the Giver and the Sealer.

31 - More things to put away:

      Bitterness,wrath,anger,clamor (outcry),evil speaking (Gr. blasphemia),malice

      A list of 6 (#of flesh) things in reverse order of their typical appearance to simulate the removal of garments 

32 -What to put on:

       Kindness, tender compassion,forgiveness - To line up with v.27

Ch 5:1,2 - "Be ye..." Imperative as in 4:26

                 - "therefore" connects to " God..." in 4:32

                 - "followers"=Gr."mimetes"="imitators"  Ro 8:29;12:2

                 - "love"="Gr."agape"="spontaneous love",i.e.,without requirement, justification, or partiality    1Co 13:4-7

                 - "us" should be "you" in correspondence with 4:32

                 - "sacrifice...savour" - first in Gen 8:20-22

3,4 - "fornication"=Gr."porneia" - Includes harlotry, incest, and adultery within its meaning of "unlawful lust"  

      - "among you" - within the body

      - "filthiness"=Gr."aischrotes"Only occ.="obscenity"

      - "foolish talking"=Gr."morologia"Only occ.="buffoonery,silly talk" 

      - "jesting"=Gr."eutrapelia"Only occ.="vulgar repartee,ribaldry" 

      - "convenient"=Gr."aneko"="appropriate,befitting"

5 - "whoremonger"=Gr."pornos"="a trafficker in sex", particularly a male prostitute (See Heb 12:16 in reference to Esau)

   - "covetous...idolater" - See and understand Col 3:5

6 - "deceive"=Gr."apatao"="to cheat" (out of the inheritance)

   - "because of these things" refers to vv.3,4

7,8 - "partakers"=partners  read 2Co 6:14-18  2Jn 5-11

     - "darkness...light" - We are not just in the light. We do not just have a light. We are light. 

9 - Compare to Gal 5:22-24 (An aside breaking up the subject of 6-14)

10,11 - "fellowship"="partnership"    "darkness"="the darkness"

         - "unfruitful works of darkness"="the works of the devil" 1Jn 3:8

           Compare: "works of darkness"  Ro 13:10-14

                            "wicked works"  Col 1;19-22

         - "reprove"="convict,condemn"

12,13 - "the light"=the saints of v.8 "reproving" the works of darkness  Jn 3:18-21 

14 - From Isa 60:1,2 

     - "shall give thee light"="will shine upon you"

     - "Awake...dead" - Figurative language echoing v.11. See the double usage/meaning of "dead" in Mt 8:22.

15 - "See then" - Another imperative 

     - "circumspectly"=Gr."akribos"="accurately,exactly,diligently"

              See Mt 7:14   Lk 13:23,24    Deu 5:30-33

     - "fools"=Gr."asophos" and "wise"=Gr."sophos"=No 3rd option

16 - "Redeeming"=Gr."exagorazo"="to buy out"  

    - "time"=Gr."kairos"=a certain limited time/season/opportunity

To understand: We tend to value money more than time even though time is an irrecoverable asset. Assume that we receive $2400 each day instead of 24 hours. At the end of each day we must return all unspent money. We would quickly find ways to spend all the money each day. We are told to treat our time the same way.         See 2Ti 4:2 "instant...season;"

    - "because..." We cannot afford to miss opportunities to serve.  See 6:13

17 - Pr 4:5-7  "the will of the Lord" connects back to 4:1

18 - A key verse regarding the evil one and spiritual warfare

    - "excess"=Gr."asotia"="unsavedness"  The devil deals in excess/extremes. God is about moderation and self-control. The devil would have us practice intolerance or be totally permissive.He would have us never attend church or spend so much time in church that we ignore our other responsibilities (especially family).

19 - "yourselves" = "each other"

     - "psalms...songs" - Instrumental music, songs of celebration, and spiritually sung songs of thanksgiving.

     - "in your heart" - Aloud to each other, within to the Lord. 

