The Servanthood of Christ
Service and Sacrifice

Behold My Servant, Whom I uphold; Mine elect, in Whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon Him: He shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. Isaiah 42:1


Psalm 36 has a superscription which reads “A Psalm of David the servant of the Lord”.

The Hebrew text actually reads, “Relating to Jehovah’s servant, by David”.

- The Writer

  • First name “John”, Surname “Mark” or “Marcus”, a Roman name. Mother’s name “Mary” (Ac 12:12). Cousin to Barnabas (Col 4:10).  
  • A companion to Paul on the first missionary journey and called “son” by Peter (1 Pe 5:13).
  • Wrote this Gospel for Gentiles in general, Romans in particular. Some Aramaic words are interpreted and Latin words not found in the other Gospels are present. There are 70 words which are used only in this Gospel.
  • Not one of the “twelve”, but definitely a disciple.
  • Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History, Clement’s Institutions (6th Book) and Papias the Bishop of Hierapolis refer to Mark as Peter’s companion/interpreter and credit Peter with sanctioning Mark’s gospel as a product of the revelation of the Holy Spirit to be read in churches. Other speculation as to authorship fails to address why it would be credited to Mark, a relative unknown, if he were not the author.

 - The Writing - Mark’s narrative style is energetic and rapid, suiting the perspective of the Gospel. Mark is concerned with actions and activities. We are told what Jesus did and how He did it. We are told what He said and how He said it. This is highlighted by the use of the Greek words eutheos and euthus (translated “straightway”, “immediately”, “forthwith”, “anon”, etc.) 36 times (26 times in relation to the Lord) in Mark compared to 5 times in Matthew, once in Luke, and twice in John.
           -The word “authority” (Gr. exousia) appears 7 times (1:22, 27; 11:28 twice; 11:29; 11:33 and 13:34). Kataexousia, the verb form, translated “exercise authority” appears in 10:42 making a total of 8, the number most closely associated with Jesus Christ.
    - The beginnings of things and actions are a point of emphasis in Mark from Chapter 1:1. The word “began” occurs 26 times.

- Jesus Christ as Jehovah’s Ideal Servant

  • ·        Begins with baptism and ministry without reference to pre-existence or childhood.
  • ·        No genealogy.
  • ·        No Sermon on the Mount.
  • ·        Addressed by others as “Lord” only twice (7:28 by a Gentile woman where it should be “Sir”, and 9:24 where it does not appear in any critical text).
  • ·        Written of by the Holy Spirit, through Mark, as “Lord” only twice (16:19, 20) after He had ascended into heaven.

 - Jesus Christ As A Man With Feelings

  • Grief - 3:5
  • Need for solitude - 1:35; 6:30-32
  • Fatigue, weariness - 4:38; 11:12; 14:36
  • Compassion - 6:34; 8:2
  • Love - 10:21
  • Wonder - 6:6
  • Composure - 4:38-40; 15:5
  • Anger, displeasure - 3:5; 10:14
  • Sighing - 7:34; 8:12


  1. 1.     The Proclamation Of The KINGDOM (1:14-20) 7 verses
  2. 2.     The Proclamation Of The KING (The person Of Jesus Christ) (1:21 - 8:30) 295 verses
  3. 3.     The Rejection Of The KING (8:31 - 10:52) 110 verses
  4. 4.     The Rejection Of The KINGDOM (11:1 - 14:25) 139 verses

Ch. 1:1 - “gospel” - The English word from the Anglo-Saxon term “Godspell” meaning a narrative (spelling out) of God, i.e., the life of Christ. The Greek word is “euaggelion” meaning “good news” or “joyful tidings”.

2, 3 - “prophets” - Plural because the quote is from 2 sources. Mal 3:1 and Isa 40:3. Both quotes contain the word “prepare” and are rightfully placed at the beginning of this exposition on the activities of the Servant.

It is characteristic of a Godly servant to prepare and to be prepared. All proper “beginnings” require preparation.

Actions and activities are preparation for subsequent actions and activities. Fasting, prayer, study and meditation are common ways to prepare.

See 2 Chr 30:13-20   1 Sa 7:3   Jonah 1:17   Jn 14:2, 3   Eph 6:15

NOTE: Those who choose not to prepare and claim to be trusting or relying upon the Spirit are at best, misinformed, at worst, a danger to the body.

4, 5 - “for” = Gr. “eis” = “resulting in”

          - “went out” - People went out to John (taking action). Jesus went to the people (offering salvation through grace).

          - “confessing” - Essential to repentance, which is much more than being sorry.

6 - “camel’s hair” - A woven garment, not a fur

         - locusts - A clean food Lev 11:22

7 - “after” - In terms of time. Confession precedes salvation. See v.4 and Ro 10:10. Even a gift requires the action of acceptance.

8 - “the Holy Ghost” = Gr. “pneuma hagion” = The power from on high.

9 - “...of John” - Compare Aaron’s anointing by Moses Lev 8:10-12, 30 and understand Jesus’ use of the word “fulfil” in Mt 3:13-15. Even as High Priest, Scripture required that He be sanctified by another.

10 - “up out” - Not sprinkled. Note “pour” in Ex 29:7 and read Ps 133:2.

        - “like” should be “as”


  1. WATER       Eze 36:25    Jn 3:5; 7:38,39
  2. WIND           Eze 37:1-10
  3. OIL               Isa 61:1   Heb 1:9
  4. FIRE             Mt 3:11    Ac 2:3
  5. SEAL            Eph 1:13; 4:30
  6. EARNEST   Eph 1:14
  7. DOVE           Mt 3:16

11 - “Thou art My Son, the beloved, in Whom I have ever found delight.” See Pr 8:30 re: wisdom and 1 Co 1:30 to understand.

12 - “driveth” - A much stronger term than in Matthew and Luke (‘led”). The True Servant is compelled to go where the Spirit leads.

13 - “wild beasts” - Only in Mark. The enemy knows that natural danger can sometimes blind us to spiritual danger.

         - “angels” - Same as Mt 4:11 where the Temptations are closed. Luke 4:13 is the close of the first Temptation (“for a season”).

Verses 14-20, only 7 verses, present the Proclamation of The Kingdom in this gospel focused on the Person.

14 - IMPORTANT: “put in prison” = Gr. “paradidomi” = “delivered up”. Occurs 122 times, translated “cast/put into prison” only here and Mt 4:12.  There is no Greek word for either “cast” or “prison” in this verse. John obviously could not yet have been put into prison. The disciples had not yet been called, and after the calling, in John 3:24, John was “not yet cast into prison” (Gr. “eis ten phulaken”). The “not yet” is indicative of some type of inquiry or process prior to imprisonment, hence being “delivered up” some time subsequent to the unofficial inquiry of Jn 1:19-27.

         - “came into Galilee” - Jesus was prompted to leave Judea as a consequence to what was happening with John the Baptist.

15 - The Ideal Servant steps up to continue and expand the message of 1:4.

          - time = season

          - “believe” = “believe in”

Casting... Mending  Mk 1:16-20 

            The type of net used in this scenario is a trammel net, which was actually composed of three nets, two large mesh walls about five feet high with a finer net in between so that fish attempting to pass in either direction carry some of the fine net through the coarse and are thus pocketed. These nets are kept vertical by floats on the headrope and, primarily, by weights on the bottom rope (groundrope). The boat went out into deep waters (but not here) where there are no rocks (here The Rock is present) so that the nets would not be torn. It was usually done by night (but not here). One end of the net was let down into the sea (Note that Simon and Andrew were “by the sea”). The boat made a circle creating a sort of tub in the water. The net gathered in every kind of fish, as they were unable to escape through the three layers of netting. Because of its design a trammel net yields a high rate of fish which must be discarded. When the fish were brought to shore, they had to be extricated from the nets and this took time and skill. The nets were spread out on the rocks (but not here) to dry and be mended if necessary. Only in emergency situations were they mended (should be translated “set in order” in this verse) on the boats themselves. Yet we find James and John mending their net “in the ship”.

            Rules for fishing were stringent. The fish first had to be sorted into clean and unclean fish. Based on Leviticus 11:9-12, fish with scales and fins were regarded as clean, but those without them, such as catfish and eel, were unclean. Then they were counted. Counting was necessary for tax purposes and in order to ensure everyone was paid fairly. Fish had to be sold while the water still remained on them (no refrigeration).

           Much of the catch was taken to Magdala (Gr. Tarichaea, which means “dried fish”), the center of the industry (home of Mary Magdalene). Most of the fish were salted for preservation, dried and exported to various parts of the Roman Empire. Then the fish would be packed in baskets for export and the fishermen would take it on wagons pulled by mules to shops in Jerusalem, or to a seaport where they would be loaded on ships and taken to Rome. Dried fish from Galilee was considered a delicacy among the Roman aristocracy. Fish from Galilee were also popular in Damascus.

           The ministry requires both those who “cast” and those who “mend”. Neither function can stand alone. We see the Lord working at unusual times under unusual circumstances. Fishing was very labor intensive, requiring fishermen to have a solid work ethic, focus and perserverance. We see the Lord displaying no interest in hirelings. This concludes the Proclamation of the Kingdom in this gospel of servanthood - the selection of workers (see Mt 9:37, 38).

Mk 1:21 - 3:12

The “exousia”, the authority/power granted to the Servant is exhibited 10 (# of order) times. It is first exhibited by teaching: the true purpose of each succeeding demonstration. Not only for those present, but for all servants empowered by the Holy Spirit. This section illustrates Phil 4:13 (where “strengtheneth” = Gr. “endunamoo”). Exousia is the right or liberty to put forth power which has been delegated from another source. Dunamis is power contained within which is capable of reproducing itself (Eng. dynamics, dynamite, dynamo, etc.).

The servants of God have the exousia to utilize God’s dunamis. The meek possess, but effectively moderate, exousia and dunamis by submitting to THE SOURCE.

Understand Numbers 12:3, Matthew 5:5.

1.     Authority to teach (1:21 - 22)
2.     Authority over unclean spirits (1:23 - 28, 39)
3.     Authority over disease (1:29 - 34)
4.     Authority over leprosy (1:40 - 45)
5.     Authority over paralysis (2:1 - 12)
6.     Authority over a government official (2:13 - 20)
7.     Authority over old traditions/religion (2:21, 22)
8.     Authority over the sabbath (2:23 - 28)
9.     Authority over deformity (3:1 - 6)

10.   Authority over unclean spirits (3:7 - 12)

21 - “taught” = “began teaching” in the character of this gospel.

          - Capernaum was the home of Peter, Andrew, James and John. Explains why Peter’s mother-in-law was nearby (v. 30).

22 - “He taught...” - With divine wisdom and authority, i.e., truth, the wisdom from above (James 3:13-18 and James 1:5,6).

            - “not as the scribes” - Jewish teachers taught according to tradition and usually quoted some other (human) teacher. This is still the most common approach in academics today.

23 - “their synagogue” - Hence, the lack of authority.

24 - The evil spirit (plural) speaks through the man (“I know...”) and declares the Person of the Lord. Even evil spirits discern spiritually and are fully aware of the presence of God. See James 2:19.

25 - “rebuked” - Only effective with Divine authority. See Jude 9 and Acts 19:13-17.

          - “Hold thy peace” = “Be silent”

26 - “torn” = thrown into convulsions

27, 28 - “doctrine” = “teaching” - Recognition of teaching does not imply receipt of the lesson. Teaching allows and assists learning. Learning cannot be forced or guaranteed.

29 - “forthwith” - Therefore still the sabbath.