20 - "always" = in every way, on every occasion  See 1Th 5:18

*******CRITICAL INFO*******

21- 6:9 - The fourth set of instructions in Chapter 5 begins.

            -"4" is the # denoting created works, the earth, things under the sun (as in seasons of the year). The four sets ("Redeeming" v.16, "Speaking" v.19, "Giving" v.20, and "Submitting" v.21) deal with our daily earthly walk, the subject of Ecclesiastes (note Ecc 12:13,14). Section 5 (# of Grace) BEGINS at 6:10 with "Finally" and CLOSES with the fifth action, "Praying" (6:18), to frame this section and connect it to Eph 1:8. It is prayer as part of our daily walk that puts us in position to receive God's grace. Without it, we are "short" at "4" instead of "5".

            - This group consists of 6 (# of man) relationship designations in a specific, hierarchical order confirmed by the identical series in Col 3:18-4:1. note the further correspondence between Eph 5:20 and Col 3:17 as well as between Eph 6:18 and Col 4:2. This is an indication from the Holy Spirit of the interdependence of these relationships. To wrongly divide the Scripture is to do Satan's bidding. This group is directly connected to the subject of spiritual warfare for this reason. To extract, quote, or apply Eph 5:22 as a standalone verse is gross error, a violation of Eph 5:21, and a rejection of the lesson taught in Jn 13:3-17.

21 - "Yourselves" brings the group of designations to a total of 7 (# of spiritual completeness). This verse provides the context for the rest of the section and acts as an umbrella of understanding for "submitting"

     - Sub/mission = Under the same mission, as one body

            See Phil 2:3-8  "Dominance" renders the verse impossible.

22-24 - WIVES

          - Carefully read 1Sa 25 (esp. v.19)

          - Understand 1Sa 27:3;30:5  2Sa 2:2;3:3   1Chr 3:1

      Despite being frequently portrayed as a heroine, Abigail's betrayal and denigration of her husband is not in line with Scripture and is not viewed favorably by God.

       (22) - "own husband" - Not a general male/female doctrine.

      Not to be separated from v.23, connected by "For", i.e., "because".     "as" is a qualifier.

       (23) - "For a husband is the head of the wife as Christ also is the Head of the church, He Himself being Saviour of the body." Not to be separated from v. 24, connected by "Therefore"="But"

       (24) - "subject" Same word as "submit"

                "as" is the qualifier to define the relationship

SUMMARY: Both parties in the marital relationship have specific roles. The husband is the Head.The wife is the body. The husband is Christ. The wife is the church. This relationship cannot be unilateral. A wife cannot submit "as unto the Lord" if the husband is without Christ-like qualities. Submission "as unto the Lord" asks obedience, righteousness, truth, etc. This is not possible if the "body" follows a "head" turned to iniquity. The definition of a "husband" in v.23 transcends legal unions. In addition to God's refusal to recognize Abigail as David's wife, we have other examples such as Scripture referring to Bathsheba as Uriah's wife even after her marriage to David (2Sa 11:27-12:15). In the role of Christ as Head of the church, the term "Saviour" (Gr. "soter") appears only here in Ephesians, not at all in Romans, Corinthians or Galatians.

A Saviour: Protects, Delivers, Heals, Preserves, Makes Whole

 A Saviour Does Not: Abuse, Neglect, Disrespect, Harm, Desert

A Saviour will sacrifice his own life if necessary.

        The word "But" begins v.24 to keep us from error. Marrying a "Clyde" cannot require a woman to become a "Bonnie."         " unto the Lord"

25-33HUSBANDS (covering)

The epistle crystallizes the vertical, in-line structure of God's design. Christ/The Word is the covering for the husband. The husband is the covering for the wife. (See 1Co 11:3 where "man"=Gr."aner"="husband" and "woman"=Gr."gune"="wife" when used in context with "aner"). When this design is misaligned, it causes separation. Note the difference between the Word Adam received (Gen 2:16,17) and what he relayed to Eve (Gen 3:2,3). Thus, Adam is held responsible for the ensuing events (Ro 5:12).