30, 31 - Peter’s mother-in-law is ministered to and then begins to minister (Servants produce other servants as fruit). This stop was necessary before the events of the next day (see Gal 6:10).

32, 33 - “ even...sun did set” - Sabbath day ended at sunset and the news of v.28 led to an awaiting crowd.

                - “at the door” = “to the door”

34 - “devils” - Not just the one of v. 26.

35 - “...before day” - It was still night.

             - solitary = desert             prayed = was praying

36, 37 - “seek” - But why?  Note Jn 6:26.

38 - Unswayed by fame and popularity, the Servant maintains focus.

39 - Again, “their synagogues”

40 - “If Thou wilt”, not “If Thou canst”. The leper is a true supplicant, i.e., knowing that his request can be fulfilled. God’s response may be uncertain, but not His capability.

41, 42 - “compassion” - The Godly response to humility and faith.

43, 44 - straitly = strictly  See Lev 14:1-32. The objective was for the man to be a witness to the fulfillment of the Law, not a changing (Matthew 5:17-20).

45 - The disobedience of the former leper temporarily (See 2:1) restricts the ministry.

             - “the city” should be “any city”         “came” should be “kept coming”

Ch. 2:1- “after some days” - Delay due to the former leper’s disobedience.

            - “in the house” - Indicating that He had gone inside and was still there.

2 - “preached” = “was speaking”. The events described took place as he was speaking, not afterward.

3 - “sick...palsy” = paralyzed (Here, physically. By application, spiritually as well).

          - “four” = The “they” at the start of the verse. (4 is the # of the earth, created works, all things under the sun. Here it is the conscious, directed efforts of man as part of God’s creation working with God). The combination of 3(# of completeness) + 1(# of unity and beginning) is necessary to illustrate the required combined actions. Three would have been insufficient to carry the man, five would have been too many. Think of Day 4 of Genesis, 4 seasons, 4 basic directions, 4 basic elements (earth, wind, fire, water), 4 corners of the earth, etc. The power and willingness to heal would have remained untapped without the efforts of the four. Even with God’s abundant Grace, we need to put ourselves in position, physically and/or spiritually, to be blessed, just as we need to accept the offer and gift of salvation.

4 - “come nigh unto” = Gr. “proseggizo” Only N.T. occ. = “get any closer”

      - “press” = “crowd”.  A refusal to separate from the crowd (AKA “peer pressure) keeps many from Jesus.

      - “uncovered”, “broken it up” = Gr. “exorusso” = Literally, “scooped it out” (See only other occ. in Gal 4:15). The roof would have to be dug to make the necessary opening. A composition of mortar, tar, ashes, and sand is spread upon the roofs, and rolled hard, and grass grows in the crevices. On the houses of the poor in the country the grass grows more freely, and goats may be seen on the roofs cropping it. In some cases, as in this, stone slabs are laid across the joists. See Luke 5:19, where they “let him down through the tiling” so they had to not only dig through the grass and earth, but also to pry up the tiles. See Ps 129:6. Access to the roof was done by ladder or makeshift stairs. TEACHER’S NOTE: A thatched roof would not have supported their weight. The ladder/steps would afford little home security without the stone slabs. Of the various types of roofs of that time, only one suits all the relevant Scripture.

      - bed = pallet. In this case equipped with ropes to afford lowering it down.

5 - “their faith” - The dedication, perserverance and selflessness of a servant blesses others. If the effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much (Jas 5:16), how much more the loving and merciful actions born of faith? The faith of the paralyzed man is not mentioned here to make the point that we can loose God’s grace and power as faithful servants. This is a covering principal illustrated in 1 Co 7:12-14. We have no reason to doubt the faith of the paralytic, but God may respond to His servants independent of the faith, character or standing of whosoever may benefit. For example, this is the expectation we have when we pray for the salvation of an unsaved family member and bring them to church (Jesus). The four brought this man to Jesus to be healed, not to find out if he could be healed.

       - “Son...” - The proclamation of Deity leading to a typically ironic question from the scribes.

6, 7 - “scribes” - See Luke 5:17

           - The hardened heart recognizes the evidence of Deity but cannot accept it.

8 - He presents additional evidence through His omniscient knowledge of their thoughts.

             - “Why...?” - “Why don’t you just come out and ask?” (The hardened heart treasures the question and rejects and/or fears the answer).

9, 10 - “Whether” = “Which is”.  See Jn 10:37, 38.

             - “know” = “see”

11, 12 - See Luke 5:25, 26 where “strange things” = “paradoxes”

               - Witnessing the power of God confuses the natural mind seeking “rational” explanations. The Flood, the parting of The Red Sea, the darkness at the cross, etc. continue to defy “scientific” explanation attempting to exclude God.

13 - “resorted...taught” = “kept coming...kept teaching”

14 - “Levi” - Before the name change to Matthew (Aramaic meaning “gift of God”)

          - “at” = “in charge of”  Matthew, a government official leaves his job as the fishermen did.

15 - “his house” - Matthew’s house

          - publicans = tax collectors (A group hated by many due to rampant extortion, corruption and bribery). Note the words of  Zacchaeus, Luke 19:1-10.

16 - “scribes...” should be “scribes of the Pharisees”

          - “said” = “kept saying” - Note that they have yet to address Jesus directly, as in v.8.

17 - “heard” - Earlier “perceived in His spirit”. God will always use the natural abilities of His servants.

          - No true ministry without outreach. No true fisherman fishes in an aquarium.

18 - IMPORTANT: “used to fast” should be “were currently observing a fast”. Not a reference to the practice, but to timing.

         - The Pharisees finally address Jesus when they feel they “have something on Him” to show their “religious” superiority.

19 - “children...” - Refers to the guests at the wedding feast.

          - bridegroom - The Lord Himself. See Rev 19:9.

20 - “away” = Gr. “apo” = away from a place in distance and/or time.

21 - “new” = never laundered

          - “on” = upon, as a patch

        “new” = Gr. “kainos” = different in character, not time

The unlaundered (new) patch will SHRINK away from the old material, causing an even bigger split.

22 - “new” = Gr. “neos” = freshly made (new as to time)

            - bottles = wineskins

As freshly made wine continues to ferment to maturity it expands. An old, dry wineskin will crack as a result.

The new wine will OUTGROW the old skin and both the wine and the wineskin will be lost.

Seek God for wisdom as to the ministerial applications of these two principles.

23, 24 - This practice was customary for travellers. It was not stealing (Deu 23:24, 25). The only issue is the sabbath day.

25, 26 - Read 1 Sa 21:1-6 for the story.

              - “but for the priests” - See Lev 24:5-9.

                    NOTE: The partaking of the shewbread, (known as the “bread of presence”) by the priests, is the O.T. equivalent of Holy Communion (now for all).

              - “gave also” - David would have compounded his sin by including others.

27, 28 - Read Eze 20:12. Omit, “and”

                 - “Therefore...” - Lord over man must be Lord over the sabbath also.

Ch. 3:1 - “again” - another sabbath

2 - “watched” = “were watching”. The Lord’s servants are always under scrutiny. Here it is for a specific purpose. 

3 - “Stand forth” = “Rise up and come (to Me here in the midst)”

4 - “lawful” = “more lawful”. A simple question. No response.

5 - Action (looked around)

      -  Emotion (simultaneous anger and sadness). Note the imperative “Be” in Eph 4:26. Christians should not become “past feeling” (“hardened” Eph 4:19) but must not be ruled by emotion. It is significant that “hardening” is the cause of the Lord’s frustration. To believe that God’s servants should never get angry is gross error.

      - “saith” - Made whole by the spoken word. A sign of Divinity since Genesis 1.

6 - The reaction of the hardened heart.

7 - “withdrew” - Much too soon for the ultimate confrontation. 
          - to = toward

          - “great” - Emphatic here and v.8 regarding the multitude.

8 - “Idumea...Jordan” - South of Jerusalem

          - “Tyre...Sidon” - North of Jerusalem  (see map)

          - “did” = “was doing”

9 - The disciples are deployed to help maintain order.

10 - “pressed upon” = “were besetting” - to be healed. They don’t realize Who He is.

11 - The unclean spirits provide testimony in action and words.

12 - “charged” = Gr. “epitimao” = “laid a tax on”, i.e., rebuked under threat of penalty. Once again, not yet time.

13 - A meeting by invitation only.

14, 15 - THE SERVANT’S JOURNEY - have power

            - to be with Him - Like Enoch (Gen 5:22. 24)

            - to be sent forth - Gr. “apostello”

            - to preach - Like Noah (2 Pe 2:5)

16, 17 - The naming, not the appointments. The authority to name should be noted (Gen 2:19).

                In this Gospel, Peter, James and John form a group.

                - “Boanerges” - An Aramaic word meaning “thunder”. Here thunder is a reference to the voice of God, which has in fact, just named them. See Ps 29:3, Jer 10:13, Rev 14:2

18 - “Andrew” - “manly” in Greek. The first disciple called.

         “Canaanite” = “Zealot” - The Zealots regarded the presence of the Romans as treason against Jehovah.

19 - “also betrayed Him” = “even delivered Him up.”

20 - As before, the crowd surrounds the house.

21 - IMPORTANT: “friends” = “relatives”. His brethren and mother (see v.31).

          The servants of God may find that those close to them are discomfited or even embarrassed.

          - “beside himself” = “out of his mind”

22 - “scribes which came down” - A true enemy will pursue. 1 Pe 5:8

            - “Beelzebub” = Aramaic “Beelzeboul” = “The lord of flies”. Chief god of The Ekronites (2 Ki 1:2). The Jews changed it to “Baalzebel”, also spelled “Beel-zebul”, meaning “lord of dung (or dunghills)” to show contempt. It stood for the lord of all abominable idols; the prince of idols and idolatry; the worst of wickedness; the “prince of the devils”. Attributing The Lord’s work to Beelzebub graphically illustrates the word “blasphemy.”

23-27 - “said” = “began saying”. The Lord responds with 5 (# of grace) parables.

                (27) - “goods” = “precious vessels”, i.e., gold and silver

28-30 - These 3 verses comprise an unbreakable unit. A warning to the scribes who were present and to all since.

                (28) -“Verily” - always important, used only by the Lord. (Heb. “Amen”)

                (29) - “But” - To credit God’s work to the devil is unpardonable.

                (30) - “Because” - The Lord has admonished the scribes for their words. UNDERSTAND Mt 12:36, 37.

31 - “brethren...” - the “friends” of v. 21

               TEACHER’S NOTE: According to the structure of Scripture, the listing of the brethren first indicates that this was their idea.

           - “without” - It would be easier to grab Him outside.

32 - Students are usually easily distracted...

33-35 - ...teachers and servants must not be.

              (33) - A question for all who will serve.

              (34) - “looked round” - A characteristic of the Lord to ensure attention to the words which follow.

              (35) - “do” = “have done”.

WE ARE NOT TO BE RESPECTERS OF PERSON (external, natural characteristics). See Ac 10:34, Jas 2:1-10

WE ARE TO BE RESPECTERS OF STANDING IN THE LORD (spiritual characteristics). See Gal 6:10 and 1 Th 5:12, 13.

Ch. 4:1 - “again” - A customary teaching place.

2, 3 - “in parables” - Natural illustrations of spiritual principles


TEACHERS NOTE: This parable is repeated in Luke 8 at a different time and thus, worded differently. In Matthew and Mark it is preceded by the family visit. In Luke 8:9, the Twelve question Him about the parable (hearing it for the first time) followed by the visit from the kinsfolk (Lk 8:19-21). Here, in v.10 it is “they that were about Him with the twelve” who asked about the parable that the Twelve had already heard.

4 - See v.15. Some seed will be sown to no avail. See Ps 126:5, 6 Gal 6:9. THE SERVANT MUST PERSEVERE. There is no batting average for evangelism.

5, 6 - See vv.16, 17. “stony ground” = “a rocky place”.

           - “gladness” - Emotional, psychological and immediate.

           - “...for the word’s sake” - The truth of the verse hinges on this phrase.

           - “offended” - “caused to stumble” - Equally immediate.

                 No root (taproot), no foundation, “no depth”.

7 - See vv.18, 19. “among thorns” = “into thorns”

           - “choked” = Gr. “sumpuigo” = “suffocated by compression”. In this case, “the cares of this world...” have priority in the life of the believer.

They have not unburdened themselves to the Lord (Mt 11:28-30). They have not sought Him first (Mt 6:33). This is the prevailing state of Church membership. This middle ground between rocks and good soil yields trees without fruit. They are in place and appear to be healthy and leafy but on close examination offer nothing to sustain or grow the Kingdom. They receive the word, but allow it to be smothered by the cares, deceitfulness and lusts mentioned by the Lord.

8 - See v.20. “good ground” - properly prepared soil. The preparation is done by God. We can only plant and water (1 Co 3:6, 7). Note “increased” in v.8.

                           NOTE: We cannot discern good ground because we don’t know what God is planting. One plant will thrive where a different type has no chance to survive. The servant must sow and water and leave the rest to God.

              - “hear..., receive..., bring forth...” - the activities of the good servant.

9 - “...ears to hear...” - A Divine utterance, never spoken by man in Scripture. Introduced by “Hearken” in v.3.

10 - “alone” - relative to the multitude.

11 - Omit “to know”

         - “mystery” = “secret” - Only to be known by a few.

         - “without” - Outside of the “circle”

12 - From Isa 6: 9, 10. A reminder of prophecy to make them conscious of its fulfillment.

13 - Question answered in v.23.

14 - The explanation begins.

21, 22 - Light has not come to be hidden. Nothing can hide from The Light.

          - “was anything kept secret” = “does a secret thing take place”

          - “it should come abroad” = “it may come into the light”

23 - Step one. To hear.

24 - Step two. And take heed what you hear. The first time (Lk 8:18) it was how you hear.

             -  more be given - Literally, with interest. Seed is ministered to the sower, not the consumer.

25 - God does not waste resources. Mt 25:26-30.

26 - “seed into” = “the seed upon”

27 - The tense indicates a continuous process of sleeping and rising. Fruit is not produced immediately.

28 - “of herself” = Gr. “automate” = “automatically”. Man does not cause fruit to come forth. God “clothes” the grass of the field (Mt 6:30).

29 - UNDERSTAND: “putteth” = Gr. “apostello” = “sendeth forth”. The harvesting is done by man who is sent forth. Mt 9:37, 38 should be clear.

CRITICAL: Among the duties in the NATURAL world of the NATURAL man as SERVANT,  i.e., one who has presented himself as a living sacrifice (Ro 12:1), who has dedicated himself to the Lord, we find the responsibility, as HUSBANDMEN, to PLANT, to WATER, to PRUNE, and to REAP. From Gen 2:5, God gave man certain responsibilities/tasks. No amount of prayer allows the servant to avoid his assigned labour (See Ex 14:15, 16). We are called to be DOERS of His Word. Upon accepting Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior we are not immediately caught up to heaven. We remain here in natural bodies to serve in this world until our WORK is done. Servants who don’t work are not servants. Servants without a heart to serve are hirelings.

30 - “comparison” = “parable”.

31, 32 - Mustard Tree - Black Mustard - Brassica nigra

There are different kinds of mustard trees in Israel. The mustard plant was a common weed in the Israel of Jesus' time. Brassica nigra is a mustard plant that averages about 8 to 10 feet when mature and best fits the illustration.

  • ·         Mustard seeds are small round seeds usually about 1 or 2 mm in diameter. They are not the smallest of all seeds, but the mustard seed was the smallest of all the seeds known and used by those in Israel. Therefore, the smallest of seeds which would be “sown” (v.31). The Greek (“mikroteron”) actually denotes it as the “least” of all seeds, common and of little value.
  • ·         Mustard seeds range in color from yellowish white to black. 
  • ·         Mustard trees are actually evergreen shrubs. They are compared to “herbs” which are noted not for their size, but for adding savor.
  • ·         The root system consists of a taproot. The plant spreads by reseeding itself. An average plant will produce 10,000 seeds per year.
  • ·         During hot sunny weather the leaves have a tendency to wilt, but they quickly recover by nightfall.
  • ·         The mustard plant will put forth “great branches”, a reference to their fullness, not their sheer size.  IMPORTANT: “fowls of the air” is actually “fowls of the heaven”. This “greatest of all herbs” grows “great branches so that under its shade the birds of heaven are able to rest.” See Ezekiel 17:23, 24. For additional study, see Eze 31 to understand why Jesus invokes the lowly mustard tree instead of the mighty cedar. The Kingdom is not about something grand and imposing like a cedar, but rather something ordinary and common like a mustard plant. The mighty will be brought low.  In Ezekiel 31, the great tree was “exalted” due to its height and greatness.  Therefore, the Lord drove it out.  Its branches were “fallen”, its boughs “broken.”  The birds came to rest on its “ruin”.

33 - “able to hear” = “able to understand” Occurs only in Mark. See v.9

34 - “them” = “they” of v.10.

35, 36 - “same day” - Makes this different than the miracle in Mt 8:23-27, but the same as Luke 8 22-25.

37 - “storm” = Gr. “lailaps” = “squall”. The earlier “tempest” (Mt 8:24) was caused by an earthquake (Gr. “seismos”) AND was before the calling of the Twelve (Mt 10:1). This storm was after the calling in Mk 3:13.

          - “full” = “filling” - an open boat. In Matthew the boat was “covered” and therefore was a boat with a deck.

38 - “in” = “on” (Gr. “epi”)

           - “a pillow” - the wooden seat with some type of covering or cushion.

           - “Master” = “Teacher”      “perish” = “are perishing”

39, 40 - The wind AND the disciples.    “was” = “became”

             - “” - Then a question for those in His presence. Now a question for those in whom He abides.

41 - “What manner of Man...?” = “Who then is this One...?” - Astonishment at His authority.

Ch. 5:1  - “Gadarenes” - Earlier, in Mt 8:28 it was “Gergesenes” (originally “Girgashites” - See Gen 10:16, 15:21)

2 - “met” = “confronted” - The enemy will typically be there when we arrive. See Gen 12:6.

           - “man” - Earlier in Mt 8:28 there were two men.

           - “with” = Gr. “en” = “in the power of”

3, 4 - “neither could...” = “and no man was strong enough (physically or spiritually) to master him”

5 - “crying” = “crying out”

6 - “he” - the unclean spirit

          - “saw” = Gr. “eidon” = “recognized” (the man would not have known Him on sight).

          - “worshipped” = “prostrated himself” - a position of submission and subjection.

7 - Recognition by demons. Blindness in people.

          - “Son of the Most High God” - An astounding confirmation of the Person and Power.

8, 9 - “Legion” - A Roman legion was 3,000 - 6,000 soldiers.

10 - “besought” - First of 3 prayers in this section: the unclean spirits (answered “Yes” vv. 10,12), the Gadarenes (“Yes” v. 17), the healed man (“No” vv. 18, 19).

11 - nigh = just at

12 - “all” - See “every” Phil 2:10, 11.

13 - The unclean spirits, needing to inhabit a natural body, could only request to be sent into an unclean animal (Lev 11:1-3, 7). The resulting incompatibility caused a stampede.

             - “two thousand” - Explains the reaction of the Gadarenes to the economic loss.

14 - The swineherds bear the first witness. Contrast this telling to that of Jn 4:28-30, 39.

15 - “clothed” = Gr. “himatizomai” = “provided with clothing”. See Lk 8:27.

           - “afraid” = “alarmed”

16 - The observers bear the second witness.

17 - Their herds were lost. Nothing else mattered to them. To understand: It was not just the herds which were “choked” see 4:19.

18, 19 - “when He was come...” = in the process of leaving

                - “prayed” - The answer is “No”.

                - The healed man is sent on a mission in his own town to his own friends (Gentiles) to proclaim the works and love of God.

The impact of his testimony would be greatest on those who were familiar with his former state. Those who knew you before may be most impacted by the “new creature”.

(Missionary work is independent of distance and familiarity).

20 - Decapolis - Gadara was a city in Decapolis.

          -  The healed servant was obedient despite having received a negative response to his request.

21 - “much people” = “a large crowd”

22 - “synagogue” - Jairus was one of the rulers in the synagogue in Capernaum and was thus familiar with Jesus who attended there.

          - “fell at His Feet” - This could not have gone unnoticed by the crowd.

23 - “lay Thy hands” - See 6:5; 7:32; 8:23,25; 16:18

          - “that” = “so that”. Unconditional statement. Supplication assumes the power of the one petitioned.

24 - As Jesus leaves, the crowd anticipates a “big story” no matter what happens.

25 - This is the same woman as Lk 8:43, not Mt 9:20 where Jesus immediately saw the woman and the incident is preceded by a “ruler” whose daughter had already died (Mt 9:18).

          - “certain”, “twelve” - The lack of a name and the number 12 point to a type of the nation of Israel (the 12 tribes).

           - “which had” = “being in”.  An indication of the severity and dominance of the affliction.

26 - “things...physicians” = “treatments under many physicians”

            - “spent...worse” - When all resources are exhausted, there is still the Source.

27, 28 - “press” - This member of the crowd came as a believer.

            - “said” - Not “within herself” as Mt 9:21.

            - “If” - Conditional.    “shall be” - Unconditional.

29 - “felt” = Gr. “ginosko” = “knew”, “perceived”

          - “body” - At this point, physically healed, but not yet whole.

30 - “virtue” = Gr. “dunamis” = “inherent power”

           - “gone out” = “gone forth”. No implication that He was “drained”.

           - “Who...?”  - In Mt 9 He immediately addressed the woman. The question was designed to focus everyone on what might otherwise have gone unnoticed by most of them.

31 - “said” = “kept saying”. An indication that it took a while to identify the woman.

32 - Note that The Lord looked for her without an answer from the disciples.

33 - fearing...trembling...knowing...came...fell down...confessed - A six (#of man) step process.

She is not pronounced whole until the last step is completed. That is why the Lord needed to see her.

34 - “made...whole” = Gr. “sozo” = “saved”.  Cannot be done apart from faith.

35 - No matter what you hear, what the Lord begins, He completes (He started in v.24).

36 - “Be not afraid” - Understand 1 Jn 4:18.

          - “believe” = “go on believing”. True faith is not deceived, discouraged or dissuaded. It is rooted in God’s sovereignty.

37 - Time to separate from unbelief/unbelievers. See Mt 13:54-58, Mk 6:1-6. Understand 2 Co 6:14-18 where “yoked” applies to service/work. We are in the world, we have the Great Commandment, BUT we must recognize times and places that require spiritual accord.

38 - “to” = “unto”. The noise was audible from outside of the house. He enters in the next verse.

          - “wailed” - Jewish mourning cries (Gr. “al-a-lai, al-a-lai”) used by professional mourners who were hired by families.

39 - “damsel...dead” = “child has not died”

          - “sleepeth” = Gr. “katheudo” - Never used for death.