     (25) - "love"=Gr."agapao"= Show favor (love) without qualification,i.e., "because she is your wife" 

            - "gave"="gave up"   IMPORTANT: "it" should be "her"

     (26) - "In order that..."     "sanctify" - It is the agape love that sets the wife apart, precluding polygamy and adultery.

IMPORTANT: "and cleanse" should be "having cleansed

                     "...washing of water"=Gr"loutron"= the vessel, not the process, as in O.T. "laver")                 "by"="in"

An analogy to the sacrificial death and the blood of Christ, NOT to baptism. Think "covered by the blood"

    (27) - The concept of King-Priest comes into play.

                 See Christ (Zech 6:13) and us (Rev 5:10)

                PRIESTS (Lev 21:10-15)     KINGS (Esther 2:12,13) 

           - "not having..." - "spot"  See James 1:27

                                  - "wrinkle" = Gr."rhutis" Only occ. = A facial wrinkle as a sign of aging/mortality/corruptibility

                                  - "blemish" = cause for blame

           - "holy" - See "sanctify" in v. 26

    (28) - "wives" should be "own wives" as "own husbands" in v. 23 

           - "their own bodies"="themselves" as in Ro 12:1

As "one flesh", a united head and body, all emotions, words, actions, etc. are reflected between spouses. This love is manifested in accordance with 1Co 13:4-7.

29 - Omit "yet". This verse is gender neutral. "no man"="no one"

    - "nourisheth"=Gr."ektrepho"="to nurture,raise up to maturity"

    - "cherisheth"=Gr."thalpo"="to foster, to treat tenderly and affectionately"

    - "as...the church" - See vv.23,24,25   Review Eph 1:22,23

30 - "For" connects to v.29. TECHNICALLY, "the church" as defined in this verse, is part of the bridegroom, it is NOT the bride. The new Israel is the bride of Christ. The church is natural, the new Israel is spiritual. Hence the supernatural relationship defined in v.31.

31 - From Gen 2:24. Two being one flesh is impossible according to natural law. Marriage must therefore be a supernatural union which supersedes the parent/child relationship.

    - "joined"=Gr."proskollaomai"="glued to"

As Christ loves the church,His own body, so should the husband love the wife,his own body, and model himself accordingly. 

32 -IMPORTANT: "a" should be "the"

     - Paul's statement explains that he is equating the two relationships without declaring that the church, as the church, is the wife of Christ. The new Israel will be a further refinement of the church.

33 - "Nevertheless" - Don't let v.32 dilute the power of the information given in the prior verses.

    - "reverence"- As given to the head. See 1Pe 3:1-7

       Once again, the verse contains reciprocal instructions for both parties.

Ch 6:1 - CHILDREN - Gr."teknon" - A naturally descended child. This word does not indicate nor imply gender or age.

     - "obey" - Note Deu 21:18-21 and the reference to both parents

     - "in the Lord" - Qualifying statement. Obedience is absolute only to God Who will never require us to sin.

     - "right" = "righteous"   Pr 17:25; 23:22,24,25

2,3 - From Ex 20:12, the 5th (#of Grace) commandment.

      - "long"=Gr."euthutes"="with rectitude" (moral integrity)  Pr 20:20

4 - FATHERS (includes stepfathers in the same role)

      -"And" connects the reciprocal nature of the relationship

      - "ye" should be "the" 

 This instruction is specifically directed to fathers as are all Biblical references to parental discipline.

 See Heb 12:5-11  Pr 13:1,24; 15:5; 17:21

      - "bring them up" = "nurture"

      - "nurture" = "discipline"

The relationship between Jehovah (Father) and Israel (child) stands with natural examples in Scripture to give us lessons regarding fatherhood. 

     - A reflection of character - 1Ti 3:1-5

     - Using a "first offense" to set an example and a standard

                     Lev 9:23 - 10:11     Ac 5:1-11

     - Using rules (law) to bring the young to maturity - Gal 3:23-26

     - Punishing disobedience (without favoritism) - Nu 20:1-12   Deu 34:1-6

              Results of showing favoritism - Gen 37:1-4 ff

     - Showing patience - Judges 6:36-40

              Limiting patience - Ex 4:1-17

     - A lifelong responsibility - Ex 18:8-27

     - Provision - Mt 6:31,32

David, Samuel and Eli stand out in Scripture as godly men who were not godly fathers, with tragic results (1&2 Samuel)

SUMMARY: The Lord is the ideal father setting the model for the earthly father. The father/child relationship should not be contentious or argumentative. It is not a relationship between equals. Discipline is for the good of the child and should not be withheld. See Pr 19:18; 23:13,14 (These Scriptures do not dictate nor exclude corporal punishment).

      - "admonition"=Gr."nouthesia"= words of warning or rebuke

      - "of the Lord" - Fathers responsible for example and Scripture.

5 - SERVANTS -  A reference to position, not title.

 The 5th commandment in Ex 20 leads to the commandments addressing relationships with our "neighbors." Paul mirrors that structure by moving outside of the family.

      - "obedient" corresponds to 6:1. Christians should respect authority.

                            See  Mt 8:5-10   1Ti 2:1-4

      -  "according to the flesh" - There is but one spiritual Master.

      - "fear and trembling" - A phrase used to illustrate a lack of strength or power, a subordinate attitude

      - "singleness of heart" - without pretense or duplicity

6 - "from the heart" = "from the soul" - Christians are not to play the "good servant" role in the presence of the "master" while belittling, denigrating or mocking the master to others. The motivation for a good performance should not be promotion or financial gain.

7 - "good will"=Gr."eunoia"=benevolence as required by the nature of the relationship. See the only other occ. of this word in 1Co 7:3 where it refers to a conjugal duty in marriage.

     "as to the Lord" - Another qualifying statement. We are not to be blindly obedient if asked to do something against the Word of God, but otherwise, we must adhere to God's standards. See Col 3:17-24

8 - We should keep in mind the workings of God's kingdom 

   Mt 18:18  Gal 6:7-10  Eph 5:1,2  Lk 6:31  Mt 5:16  MOST OF ALL 2Co 5:10 

9 -  MASTERS (same as v.5) Gr."kurios" = One in authority /control/ ownership

     -"And ye masters" should be "The masters also" making the attitudes of vv.5-8 applicable.

     -"your Master" reads "both their Master and yours"

         Ro 2:11   1Pe1:17   Ac 10:34,35

10 - "Finally"=Gr."toi loipou"="Henceforth",i.e, after the information given in this epistle.

     - "my brethren" Omit

     - "be strong"=Gr."endunamao"="be empowered" (inherent power)

     - "power"=Gr."kratos" (effective power put forth to govern)\

     - "might"=Gr."ischus" (physical power)

There is NO aspect of our physical stature, condition or abilities involved in this discussion. This is re-emphasized in v.12.

11 - "Put on" - This is done after 4:24, which is done after 4:22.

 (The clothing under the armour is found at 1Pe 5:5)

     - "whole armour"=Gr."panoplia"="panoply"  See below at 6:13

     - "stand" - Position for ministry (seated position is for judgment Ac 7:55,56)

     - "wiles" See 4:14

12 - "we wrestle" should be "to us the wrestling is"

     - "flesh and blood...principalities" - Re-emphasis of the nature of the conflict and the need to rely on God'spower.

     - "against..." - The principalities are defined

         -"powers"=Gr."exousia"=authority, delegated power 

         -"rulers"=Gr."kosmokrator" Only occ.="world-rulers"

                        Omit "of this world"

         -"darkness" - The world condition of Jn 3:19

                             The reassurance of Jn 1:5

         -"spiritual..."="The spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenlies"

Note the correspondence to 6:10 to understand the nature of the warfare. Inherent power vs. delegated power. Governing force (God) vs. governing force (Satan). God has the ability to exert physical power over spiritual beings - Jude 6 Rev 20;1-3

 EPHESIANS 6:13 - “whole armour”=Gr.“panoplia”=“panoply” Consists of 7 pieces. Only 2 offensive weapons: sword and spear. The spiritual armour also has 7 pieces, with the Word of God as the sword and Prayer (v.18) replacing the spear. Of the 7 footsoldier types, only legionaries fit the description in Ephesians 6, complete with throwing spear.