40 - “laughed” - The hireling “mourners” began laughing.

          - “put them all out” - The authority of the Servant in word and deed.

          - He takes 5 (#grace) with Him.

41 - “Talitha cumi” = Aramaic “Maid arise” (imperative, indicating authority over death).

42 - “...and walked” - Not simply revived, but made whole.

          - “twelve years” - Again symbolizing the Nation of Israel.

          - “astonished...” = Gr. “existemi” = “to be put out of one’s mind”, i.e., they were rendered speechless and motionless.

43 - “charged...straitly...commanded” - Again, the authority that permeates this Gospel.

Ch. 6:1 - His own country = His native country, Galilee.
2 - Compare 1:22

         - wisdom - See Ps 119:99; Pr 2:6 and Jas 1:5,6. There is no wisdom apart from God.

Exchange and repetition of man’s knowledge and doctrine reduces teaching to an activity instead of a ministry and represents poor stewardship over one’s giftedness.

The results of this are set forth by the Lord in Mk 7:5-9.

          - “mighty works” = “miracles”. Another usage of “dunamis”.

3 - “carpenter” = Gr. “tekton” = “craftsman”

          - “brothers” - Evidence that Jesus had at least 4 younger half-brothers and at least 2 half-sisters..

                       James - The author of the Epistle of James.    Jude - The author of the book bearing his name.

          - “with us” - The concept of Emmanuel (Mt 1:23) is lost on them.

          - “were offended” = Gr. “scandalizo” = “stumbled”

4 - “” - Concept contained in the English expression “familiarity breeds contempt”. A tendency to reject or rationalize what doesn’t conform to our established image of another person.

5 - “” = “was unable to do any there”. UNDERSTAND Heb 11:6.

Without the faith of those who carried the paralyzed man in Chapter 2, he would have remained paralyzed despite the Lord’s power and willingness to heal him.


6 - “marvelled” - The “what more do I have to do?” feeling is common to God’s servants.

           - “teaching” - The duty to perform ministry is not tied to its perceived effectiveness (Jeremiah, Ezekiel). Gal 6:9, 10.
7 - “called” (disciple)...”send” (apostle)

           - “two and two” = Gr. “duo duo”

          - “power” = Gr. “exousia” = “authority” - given, not taken.

8, 9 - Reliance on Divine provision for the servant. The Lord indicated that they were not to beg.

          - “scrip” = Gr. “pera” - A small wallet designed to hold writing.

          - “purse” - A belt or girdle with pockets for money or valuables.

          -  “not...two coats” - Don’t take a spare.

10 - Don’t spend your time looking for multiple, or better, places to stay. The house is part of the Lord’s provision.

11- “Whosoever” = “Whatever people” (plural) - A reference to a place such as Gadara, not individuals.

           - “Shake off...” - A common saying to indicate departing from a place or situation as a waste of time.

12 - Went out and proclaimed the Good News.

            - “repent” = Gr. “metanoeo” = Morally change one’s mind for the better. Its usage in Scripture means not only to forsake sin, but to free from its weight.

13 - “anointed” - See James 5:14.

14 - Despite the fact that John the Baptist performed no miracles while alive, Herod unwittingly expressed belief in resurrection. For the source of this belief see v.20.

15 - Elias = Elijah

16-28 - (See Mt 14:1-12) - Herod suffered from fear born of guilt. He had enjoyed speaking with John even though he wasn’t sure what to do about him. He actually kept John safe (“observed”) from Herodias, his sister-in-law who became his wife. She held a grudge (“had a quarrel”) against John and eventually convinced Herod to imprison John. At Herod’s birthday celebration, Herodias’ daughter (not Herod’s) danced. (Josephus mentions her name as Salome (Antiquities Book XVIII, Ch. 5), but makes no mention of the dance. She is unnamed in the Bible). Herod was so enthralled with her dancing that he promised her whatever she asked “unto the half of my kingdom”. She consults with her mother and is told to ask for “The head of John the Baptist”.

          - (25) - She comes “straightway” and “with haste” to request John’s head on a large flat plate (“charger”) instantly “by and by”.

          - (26) - “for...sake...sakes” - There are far too many “important” witnesses for Herod to renege. The request does not allow him to delay.

          - (27) - “an executioner” = Gr. “spekoulator” from the Latin word “speculator” = A member of the armed guard surrounding the emperor at banquets, a Roman custom adopted by Herod.

                         - John was beheaded in the prison. It would normally have been done in the King’s presence, but it is unlikely that Herod wanted to face John.

29 - See 14:12 for more. John’s disciples.

30 - “apostles” - First occ. in Mark. Compare this to Job 1:6, 2:1.

          - “...and taught” - Not limited to formal teaching, but referring to instruction and leading by example. A responsibility of all believers.

               See Heb 5:12 and Mt 28:19, 20 where “teach” in v.19 means to “disciple”.

31, 32 - Servants come together to set themselves apart (sanctification). Being “in the world, but not of it” requires time with the brethren. It is the idea of sabbath, rest and church.

               - “privately” - Not exclusively. No one was turned away.

33 - “knew” = Gr. “epiginosko” = “recognized”

34 - IMPORTANT: “because...shepherd” - The Lord had compassion for them because they were sheep who were aware that they had no shepherd, i.e., lacking guidance, direction, provision and protection. They flocked to Him.

         - “teach” - The primary task. See 2 Chr 15:3.

           - Moses - Ex 18:17-20, 24:12; Deu 4:14

           - Bezaleel - Ex 35:30-34

           - Aaron - Lev 10:11

           - Israel - Deu 4:9, 6:7

35 - “far spent” - The crowds had been there, after coming great distances, since before Jesus “came out” in the early morning.

36 - “send them” - Never done by the Lord. See Isa 55:1; Rev 3:18.

37 - “He” should be “But He” - The Lord says “Give” with an emphatic “ye”.

          - The question is, “Shall we buy and give?” Unfamiliar with the principle of Mt 7:7.

38 - The response is an implied “No” in the form of a question, followed by a command.

39, 40 - “by companies” = Gr. “sumposia sumposia” = An arrangement of 3 sides of a square, as in a Jewish dining room. Guests were seated on the outside and served from the inside. They were seated in companies of 50 and of 100. (Note the lack of chaos or confusion).

41 - “looked up...blessed” - See Deu 8:10 to note this change from giving thanks afterwards. The crowd made this impractical and the change remains to this day.

          - “gave” - Imperfect tense means “was continually giving”.

          - “to his disciples” - The true servant distributes what God provides/increases. See 2 Co 9:10 and Eph 4:11-13.

42, 43 - “all”, “filled” (“satisfied”), “full” - THE ABUNDANCE OF GOD.

44 - “men” = Gr. “aner” = “males” - Does not include women/children and thus is a multiple of 5 (# of grace). 

45 - “before” = “on ahead”

46, 47 - “them” - Both the people and the disciples were sent away. Why?

          - “pray...alone” - See Mt 6:6 - Your “closet” can be anywhere.

48 - “toiling” = Gr. “basanizo” = “distressed”

          - “fourth watch” - 3AM - 6AM. He had been walking since “even was come”.

          - “would have passed” = “wished to pass”.

49 - “spirit” = Gr. “phantasma” = “phantom”

50 - “saw” - But didn’t recognize Him in the darkness.

          - “with them” - In Mark as Servant. In John (God) and Matthew (King) He spoke “to” them.

51, 52 - “ceased” = “abated”

          - “amazed” - Despite the recent miraculous feeding.

          - “hardened” - An adjective, not a verb. At this point, the law, “written in stone”, still dominated their thinking.

53, 54 - “passed over”- Dual meaning. Note the two “theys” in this verse and the disregard for ritual in Chapter 7. Now they “knew (“recognized”)  Him” as did the crowds when they arrived.

55 - “beds” = Mats or mattresses.

56 - “made whole” - By their faith.

Ch. 7:1 - A delegation from Pharisee headquarters arrives (“unto Him”).

2 - “defiled” - Mark explains the term to Gentile readers.

3, 4 - In parentheses as further explanation. See Nu 8:6, 7.

5 - The question.

6, 7 - The answer, the term (“hypocrites”), the explanation of the term.

          - The words from Isa 29:13. The thought from Isa 29:14.

8 - “laying aside” = “having forsaken”

9 - “reject” = “set aside”.       “keep” = “observe”.

10 - From Ex 20:12 and 21:17.

11-13 - CORBAN (gift) - (Only N.T. occ.). A vow could be made publicly in the presence of witnesses that what one offered should be as a gift devoted to sacred uses. The vow would then be repeated to the parents or pronounced as “Corban” when they made a request. Since it could not be appropriated to any other use, the gift, after such a vow, could not be applied to the relief of his parents, though he was not obliged by it to give it for the use of the temple, but might keep it himself indefinitely, redeem it later (if it was land), or worst case simply renege (there was no prescribed penalty for failure to carry out the vow). Thus, the gift was not truly devoted, but absolutely prohibited from use by anyone to whom it was made “corban”. In other words, it was considered sacrilege to take this thing devoted to God and use it for one’s parents. This explains the reference by the Lord to “curseth” in Ex 21:17. For further clarity understand the story of Achan who partook of the “accursed” (devoted) thing (Jos 7:1, 15, 19-26).

        (13)  - “Making...effect” = “Making void” - Thus, God’s word (note this reference to the Mosaic Law) was forsaken in deference to the Temple tradition. Religion serves itself, not God.

14-16 - “Hearken”, “every one”, “understand”, “ears to hear” - This enclosure around v. 15 marks it as critical to the believer, hence addressed to the entire crowd.

                (15) - “nothing” = “not anything at all”. An absolute. Defilement (uncleanness) is spiritual, not physical. Ro 12:1 and Jas 3:6 must be understood in this context.

                         - “those” - Emphatic in Greek.

17 - He has addressed the Pharisees and the crowd. Now He speaks with the disciples.

18 - Repetition of the point.

19 - “Because...” - The body naturally and automatically purges what enters the belly. There is no such process for the heart.

          - “draught” = “sewer”

          - “purging (cleaning) all meats” - See Ac 10: 10-15; Col 2:16; 1 Ti 4:3,4. The entire statement references the physical digestive process.

             NOTE: This does not in any way change Lev 11. The point is to view clean/unclean spiritually instead of physically. Cleanliness is NOT next to Godliness.

20 - “cometh out” = “issueth”. A voluntary process. Compare “going out” in v. 19.


              (21, 22) - Note: In the Greek, the list has 13 items, the first 7 are plural, the last 6 singular.

                             - “deceit” = “guile”  

                             - “evil eye” = “envy”

              (23) - “things” - Thoughts, actions, attitudes.

24 - “went” = “withdrew”.

25 - “For...” - The reason He could not be hid.

26 - “The woman” should be “But the woman”

          - “Greek” = “Gentile”

          - “Syrophenician” - To distinguish Phenicia in Syria from Phenicia in Libya.

27 - See Mt 15:24 - Same location, different woman, disciples present.

          - “first” - Not a refusal, but a statement of priority.

          - “dogs” = Gr. “kunarion” Only here and Mt 15:26, 27 = “small domestic dogs”, i.e., “puppies”. Adult dogs were not kept indoors or fed. Gentiles were known as “dogs” by the Jews, the term was used as a colloquialism, not an insult.

28 - “Yes, Lord” - The key to v.29

          - “yet...” - It is here that the understanding of “dogs’ is important. Same household (Gal 6:10), same Bread.