1.Vexillarius -  Armour and helmet covered in bear skin. Small circular shield. Standard (flag) bearer

2. Auxiliary Infantryman - Light mail shirt & Gallic helmet. Stabbing spear. light, flat oval shield.

3. Signifier - Armour & helmet covered in wolf skin. Small circular shield. Standard (totem) bearer.

4. Aqulifer - Armour & helmet covered in lion skin. Small circular shield. Carries the aquila (eagle), the standard of the legion, defended at all cost representing honor. Position of high standing in charge of pay chest. Entrusted with savings of legionaries & officers.

5. Cornicen - Armour & helmet covered in wolf skin. Small circular shield. Trumpeter of the legion. In battle he would use his horn (cornu) to signal new orders.

6. Centurion - Armour varied widely according to individual choice. Leather, rings (torques), circular plaques (phalerae). Awards won in battle. Greaves to protect his shins, horsehair crest across his helmet, cape, a vine rod instead of a spear. An officer of considerable rank.


Isaiah 11:5, 59:17

The Messiah's panoply is not that of a legionary. The prophetic Book of Isaiah looks ahead to Christ as imperator.

IMPERATOR - Title given to a victorious commander-in-chief after a celebrated victory. (Root of the term “emperor” but not the same nor synonymous). A title of such prestige that legions were often bribed to call their commander “Imperator.”

Isa 11:5- 2 girdles - (God) righteousness for loins - physical, human

                                  - (Holy Spirit) faithfulness for reins - spiritual, Deity

Neither one sufficient alone for One Who was 100% man AND 100% God. His righteousness made Him suitable for sacrifice. His faithfulness kept Him on the cross to finish His mission - “...Having done all, to stand” Eph 6:13. In Eph 6:14, we have our loins “girt about with TRUTH”, i.e., the Word of God/Christ. We are therefore triple-girded by the Triune God.

Isa 59:17 - Righteousness as a breastplate & Salvation as a helmet ... Just like us. (underarmour) Clothed with vengeance (Ro 12:19)

   - We are clothed with humility (1Pe 5:5) first, THEN we put on Christ (Ro13:14). (over armour) Cloaked with zeal (jealousy) since Christ is covered by God (Ex 20:5)

In the post-war position as imperator, only the breastplate, belt, helmet and a purple tunic were worn. No offensive weapons needed. Christ Himself, the Word, IS the sword. As the Victor, the spear (prayer) is no longer necessary for Him. He is the Temple (Rev 21:22). No need for a shield: no more darts.

13 - "Wherefore" = "For this reason", i.e., the operations of v.12

     - "take unto you" - We must "take up" the armor. It is not innate. We must choose to armor ourselves at our will.

     - "withstand"=Gr."anthistemi"="resist" (the wiles of v.11)

     - "the evil day" - At all times, as in 5:16 and Gal 1:4. The evil day extends from Gen 3:14 to "the day of the Lord" (one thousand years as in 2Pe 3:8) Rev 19:11-20:5 ff.

    - " stand" - A reference to victory in battle, not merely putting up a good fight. 1Co 15:51-58       Note "stood" in 1Sa 17:51.

14 - "Stand..."  The call to resist. See Jas 4:17.

    - "having...girt" should be "having girded your loins." We must take the necessary action of "dressing" properly. 

"To gird one's loins" = To prepare physically, mentally and spiritually to face adversity. A reference to a time when men's outfits were skirted, requiring the skirt to be gathered by a sash or belt to facilitate riding, running or other strenuous activity. A preparatory step, hence first of the seven elements.

    - "with" = "within" We must be encircled by truth, hence "girt about"

    - "TRUTH"=Gr."aletheia" - That which is without error, deception, guile or falsehood. A half truth is a whole lie.

     See Titus 1:2 which literally refers to "the unlying God"

     Contrast the enemy - Jn 8:44 


Jn 4:23,24   2Th 2:7-12   Jas 5:19,20   2Ti 2:15

If truth is not in place, we have no righteousness, no gospel (Gal 1:6-9), no faith in God, and no salvation. If the enemy successfully overcomes truth, his work is done. If we are not properly girded, we will stumble in battle and, because the Word of God is truth, we will be swordless (Eph 6:17). Jn 14:6 lets us know that Christ is the truth. The risen Christ must be accepted into our hearts before we put on the breastplate which follows (Ro 10:9,10).

     - "...and..." - All pieces required for the "whole" armor

     - "having on" = "having put on"

     - "breastplate" - The protective covering for the heart (same as the Messiah's in Isa 59:17). See 1Th 5:8 for "faith and love" as a breastplate and components of righteousness.

     - RIGHTEOUSNESS - Gr."dikaiosune" = justice and equity in character, word and deed. Being right in line with God. From Ro 10:9,10 we see that it is our belief in the truth that leads to ("unto"=Gr."eis") righteousness.

 If our heart is not right we have no breastplate! See Ps 24:1-5. Those who "love not the truth" (2 Th 2:10-12) are ungirded and have no breastplate and no sword!

     - Why is the heart so well protected? - It is the enemy's target of choice. It is vulnerable to his darts (Jer 17:9, Isa 44:20). It determines how the mind thinks (Pr 16:9, 23:7)

The breastplate protects against:

            Doubt - Mk 11:23                Pride - Pr 16:5             Lust Ro 1:24

                   Rebellion - Jer 5:23             Fear - Isa 35:4             Hatred - Lev 19:17

                          Covetousness - 2Pe 2:14     Darkness - Ro 1:21      Unrepentance - Ro 2:5 

15 - It is the PREPARATION, not the gospel itself, which is referenced here.

       - "And"- Unbroken connection continues

       - "shod"=Gr."hupodeo"="bound underneath" - Providing a foundation and protection as one walks.

       - "preparation" = provision, making ready

       - "gospel"=Gr."euangelion"="good news", "good tidings"

       - "peace" should be "the peace" See 2:14 to understand

Our walk is how we approach our lives, how we conduct our lives.

See Gen 5:22-24; 6:9    2Sa 7:6

                       WE ARE INSTRUCTED TO WALK:

     In Christ - Col 2:6                                As Christ walked - 1Jn 2:6

     In truth - 3Jn 3,4                                  In the Spirit - Gal 5:16,25

     In wisdom - Col 4:5                              In love - Eph 5:2

     In the light - 1Jn 1:7                             In good works - Eph 2:10

     By faith - 2Co 5:7                                Circumspectly - Eph 5:15

     Worthy of the Lord - Col 1:10                Worthy of our calling - Eph 4:1

PREPARATION - We are made ready for warfare by the gospel. Jn 15:3 refers to a pruning process leading to Jn 15:8.

                                  - Our foundation is the gospel  Mt 16:13-20

The enemy does not announce attacks. The enemy does not take days off or call in sick. We must be prepared and armored BEFORE we find ourselves under attack or in crisis. The gospel/Bible/Word of God is not a reference book for curing spiritual ailments, though it is our best resource in hard times. It is rather a complete guide to achieving and maintaining complete spiritual health. Armor is not effective AFTER a wound has been received. Heb 5:12-14 references our preparation to utilize the armor which is provided. Our armor can be harmful if we are not prepared. See David in 1Sa 17:32-40 where the spiritual armor of God would have been compromised by the untried physicalarmor supplied by man.