29, 30 - Little girl healed from a distance without being spoken to, seen, or touched. Her mother’s faith and discernment of the Lord of all was sufficient.

                    (30) - “gone out” - Permanently.  Perfect tense.

                           - “laid” = “thrown”. The demon’s exit caused convulsions. See 1:26, 9:20. 

31, 32- “deaf...impediment” - With v.35, this man was not born deaf and mute as a result, but had become deaf with speech issues due to not being able to hear his own voice.

          - “put” = “lay” - The crowd assumed that touching was necessary for healing.

33, 34 - A seven step process: took ..., put (“thrust”)..., spit, touched, looked up, sighed (“groaned”), said.

35 - “string” = “band” - Not physical, but demonic, hence, “loosed”

          -  “plain” = Gr. “orthos” = “correctly” in line with the spiritual perfection (7 steps) of the healing.

36, 37 - “tell no man” - Several times during the Lord’s ministry He made this charge. He was always disobeyed. The resulting unmanageable crowds sometimes forced Him to depart preventing Him from healing even more. Disobedience is not always born of “negatives”.

               - “He hath done all things well”.  - The objective of God’s servant.

Ch. 8:1“multitude”, “nothing to eat” - Repeated for emphasis.

2 - “three days” - No facilities, reserved seats, etc. Anyone present was going to get as close as possible to Jesus and not giving up their spot.

3 - After the 3 days many were facing a long journey home.

4 - “Where are we going to get food out here?”

5 - The question. The perfect number of loaves.

6 - “brake” = “after breaking”. The bread was in thin cakes which were broken, not cut before eating. Our phrase “breaking bread” to represent eating is a result of this procedure.

          - “gave” = “kept giving”. As the Lord distributes all gifts to his disciples to set before the people.

7 - “small fishes” - The Source has no need to conserve or save resources.

8 - “baskets” = Plural of Gr. “spuris” = large basket or hamper. See Ac 9:25 where such a basket was large enough to hold a man.

9 - “four thousand” - Only men counted. See Mt 15:38.

          - 4 is the # of the earth (all things under the sun). It is (3 for completeness + 1 for unity) representing God’s created works.

10 - “Dalmanutha” - A short voyage west.

11- “began” - A characteristic word in this Gospel (See Intro).

12 - “seek” = “repeatedly seek”

          - IMPORTANT: “There shall be...” is actually an unfinished sentence - “If there shall be a sign...” See Mt 12:38-45 where the Lord completes the statement.

13 - He sends the crowd away “filled”. He departs from the Pharisees and goes back across the Sea of Galilee.

14 - “forgotten” - No thought by the servants to hoard the seven large baskets.

15 - “of” = Gr. “apo” = “away from”

          - leaven = doctrine - Pharisees leaven = hypocrisy.  Herod’s leaven = worldliness.

16-21 - The disciples don’t understand. Jesus asks 7 questions, ending with “How is it that ye do not understand?”

            - The “one loaf” (v.14) is sufficient. They should understand based on feeding the multitude. However, by looking at their own resources, they fail to recognize what they have (“no bread” v.15). As the Israelites pursued other gods after knowing The One True and Living God, they will wind up with the wrong bread by looking elsewhere. Don’t go looking for what you already have.

            (18) - “Having eyes...” from Jer 5:21.

            (21) - “How is it...?” - See Heb 12:1 where “the sin that doth so easily beset us” is specifically, a lack or loss of faith that prevents us from finishing our race. The “miracles” God performs are not miraculous to Him. His arm has not waxed short. Whether we see God part the Red Sea or feed thousands with a Happy Meal, we still doubt the “next time”.  All who are alive to read this have had their NEEDS met by the Lord. It is the difference between walking by faith or by sight. Recall Peter taking his eyes off the Lord (Mt 14:26-31).

After all He has done and continues to do, after we’ve been in His presence, and been indwelt by the Holy Spirit, is it any wonder He asks us “How is it that ye do not understand?”

22 - “to Bethsaida” - not “into” Bethsaida (See Mt 11:21). As the second stage of the Lord’s ministry draws to a close, the focus is on the unbelief of the generation. The Lord had previously performed miracles in Bethsaida but the town is not allowed to witness or be informed (v.26) of this miracle which required two stages at least in part due to the conditions mentioned in vv. 17-18.

          - “blind man” - The individual is not denied healing because of the city. As with the paralyzed man in Chapter 2, there is no mention of the faith of the one healed. God’s servants do not reserve mercy, service, and intercession just for the faithful, but pay particular attention to the brethren (Gal 6:10).

23 - Another 7 stage process. “took”...“led”...“spit”...“put His hands”...“asked”...“hands again”...“made him look up”

         - “if he saw ought” = “Can you see?”

24 - “I see trees but they must be men because they’re walking.” See Isa 61:3 for men as trees.

25 - “again” - The reason for the question. He is not asked a second time.

          - “every man” should be “everything”.

          - “clearly” = Gr. “telaugos” = distinctly and at a distance, as in “telescope”.

26 - The Lord is unwilling to offer further evidence to Bethsaida.

27 - "by the way" = "on the way" 
          - “Whom do men say that I am?” - The climax of the Proclamation of His Person.

28 - The disciples respond. “but some” = “and others”

29 - The question becomes “ye”.

          - Peter acknowledges Him as “Messiah”.

30 - The second part of the ministry closes. The Lord has given sufficient testimony. It is time to move on and face rejection.

31 - “must” - See Ac 3:18.

          - “of” = “at the hands of”

          - The Ministry Of The Servant - “to teach”...“suffer”...“be rejected”...“be killed”...“rise again”.

32 - “openly” = “publicly and plainly”. Unlike earlier references in His ministry (Jn 2:19-21, 3:14).

          - Peter protests against the truth. A severe flaw for disciples and treated as such by the Lord.

33 - “turned and looked” - To ensure everyone’s attention to what He was about to say lest they be led astray by Peter’s words..

          - “...Satan...” - Not calling Peter “Satan”, but the spirit that opposes all that is of God, by any means available including love, friendship, caring, etc. Note the words of Job’s wife (Job 2:9, 10). Satanic temptation is often cloaked by what appeals to us naturally (“things that be of men”).

Teacher’s Note: The response to Peter’s rebuke (born of love and caring), had to be startling to most, if not all, who heard it. The Lord knew it was critical to the success of His mission and all service to God to recognize the subtilty of the enemy. This can only be done by spiritual discernment. When the words of people contradict God’s Word, it does not matter how well-intentioned they (the words or the people) may be. Anything which distracts or discourages you from finishing the race is of the devil. Understand Pr 27:6.

34, 35 - “with” = “associated with”

              - “Whosoever” 3 times.

               (34) - All required - To be willing to come after, to deny oneself, to take up one’s cross, to habitually follow (perfect tense).

               (35) - “life” = Gr. “psuche” - By usage, the life which can be saved, lost, destroyed or laid down. The only word translated “soul” in the N.T.

                           - Anyone who tries to save his own life will lose (Gr. “apollumi” = “fully destroy”) it. Anyone who sacrifices his life “for My sake and the gospel’s” will save it. The phrase “Give your life to Christ” is literal.

36, 37 - Two rhetorical questions worthy of meditation. The second question arises from the first.

                - “lose” = Gr. “zemioo” = “experience damage”, from a root word meaning “boil”.

               (37) - “in exchange” = “as an equivalent”

38 - “therefore” - in conclusion

          - Note “Me and My words”

          - “also” place after “Son of man”

          - “cometh” = “may have come” - Not definitive because the Kingdom had not yet been rejected.

9:1 - “till...seen” = “till they may have seen” - Conditional clause based on the repentance of the nation. That repentance was not forthcoming. See Peter’s call in Ac 3:19-26 and the final rejection in Ac 28:23-26.

          - “come with power” = “actually come in power”

2 - “after six days” - Exclusive of day before and day after. Lk 9:28 (“about eight days”) is inclusive.

3 - “transfigured” = Gr. “metamorphmoo” = “changed in appearance”

            - “shining” = Gr. “stilbo” Only occ. = “gleaming”

            - “fuller” = “launderer”

4 - WHOSOEVER (Note “with” = “together with”)

       - “Elias” = “Elijah” - Taken up to heaven by the Lord (2 Ki 2:1). Represents those who are alive at the return of the Lord (1 Th 4:15).

       - “Moses” - Representative of those who die prior to the Lord’s return (Deu 34:5, 6). 

5, 6 - Note that Peter somehow recognizes Moses and Elijah, yet later doesn’t recognize the Lord (Jn 21:4-7).

              - Peter’s suggestion that they live on earth instead of in heaven makes no sense. Verse 6 explains it. The words “Fear not” typically accompany the appearance of angels and many in Scripture are rendered speechless at the sight. Daniel was unable to stand in Gabriel’s presence (Dan 10:5-12). Peter felt the need to speak when he should have just remained silent (Pr 17:28).

7, 8 - “them” = Moses and Elijah. Obscured to leave only the Lord visible. A safeguard against worship of others. Note “no man any more...Jesus only”.

9 - “tell no man” - The reason follows in vv. 11-13

          - “from” = Gr. “apo” = “out from (among)”

10 - “kept...with themselves...0ne another” - Obedience. The disciples were so accustomed to parables that plain truth eluded them.

11-13 - The question is based on Mal 4:5, 6 where “Elijah the prophet” is used. The only other use is 2 Chr 21:12 where a “writing” (not a letter) is delivered long after Elijah was translated and is the only mention of Elijah in Chronicles. Elsewhere he is called “Elijah the Tishbite” (from Tishbe in Gilead) during his “in person” ministry. John the Baptist would have been regarded as Elijah the prophet had the Messiah been received instead of rejected (See Mt 17:9-13). The rejection of the Kingdom could not be revealed at this time although known by the Lord and told to His disciples, who did not understand. Mal 4:5 will be fulfilled in Rev 11:3-8 where the two witnesses MUST be the translated Elijah and Enoch (Gen 5:24; Heb 11:5) to avoid putting Heb 9:27 in error. Rev 11:6 specifically points to Elijah (See 1 Ki 17:1; Jas 5:17, 18; Lk 4:25). Also see Ps 79:1-3 and Isa 59:14.
14 - “to His disciples” - Only 3 had been with Him.

          - “scribes” - Mentioned separately because their presence was for different reasons.

15 - “amazed” = “astonished”

16 - He knows the answer. The disciples know. The question is for the crowd’s benefit. The scribes do not respond.

17 - Again, someone is brought to Him.

18 - “dumb” = deaf and dumb (v.25)

19 - “faithless” = “unbelieving”

         - “suffer” = “put up with”

20 - “tare” = “convulsed”

21, 22 - The child was not born this way, hence the father’s certainty concerning the cause. The purpose of the question is to minister to the father. Note that as a parent, he asks for compassion and help for “us”.

          - “If” - Indicative mood = “Since” - No uncertainty.

          - “compassion” - The father, as a supplicant does not doubt His power.

23 - The question “if Thou canst do any thing...” is turned to “if thou canst believe...all things...”

24 - “cried” (without words)... and “said”

          - “mine unbelief” - Compare Is 6:5. Truly coming to Christ is about who we are, not what we’ve done.

25 - “charge” = “command”

         - “foul” = “unclean”

26 - “rent” = threw into convulsions

          - “...many said...

27 - “But Jesus...”

28 - “the house” should be “a house”

          - “privately” - The disciples are a bit down because of their perceived failure (“we” is emphatic).

          - “him” should be “it”

29 - “This kind...” - Testimony to the differences among spirits

          - “and fasting” - Not in all texts.