16 - "Above" = "over"       "taking" = "taking up"

     - "quench" = "extinguish"  See 1Th 5:19

     - "darts"=Gr."belos" Only occ.="missile", something hurled

IMPORTANT - The ability of the "wicked'="wicked one" (Satan) to attack from distance underscores the need for accuracy in the depiction of the legionary. Legionaries were equipped with throwing spears instead of spears designed for thrusting. We will discuss fully in v.18.

SHIELD - Gr."thureos" - A large shield - From the Gr. root word "thuro" meaning "door","gate" or "portal". See Jn 10:7. A shield covers, protects and defends. Christ is a shield.

        - "faith" should be "the faith" - It includes:

            Salvation - Ps 18:35     Truth - Ps 91:4

             and Favour - Ps 5:12  which includes:

                    Life - Ps 30:5   Mercy - Isa 60:10   Victory - Ps 41:11

                    Remembrance & Salvation - Ps 106:4

        - God is a shield - Ps 115:9-11   Ps 84:11  Gen 15:1

                                      2Sa 22:3   Pr 30:5

With God, Christ and faith as shields, we are triple shielded as well as triple girded against the double missiles of the enemy. The ability of the shielding to stop what is thrown our way is insufficient if the fire is not quenched. Fiery arrows can destroy that which they cannot penetrate. Since our walk is on a straight and narrow path, we must have complete trust in our shielding to avoid being distracted or diverted and thereby caused to stumble (Ps 23:4).

    - Note the breastplate, shoes and shield in Isa 54:13-17.

    - Note that we are completely shielded in front, and not to be distracted. We can only do this because of Isa 58:8 where "the glory of the Lord" should be understood in the context of Jn 1:14. The enemy is not allowed to sneak up on us from behind. It is up to us to recognize him as he approaches. We must be well-trained and prepared as instructed in Heb 5:14.

17a - "And" - again connecting the "whole armour"

   CRITICAL - "take"=Gr."dechomai"="receive". Unlike the other parts which we must "take up", salvation is a gift received from God through His grace, not our merit or effort. (See Ro 6:23, Eph 2:8). This renders it impossible for the unsaved to be fully, or even adequately, armoured. (Consider the fate of a professional football player in full equipment - minus his helmet).

      - "helmet" - The defensive covering for the head/brain/mind.

SALVATION - Gr."soterion"=deliverance,safety,rescue,defense

     - Compare Jesus Christ in Mt 22:37 to the original O.T. verses at Deu 6:5, 10:12 and 30:6.

     - Note Pr 4:1-9 where wisdom and understanding lead to the ultimate replacement of the helmet with a crown for the victors (See 2Ti 4:7,8  Jas 1:12  1Pe 5:4   Rev 2:10). The super-conquerors of Ro 8:35-39 who fulfill Eph 6:13.

      - Note Hos 4:6 to understand why salvation serves as a helmet. The dominion granted by God in Gen 1:28 is not connected to our physical attributes, it is based on our minds. Those who are saved have the mind of Christ (See 1Co 2).

The message to us in Eph 4:14-21 is that the enemy is a liar and a deceiver. Our loins must be "girt about with truth" because:


The enemy's weapons of choice: Fear, Worry, Doubt, Guilt

Our instructions/orders:  2 Co 10:3-6

                                    2 Ti 1:7

                                    1 Pe 5:8,9

      Ps 140:7                  Mt 10:16

                                    2 Ti 3:10-17

                                    2 Pe 1:1-11  

17b - "and" - the "whole" armour continues with the 1st of our two offensive weapons.

       - "the SWORD of the Spirit"="the Spirit's sword", i.e., the sword belongs to the Spirit. It is grouped with the helmet because it is also a gift. There is only one sword because there is only one Word. It is sufficient for all of us, we do not need individual swords!

                                 Heb 4:12, 5:9, 10:10-18

       - the "word" of God=Gr."rhema"=the written utterance of God.

A sword is a close range weapon, requiring that it be readily available, sharpened and handled skilfully. We will learn directly from Jesus Christ being tempted by the devil in Mk 4 and Lk 4.

IMPORTANT: The sequence,circumstances and words differ between Matthew and Luke because they are separate occasions totalling 6 (#of man) trials. Luke 4 precedes Matthew 4. This corresponds to the 2 attempts the devil was allowed in Job 1,2 during one continuous period.

      - Note Christ's responses using the written Word. 

           Mt 4:4,7,10       Lk 4:4,8,12 (where Deu 6:16 is quoted)

      - Note the devil's misuse of the written Word

           Mt 4:6 where Ps 91:11,12 are partially quoted and v.13 is omitted.

           Lk 4:10,11 - The devil misquotes, leaves voluntarily to try again later.



18a - "Praying"=Gr."proseuchomai"="praying (to God)"

       - "always" - At any/all times,circumstances or occasions.

There are no restrictions on when, where or in what position we pray to God.

       - Persistence - Lk 18:1-8

       - Position/Posture -     Standing   Neh 9:5

                                        Kneeling   Ezra 9:5 

                                        Sitting      1Ch 17:16-27

                                        Bowing     Ex 34:8

                               Hands Uplifted   1Ti 2:8 

                                      Housetop   Ac 10:9

                                On one's face   Mt 26:39

                              In a fish's belly   Jonah 2:1

      - "all prayer" - Personal devotion invoking God's power

         Ps 109:4 - "I give myself unto prayer" literally reads "I am all prayer"

      - "supplication"=Gr."deesis"= A petition to God based on a specific personal object or need. Prayer invokes God's power and sufficiency. Supplication names a target.    See Phil 4:6

      - "in the Spirit" - We (flesh) connect with God (spirit) through the Holy Spirit

                                 Ro 8:26-37

PRAYING/PRAYER - The second offensive weapon bringing the total panoply to 7 elements (# of spiritual completeness). Prayer replaces the throwing spear (See legionary graphic above) and counters the darts hurled by the wicked one (v.16). The sword is for close range only. Prayer addresses what we may not discern because of time or distance.

Ex. 1.Esau's marriage to a Canaanite leads to Amalek's birth (Gen 36:1-12)

       2. Saul's failure to exterminate the Amalekites (1Sa 15:2,3,10,11,18,19)

                                3. An Amalekite (Haman) conspires to exterminate the Jews 700 years later (Esther 3-7)

18b - "and watching" - not to be separated from "praying"  Lit. "lying sleepless" as a night watchman   Eze 33:1-7

      - "thereunto"="unto this" (See vv.11-13)   Ro 13:11,12

      - "perserverance"=Gr."proskarteresis" Only occ.="persistence", "constant diligence"  See Ro 12:12

      - "all" - 3 occ. in this verse for the Triune presence among the 7 elements of the armour.

      - "saints"="the saints"  See Eph 4:1-13. The image of the watchman requires responsibility for others.

19 - Paul begins his personal signoff (epistolary) and benediction.

     - "utterance"=Gr."logos"="spoken word" Contrast to "rhema" in v.17. Note that Paul requests that the "logos" be given unto him.

       See Jn 12:48-50     Mt 10:16-20    Ac 2:4

     - "boldly"   See Ro 1:15,16

     - "mystery" - Eph 3:1-9

20 - In a remarkable image, Paul refers to himself as "an ambassador in a chain" for the sake of his preaching "freely".

     - "ambassador"=Gr."presbeuo"

     - "bonds"=Gr."halusis"="chain"

21,22 - Compare to Ro 16:1,2 where Gr."diakonos" is translated "servant" instead of "minister" as here and elsewhere. 

         -"Tychicus" - An Ephesian, with Paul during his 1st and 2nd imprisonments. Mentioned several times.  Ac 20:4  Col 4:7  2Ti 4:12  Tit 3:12

23,24 - The seventh occ. in Ephesians of grace and peace.

         - "sincerity"=Gr."aphtharsia"="uncorruptness" i.e., purity

         - "Amen"   Omit