30 - “passed through” - not stopping in any of the cities.

31 - Repeats and resumes the teaching from 8:31.

          - “For” - this teaching was for the disciples only.

          - “is delivered” = “will be delivered”

32 - “saying” = Gr. “rhema” = the words themselves

          - “afraid” - (No doubt remembering Peter’s rebuking from 8:33).The significance follows here in v.34.

33 - “disputed” = “were discussing”. As always, a question from the Omniscient One has a purpose.

34 - NOTE: The fear (v.32) has granted entry to the enemy and leads to the potentially divisive discussion.

          - “greatest” should be “greater”. (Who’s next in line after He’s gone?)

The interruption is necessary to curtail the enemy’s purpose. See a similar occurrence in Gen 3:8,9.

35 - “sat down” - “took His seat” (As Teacher).

          - “...and called...” - Indicates the gravity of the coming object lesson.

          - “If” = “When”

36 - “child” = Gr. “paidion” = “small child” or “infant”. Apparently a member of the household.

          - Note the three deliberate steps, with the full attention of the disciples, to emphasize the teaching. He takes the child (election), sets him down (ordination), then picks Him up (exaltation).

          - “when He...arms” - A single Greek verb, “enankalisamenos”. Only occ.

37 - “Whosoever” - First of two in this teaching.

          - “such children” - Innocent. Needy. Dependent. Without status or power.

              See Jas 2:1-10 AND Ex 23:3; Lev 19:15.

          - “in” = Gr. “epi” = resting upon as a foundation.

38 - John receives the lesson (“Whosoever”) and confesses to error.

39, 40 - Two verses. A single important lesson. There is no third option, no middle ground, no neutrality. Those who are not for God are against.

                    God divides: Life-Death. Blessings-Curses. Heaven-Lake of fire. See Jas 3:10-12.

41 - The second “whosever”.

          - “give...because” - Service is the hallmark of God’s people. “in My name” is absolutely critical to understanding. There may be evil behind “good deeds”.

          - “lose his reward” - Not tied to salvation, only reward.

42 - A series of verses delineating priorities for God’s people.

          - “offend” = “cause to stumble”

          - “ones that believe in me” - To hinder the service of another is more serious than one’s own shortcomings.

          - “millstone” - A Greek and Roman form of punishment to highlight the natural death lesson.

43 - “offend” - A different word than v.42 meaning “consistently cause to stumble”.

          - “hand” - Things we do.

          - “life” = “the life”, i.e., resurrection life.

          - “fire...quenched” = Gr. “to par to asbestos” = “the fire, the unquenchable”. See Mt 3:12.

44, 46, 48 - From Isa 66:24. (Verse 44 is omitted in many texts). The reference is to Gehenna in the valley of Hinnom, a place of burning for disposal of waste. Always burning and a breeding place for maggots (Heb “tola”). See Ex 16:20; Deu 28:39; Ps 22:6.

45 - “foot” = Places we habitually go.

          - “halt” = ‘lame”

47 - “eye” - What we habitually look at.

49- “every” - Only occ. of this phrase in N.T. Salt was used in the burning of sacrifices (Lev 2:13; Nu 18:19). The meaning is: It is better to go through the removal of a stumbling block in this life, no matter how difficult, than to be utterly destroyed.

50 - “season” = “restore”

          - “salt in (within) yourselves” - That which preserves

          - “peace” - The point of the lesson. What is destroyed among brethren by the stumbling blocks of vv. 34, 35 and 43-47.

10:1- “farther” = “other”

          - “taught” = “began teaching”.

2 - “man” = Gr. “aner” = “husband”. Different word than v.7.

          - “tempting” = “testing”

3 - Immediately, the “tested” becomes the “tester”.

4 - From Deu 24:1.

5 - “He wrote the mandate for you in view of the hardness of your hearts.”

6 - “beginning...creation” - No “men” before Gen 1:27. No prehistoric men, no evolution.

7 - From Gen 2:24.

          - “man” = Gr. “anthropos” = “human”

          - “leave” = Gr. “utterly leave”, “forsake”

          - “cleave’ = “be joined to”

8 - “one” = Gr. “eis” = “for”. NOTE: The two do not “become” one, but stand for one.

9 - A universal principle not restricted to marriage. The converse is also true for what God divides (See 2 Ti 2:15).

10 - No response recorded from the Pharisees. the disciples wait until later to seek clarity.

11, 12 - This is a statement on remarriage after divorce. The significance of v.9 is paramount. Two standing for one cannot be done by man, or done naturally. It is done supernaturally (spiritually), therefore by God. It cannot be undone by man. Therefore, a legally divorced party is still spiritually joined, making the subsequent spouse a third party to the initial, still unbroken, union.

         -  TEACHER’S NOTE: This does not impact the salvation of those members of the body who may have divorced and remarried. Were it so, it would render adultery as an unforgivable sin.

          - Verse 12 was necessary, not because of Jewish law, but Greek and Roman.

13 - “brought” = “were carrying”. As they walked.

          - “rebuked” = “were rebuking”. As people kept bringing babies.

14 - “displeased” = “indignant”. So soon after the teaching at the end of Chapter 9.

          - “kingdom of God” - Inclusive in character, marked by “whosoever”.

15 - “as a little child” - Trusting, dependent, loving, seeking closeness and knowledge.

          - Note “receive”, not “obtain”.

16 - “took” = “kept taking”

          - “blessed” = “kept blessing”

17 - “came” - For himself, not brought by anyone.

          - “Master” = “Teacher”

          - The man asks the most important question of his life.

18 - NOT a rhetorical question. The Lord actually answers the question for the man, seeking his confession (agreement).

19 - “knowest” - Not enough. We must know and do ALL of them. Jas 2:10, 11. Mere recitation of Scripture is hollow. Note that the Lord does not quote all the commandments, and puts them out of sequence (7th, 6th, 8th, 9th, 5th). From Deu 5:17-20.

20 - “all these” - The following verse (“one thing”) convicts him of violating the 10th commandment, and thereby the 1st.

          - “observed” = “guarded against”.

21 - “loved” = Gr. “agapao”

          - “one thing” - Those who have the Lord lack nothing. Those without can count what they have but dung (Phil 3:8).

          - “sell” - Not give.

          - “give” - Not give it all. The man is not instructed to impoverish himself, but to disengage himself from his worldly treasures and attachments. See Lk 16:13.

          - “take up the cross” - Omitted in some texts.

22 - The answer to his question (v. 17) saddens him. He has been convicted by Truth. The Light has revealed his god.

23 - The Teacher makes sure His disciples understand the lesson.

         - “hardly” = “difficultly”. Not because of God. Their own reluctance to part with riches is covetous and idolatrous. Poverty is not a requirement for Godliness. For example, Isaiah and Jeremiah were from wealthy families. It is the attitude toward riches that can condemn. 1 Ti 6:6-12.

24 - “astonished” - Difficult for the natural man/mind to see the wealthy as disadvantaged.

          - Lesson repeated for emphasis.

          - “trust” = “rely upon”, i.e., “put one’s faith in”.

25 - IMPORTANT: “eye of the needle” - Cities were gated for security and these gates were barred at night. There was a small door fixed in the gate to allow entry after dark. This door, known as “the needle” was sufficiently small that a camel had to be unladen and kneel  (see v. 17) in order to fit through. The labor involved in unlading a camel was easier than getting a rich man to unburden himself from his riches.

26 - The man from v. 17 asked “what”. The disciples ask “Who” fearing that they too may fall short. See v.28.

27 - “With” = Gr. “para” (Dative case) = “beside” or “along with”

          “men” = “humans”. It is impossible to be saved naturally (apart from the Holy Spirit).

          TEACHER’S NOTE: “all things” should be “all works”. It is impossible for God to lie or sin for example, but there is nothing too hard for Him (Gen 18:14).

28 - Peter speaks as if pleading a case.

29 - “left” = Gr. “aphiemi” = “left behind”, “disregarded”, “let go of”.

          - “houses...lands” - The measures of blessings at that time, not literal details (multiplying “mothers” a hundredfold isn’t sensible).

          - “for My sake and the gospel’s” - As always, the heart dictates the spiritual value of “leaving” something.

30 - “time” = “season”

          - “houses...lands” - The natural blessings will be replaced a hundredfold spiritually.

          - “with persecutions” - By virtue of still being in the natural realm. See Jn 17:14.

31 - “first” - the rich, powerful, famous, etc.

          - “last” - The meek, poor, humble. See Mt 5:3-14.

                       Natural vs. Spiritual.

32 - “up” - literally and figuratively, preceded by the Lord.

          - “amazed”, “afraid” - But still following. The lesson was sown in good ground. Mk 4:14-20.

          - “took” = “took aside”

          - “happen” - The 3rd announcement of His suffering.

33, 34 - A step by step description.

35 - A question opens a door for the enemy. See “in My name” in Jn 14:13,14 and note its actual and spiritual absence. Many of us make such requests of the Lord and have our faith shaken by misunderstanding Jn 14.

36 - The question from the Lord will once again reveal the true nature of the request.

37 - Their question is couched in terms of service but really concerns position. It is doubly ambivalent because “in Thy glory” reveals their immediate faith in the truth of the third announcement.

          Service is apart from position in the heart of a Godly servant. See 1 Co 12:12-25 (note “schism”) to understand the problem that the Lord must address.

38 - “Ye know not...” - They haven’t counted the cost.

          - “the cup” - The sufferings which accompany glory.

39 - “We can” - Only by grace.

          - “Indeed...” - See Ac 12:2 concerning James’ death. According to Tertullian (in The Prescription of Heretics) John was banished (presumably to Patmos) after being plunged into boiling oil in Rome and suffering nothing from it. He writes that all in the entire Colosseum audience were converted to Christianity upon witnessing this miracle. This event would have occurred during the reign of Domitian, a Roman emperor who was known for his bloody persecution of Christians in the late 1st century.

40 - “prepared” = “already prepared”. See Mt 20:23.

41 - The schism created by leavening service with positional aspirations.

42-45 - Critical to rightly divide in this gospel so focused on authority (“exousia”). God’s servants have authority over their service/ministry and authority over spirits (Mk 6:7) - NOT PEOPLE. It is spiritual power vs. natural power.

   (42) - “accounted to rule” = “regarded as rulers”

          - “them” - Used twice. The operative term in this verse.

   (43) - A “whosoever” verse.

          - “will” = “desires”

          - “be great” = “become great”

          - “minister” = Gr. “diakonos” = free servant

   (44) - A second “whosoever” verse.

          - “chiefest” = “first”

          - “servant” = “bondservant”. Those seeking position typically indebt themselves to others to assist the pursuit. Many achieve political power/office and owe so many “favors” that the perceived power becomes servitude.

   (45) - Even the Lord did not come to be served, but to give. This is the 4th announcement of His sufferings.

          - “life” = “soul”

          - “for” = “instead of”

46 - “to Jericho” = “down to Jericho”

          - “went out” - TEACHER’S NOTE: There are three separate cases of healing in Jericho. As he drew near (Lk 18:35). As He was leaving, and after he had left (Mt 20:29-34). A total of 4 blind men, two of them beggars.

47, 48 - Bartimaeus cries out and is reprimanded by the crowd and keeps crying out. (How many have missed healing or blessings because of the words or wishes of others).

49 - “stood still” = “stopped”. 

          - “commanded...called” - Others had been brought to Him. Bartimaeus is summoned.

          - “comfort” = “courage” - Recall the Lord’s last teaching. To the crowd, Jesus had too much status to be addressed by a blind beggar.

50 - “garment” - The old man MUST be put off. See Eph 4:22-24 and Col 3:9, 10.

          - “came to Jesus” - Unassisted, following the Lord’s voice.

51 - “unto” = “for”

          - “receive” = “regain”. Not born blind.

52 - “Go thy way” - Bartimaeus chooses to follow Him towards Jerusalem. Understand Heb 11:15, 16.

          - “made thee whole” = “saved you”

11:1- “came nigh” - This is the second entry (from Bethany) as in Jn 12:12, 13, not the first entry (from Bethphage a week earlier) as in Mt 21:1-17.
2 - “over against” = Gr. “katenanti” = “opposite and below”. In Mt 21:2 it was Gr. “apenanti” = “directly opposite”.

          - “colt tied” - In Mt 21:2 it was “an ass tied and a colt with her”

          - “whereon...” - Therefore untamed, but submissive to the Lord. Compare the humans of Jn 1:11.

          - “bring him” = “lead it” (to the Lord. A servant’s duty).

3 - “if any man...” - Part of the Lord’s preparation. The question will be for verification, not to satisfy curiosity.

4 - “a place...met” = “in that quarter (Gr. amphodos)” i.e., section of the city.

5 - In line with the second entry being expected, the Lord has “watchmen”.

6 - The disciples know the “password”.

7 - “brought” = ‘led”    “him” = “it”

8 - “branches” = Gr. “stoibas” Only occ. = litter made of leaves from the fields. Different words in Matthew (Gr. “klados” = “branches”) and John (Gr. “baion” = “palm branches”) meaning all three were cut and strawed. Luke 19:36 does not mention branches, only clothes.

9 - Both preceded and followed by the crowd.

          - “Hosanna” = “Save now”. From Ps 118:25, 26. Different words (same meaning) from the first entry (Mt 21:9,10).

10 - The cry for the King is followed by the cry for the Kingdom.

11 - “temple” = Gr. “hieron” = “temple courts”. Not the temple itself (Gr. “naos”), the Sanctuary consisting of the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies.

          - “looked round” - Easily distinguished from Mt 21:12-16. It is the lack of change that leads to vv. 15 and 16 here.

12, 13 - CRITICAL: This is the second fig tree. The first tree withered immediately (Mt 21:19). This tree was withered the next day (v. 20). Like any other teacher, the Lord repeats lessons as we see with the announcements of His sufferings. In the time between the “Who is this?” of Mt 21:10 and now, many more people can be reached and lessons are reinforced for the disciples. Note the “phrase “calling to remembrance” in v. 21.

          - “having leaves” - Two issues. It was not yet the right time of year (summer) and the fruit (figs) appears with or before the leaves. The fig tree itself is a Biblical symbol of the nation of Israel. The look of the tree (a false promise of fruit) is representative of the Antichrist and explains the actions and words of Jesus Christ relative to the tree.

14 - “heard” - Understood the next morning.

          - 1st tree - “Let no fruit grow...” (Mt 21:19). The disciples “saw”.

          - 2nd tree - “No man eat fruit of thee... The disciples “heard”.

15 - The same actions as Mt 21:12.

16 - A step further than what was done a week earlier.

          - “through” - Some were using the temple as a shortcut (“vessel” = Gr. “skeuos” - used for non-sacred vessels).

17 - “taught” - This is a repeated lesson, not an angry response.

          - Quote from Isa 56:7 and Jer 7:11.

18 - The previous time, they had addressed the Lord (Mt 21:15, 16). Now they are afraid. The people had been taught - what they considered normal was unacceptable. The financial and political damage to the scribes and chief priests had them now seeking to destroy Him.

19 - Back to Bethany at “even”.

20 - “in the morning” = “the next morning”, not just a time of day.

21 - “remembrance” - Both times.

          - “Master” = “Rabbi”

22 - “them” - The disciples.

        - “faith” - This verse conditions what follows through v. 26. Note “For”, “Therefore”, “And”, and “But” making this a single thought. See Eph 5:21-33 where separating v. 21 leads to wrongly dividing what follows.

          - “in God” - The One Who can remove and restore life.

23 - “verily”, “whosoever”  - Mark the importance of what follows.

          - “this mountain” - Mt. Olivet was nearby.

          - “say”... “not doubt in his heart” ... “believe”

          - “he shall have” = “there shall be to him”

24 - “pray” - See Jas 4:1-3 to assist in rightly dividing this teaching. Understand that what we pray for and about can indicate a lack of faith in God.

25, 26 - An unforgiving heart is not a praying heart.

              -  Among things that can hinder prayer:

         1. Unforgiveness   Mk 11:24-26

         2. Doubt   Jas 1:5-7

         3. Lack of faith   Heb 11:6

         4. Disobedience   Pr 28:9

         5. Carnality   Jas 4:1-3

         6. Marital Discord   1Pe 3:7

         7. Insincerity   Mal 1:7-9

         8. Inhumanity   Pr 21:13

         9. Iniquity Ps 66:18

       10. Timing Dan 10:1-14 

27 - “and the elders” - Joining the chief priests and scribes.

28 - “what” = “what kind”

          - “authority” = Gr. “exousia” - The keyword for this gospel.

          -  “this” = “this particular”

29 - The Lord, as He often does, answers a question with one of His own. By doing so He takes control of the situation and dictates the terms. The “I” is emphatic.

30 - “answer Me” - A command.

31, 32 - The question serves its purpose: to convict them by their own reasoning.

33 - “We do not know.”

          - “I” is again emphatic.

12:1- He has their attention and begins to teach.

          - “set an hedge” = “built a fence”

          - “winefat” = “wine vat”

          - “tower” = “watch house” (actual quarters, not a tower).

          - “husbandmen” = “vinedressers”

2 - “at the season” = after 4 years (See Lev 19:23, 24).

          - “servant” = “bondservant”

          - “of the fruit” - The husbandmen were paid in-kind, not with money. See “earnest” in Eph 1:13, 14.

3 - “caught” = “took”

4 - “sent...handled” = “insulted him”

5 - “another...many others” - The prophets up to and including John the Baptist.

          - “beating” = “scourging”

6 - “his” = ‘his own”

          - “reverence” = “have respect to”

7 - “among” = “to”. Thoughts, not words. Many of us give our lives to Christ and later try to take them back.

8 - “killed” - Already told to the disciples.

          - “out” = “outside”

9 - “the lord” - No longer “a certain man” as the meaning of the parable comes forth.

          - “others” - The New Israel (See Isa 66:15-24)

10, 11 - Quote from Ps 118:22, 23.

          - “not” = “not even” (“and you claim to know the Word?”)

12 - “feared the people” - As in 11:32.

          - “left Him” - Still unaware that He had finally answered their question.

13 - “send...Herodians” - Reinforcements, their disciples, are enlisted.

          - “catch” = Gr. “agreuo” Only occ. = “ensnare”, as in hunting.

          - “words” = “discourse”

14 - They begin with false respect and flattery.

          - “tribute” = Gr. “kensos” = “tax”

15 - “tempt” = “test”

          - “bring me” - Another command, taking control.

          - “penny” = Gr. “denarion” - A Roman coin equalling a typical day’s wage at that time.

16 - The image of God asks about the image on the coin.

17 - “marvelled” = “were wondering”

18 - The Sadducees take a turn at bat.

19 - “Moses wrote” - See Deu 25:5, 6

20-23 - The anti-resurrectionists present an error-based scenario.

24 - “err...because you do not know” two things. A warning to all of us.

25 - There is no gender in heaven, or among spiritual beings. Gender is a function of flesh, a natural phenomenon. See Gen 2:21, 22 for the origin. Not understanding this simple point is to “know not the scriptures”. Marriage, intercourse and reproduction are not part of the heavenly realm. The Sadducees question is absurd.

26 - The Lord addresses their secondary motive of promoting their beliefs. He uses the scriptures that they “do not know” quoting from Ex 3:6.

27 - “the dead” = “dead people”

          - “the living” = “those who live in resurrection”. If no resurrection, then there are no “living”.

          - “ye” - Emphatic.

28 - One of the scribes came up to Him being persuaded by His clarity and authority.

          - “first” = “most important”

29 - “Hear O Israel” - from Deu 6:4, 5.

30 - “with” = Gr. “ek” = “out of”

          - “mind” = Gr. “dianoia” = “ability to think” - Added by the Lord because of the existence of written scripture available to be studied. Note Ro 12:2 “mind”.

31 - Quoted from Lev 19:18.

          - “neighbor” = “the one near”

          - “none greater” - Having God first in our hearts esteeming those made in His image outweighs mere actions. UNDERSTAND 1 Jn 4:20, 21.

32, 33 - “understanding” = Gr. “sunesis” = “intelligence”, literally, “the process of putting together “. Not IQ, but the ability to rightly divide. The Word of God is put together by being rightly divided!

          - “burnt offerings...” - See 1 Sa 15:22.

34 - “discreetly” = Gr. “nounechos” Only N.T. occ. = “judiciously”

35 - Now 2 days before Passover, the 12th of Nisan, the teaching in Jerusalem continues without pause.

          - “Christ” = “the Messiah”

36 - From Ps 110:1

          - “David himself” - The Lord’s words as the true David, given to David by the Holy Spirit. See Deu 18:18.

          - The LORD” = “Jehovah”

          - “my Lord” = “Adonai” - David’s Lord = The Messiah

          - “made” = “shall have set”

37 - “common” = majority in number, not a matter of social standing.

38 - “Beware of...” = “Take heed and stay away from...”

          - “long clothing” = Gr. “stolais” = “robes”

39 - “uppermost rooms” = “first couches”

40 - “devouring” - Many scribes functioned as lawyers and dealt unscrupulously with wills and property conveyances. Since women were typically uneducated, their victims were often widows.

          - “greater damnation” = “heavier judgment”

41 - “the treasury” - In the women’s court.

          - “beheld” = “carefully observed”

          - “money” = Gr. “prutah” = copper coins

          - “much” = “many” - The number of coins, no reference to value.

42 - “a certain” = “one”

          - “mites” = Plural of “lepton”, a small, thin Jewish coin.

          - “farthing” = Gr. “kodrantes” - A Roman “quadrans”, a fourth (“fourthing”) of the Roman as.

43 - “disciples” - Not the crowd. 
          - “this poor widow” = “this widow; and she a poor one”.

44 - “living” = “means of support”, ‘livelihood”

13:1Note “out of” - The prophecy had been given “in the temple” in Lk 21 (vv. 1,5,7,37) to “some”. This time it is to his disciples after leaving the temple as in Mt 24:1. This discourse is from the Mount of Olives (v.3).

          - “stones” - The largest temple stones were 40 feet long and weighed over 100 tons.

2 - “not” = “by no means” - The temple was destroyed in 70 A.D.

3 - “mount of Olives” - Known as the mount of Corruption during the time of the O.T.

          - These 4 disciples always grouped together with Peter’s name first. See Mt 10:2; Mk 3:16-18; Lk 6:14; Ac 1:13.

          - “privately” = “apart” - Lk 21 was public.

4 - Two questions: When? What sign?

5 - “Take heed...” - There will be deceivers and delusion.

6 - “in” = Gr. “epi” = “upon”, i.e., trading upon His name.

          - “many” - See 1 Jn 2:18, 19.

7 - See Dan 11:21 “peacably” - When everyone is off guard.

8 - From Isa 19:2.

          - “sorrows” = “birth pangs”. See Gen 3:16. The birth of the New Israel will be preceded by travail / labor pains. The events spoken of are only the “beginning” of these pains. Read and understand Dan 8:23 - 25 “by peace”.

9 - “take heed” - The 2nd time.

          - “for My sake”, “for a testimony” - Some will be designated for delivery and martyrdom. See Rev 13:10; Jer 15:2.

10 - “published” = “proclaimed”

          - “all nations” - Not every individual.

11 - “when” = “whenever”

            - “take no thought” - Do not have your words prepared. Allow the Holy Spirit to speak through you.

12 - “son” = Gr. “teknos” = “child”

          - “children shall rise...” - From Micah 7:6.

          - “cause...death” = “put them to death”

13 - “endure” - For the elect, the endtimes are a matter of patience and making it through.

14 - “desolation” = “the desolator” from Dan 9:27.

          - “it” should be “he”.

          - “(let him...understand)” - Why? This verse alone is sufficient to eliminate any possibility of being “raptured” before the tribulation.

          - “flee” - See Rev 11:1.2. The Great Commission will be suspended. The responsibility of the elect is “to endure”.

15 - “on the housetop” - The watchman.

16 - “in the field” - The laborer.

17 - “with child” - Spiritually impregnated with lies. See v.34. - The Son of man should not return to a pregnant “wife” (The church, note “them” whereas vv. 15 and 16 are singular), nor to one who has recently given birth. Read 2 Co 11:2-4. The terms fornication and adultery are used spiritually throughout Scripture (See Jer 3:8, 9).

18 - “flight be not in winter” - Those who are deceived by the Antichrist will be harvested out of season. See Mt 24:20 (“sabbath day”) when there is also no harvesting done.

19 - “affliction” = “tribulation” - From Dan 12:1.

          - “creation which God created” - No evolution.

20 - Affliction shortened from 42 months to five months - Rev 9:5, 10.

          - “for the elect’s sake” - The beginning of this verse indicates the level of delusion and our lack of steadfastness.

21 - UNDERSTAND 1 Co 15:52. If we are in flesh bodies, CHRIST HAS NOT RETURNED! Since this teaching is prior to Paul’s writing, the Lord explains to His disciples.

22 - See Deu 13:1 and 2 Th 2:7-12.

          - “seduce” = Gr. “apoplanao” = “to lead astray”

23 - “take heed” - 3rd time.

          - “all things” = “all you need to know”

24 - From Isa 13:10.

25 - “stars of heaven” = The heavenly host, i.e., angelic beings. See Isa 34:4 and Rev 12:1-7.

26 - “Then” - The Lord returns after everything described up to this point.

          - See Dan 7:13. “clouds” = Angelic hosts, not rain clouds.

          - “power” = Gr. “dunamis”

27 - “gather together” - The true harvest. See Rev 14:13-16.

            TEACHER’S NOTE: Be not deceived! In Mt 24:40, 41 the ones “taken” are in Rev 14:13-16. The ones “left” are in Rev 14:17-20. No one is “left behind”! We will all be changed into spiritual bodies.

          - “His elect” - The New Israel - Amos 9:11-15; Zeph 3:20.

28, 29 - “a parable” = “the parable”

          - “fig tree” - The symbol of Israel’s privilege as a nation.

          - “summer”- Right before harvest. This time (“nigh”) is marked by Israel’s Declaration of Independence on May 14, 1948. See Jer 24.

30 - “this generation” - Not a specific period of time. The term is used Scripturally for periods of 40, 70, and 120 years.

          - “be done” = “may have taken place”

31 - “Heaven” not “Heavens” because it is contrasted to the “earth”.

32 - “day...hour” - Unknown. The Lord has just detailed the signs and season.

          - “knoweth” - Present tense, not perfect. At some point it will be knowable.

33 - “Take...heed” - 4th time.

34 - “watch” = “lie sleepless” - See Lk 12:35-40.

          - “authority” - Given to His servants.

          - “to watch” = “to stay awake”

35 - “watch” - Repeated for emphasis.

36 - “sleeping” = Gr. “katheudo” = “preparing yourself for sleep” (by choice).

37 - “watch” - 4th time in 5 verses.

14:1- “After two days was” = two days until

          - “by craft” - Unnecessary. See v.49.

2 - “on” = “during”

          - “People” - Always afraid of the People, but not fearing God.

3 - “being” - Same as Mt 26:6-13

          - “house” - Jn 12:1-9 was earlier in the house of Lazarus.

          - “woman” - NOT Mary.

          - “box” = “flask”

4 - “some” - First time (Jn 12:4) was only Judas (leaven spreads).

5 - “three hundred pence” - About $300 (2012).

          - “murmured against” = “were deeply displeased with”

6 - “wrought” - Accomplished work. In John it was to be reserved unto burial (no broken box) and His feet were anointed; Here, His head.

7 - “...Me ye have not always” - This invalidates the concept of transubstantiation which maintains that the bread and wine of Communion literally become the body and blood of Christ.

8 - “could” = “had to do”

          - “aforehand” = place after “anoint”

          - “burying” = “embalming”

9 - “” - Here as part of the everlasting Word.

10 - “went” = “went off” in response to the perceived rebuke.

          - “to betray” = “to see how He could be delivered up”

11 - “they” = The chief priests

          - “were glad’ = “rejoiced”

            TEACHER’S NOTE: “sought” = “was seeking” Imperfect tense. A continuous process. Judas devoted himself to this.

12 - “first day...” - 14th of Nisan. The first day of the feast was the high day, the 15th.

          - “killed” = “customarily killed”

13 - “man...pitcher” - Easily spotted. Women carried pitchers. Men used bottleskins.

          The disciples were sent to follow...

14 - “...wheresoever”

          - “goodman” = “master”    “The Master” = “The Teacher”

15 - “he”, emphatic = “he himself”

16 - Obedience. You will find what you are told you will find.

17 - The devil will precede you (Gen 12:6). God will accompany you and follow you. We have the armor of Ephesians 6 for the front and the glory of God as our “rereward” (rearguard). See Isa 52:12, 58:8.

18 - “of” = “from among” Gr. “ek”

19, 20 - “of the twelve” - indicating others were present.

21 - “is written” - Psalm 22

          - “that man” - Emphatic in Greek.

22 - “did eat” = “were eating”

          - “bread” - See 1 Co 5:7, 8.

          - “gave to them” - His body/life was given, not taken.

          - “eat” - Not present in any text.

23, 24 - “blood” - To establish the testament (covenant).

          - “is shed” = “is about to be shed”

25 - “new” = “fresh”

26 - “hymn” - The second part (Ps 118) of the Great Hallel (Hallelujah), Ps 115-118.

27 - “All ye” - See “they all”, v.31. Like Thomas in Jn 20, Peter is the focus of the behavior common to them all.

          - “shall be offended” = “will stumble”

          - “because...night” - Omitted in all texts.

          - “written” - from Zec 13:7.

28 - “I am risen” = “My being raised”

          - “go before” - see Jn 10:4.

29 - “although” = “Even if”. Peter responds emotionally, not spiritually, and contradicts God’s word.

30 - Place “:” after “cock”.

31 - “spake” = “kept saying”

          - “vehemently” = “out of excess”, i.e., Peter is emotionally overwhelmed.

          - “if I should die” = “if it is necessary for me to die”

          - “Likewise” - See v.27.

32 - “Gethsemane” = “Oil press”

          - “pray” = Gr. “proseuchomai” - Used exclusively in the N.T. of prayer to God.

33 - “very heavy” = “weighed down”, “depressed”

34 - “watch” = “keep awake”

35 - “prayed” = “was praying” Imperfect tense.

          - “...possible” - Only truth in prayer. No pretense. What He knew was ahead could not be shrugged off.

         - “hour” - A type of the “hour of temptation” in the endtimes. It is “the” hour, not “one” hour (a literal 60 minutes).

35 - “prayed” = “was praying” Imperfect tense.

          - “...possible” - Only truth in prayer. No pretense. What He knew was ahead could not be shrugged off.

          - “hour” - A type of the “hour of temptation” in the endtimes. It is “the” hour, not “one” hour, a literal 60 minutes.

36 - “Abba” - Aramaic for “Father”

          - “nevertheless...” - The condition for all requests made in prayer. The will of God must have higher priority than our own desires.

37, 38 - Peter, the only one addressed, does not make it through the “hour of temptation” which requires that we “stay awake” and pray.

          - “spirit...flesh...” - The troubles of David, who had a heart like God’s (1 Sa 13:14) stand as a memorial to this. This verse could have been written as a single sentence with “because” after “temptation”.

39 - “same words” - Same situation, same heaviness. Not a memorized recitation. God is not impressed with our ability to memorize nor with our verbal creativity (“much speaking”). It is a heart to heart communication.

40 - “asleep again” - See Mt 25:5, another endtimes type.

41 - “now” = “for the remaining time”

          - “rest:” - An unspecified period of time after the colon.

          - IMPORTANT: “it is enough” = Gr. “apechei” = “a receipt is given”, i.e., “he (Judas) is receiving the money (from v.11)”.

          - “hour is come” - All according to the Word of God.

42 - “is at hand” - The Lord knew when Judas received the money and now knows that he “is drawn near”.

43 - “one” = “being one of”

          - “staves” = Gr. “xulon” = “wooden clubs”

          - “from” = Gr. “para” = “from beside” - Not a mob, but designated agents of the chief priests, scribes and elders.

44 - “token” - A prearranged sign.

          - “Whomsoever” - They did not know the Lord personally.

          - “take” = “seize”

          - “safely” = “securely”

45, 46 - “Master...” = “Rabbi...” - Judas speaks of Him or to Him as “Lord”.

47 - “one of them” - Peter is named only in Jn 18:10.

          - “a servant” should be “the servant”.

48 - “against” = “upon”

          - “thief” = “robber”

49 - “but” = “but this is being done”

50 - “they all” - Foretold in v. 27.

51 - “a certain young man” - Undoubtedly Lazarus. They had been staying in Bethany, the linen robe suited his social standing and most importantly, Lazarus was a wanted man (Jn 12:10, 11). This young man was beset even though none of the apostles (including Peter) was arrested! It would be prudent not to use his name if he was still alive at the time this gospel was written.

          - “linen cloth” = Gr. “sindon” = “linen cloak”

          - “naked” - Without all his robes, as if he dressed hurriedly.

          - “the young men” = “soldiers”

52 - “left” = “leaving behind” - Compare Joseph in Gen 39:7-12.

53 - “with him” = “to him” - They had been summoned to a special assembly as part of the plan (see v. 2).

54 - “servants” = “officers”

55- “all the council” = “the whole Sanhedrin”

          - “sought...against” - A violation of their own rules.

Tractate Sanhedrin - Chapter IV

Rules and regulations concerning examinations and cross-examinations of witnesses in civil and criminal cases.

The difference in judging and in discussions between civil and criminal cases. 

MISHNA I .: Cases coming before the court, be they civil or criminal, the witnesses thereof must be examined and investigated. As it is written [Lev. iv. 22]: “One manner of judicial law shall ye have.” But what difference is there between civil and criminal cases? It is the following: (a) The former cases are to be tried by three, and the latter by twenty-three judges. (b) In the former the discussion may commence either with the accusation or with the defence, while the latter must commence with the defence and not with the accusation. (c) In the former case one voice suffices either to accuse or to acquit, and in the latter he is acquitted by one voice, while to condemn two are needed. (d) In the former the judge who proclaimed his view either to advantage or to disadvantage may, after deliberating, announce his view to the contrary. In the latter, however, he may do so only to acquit, but not to condemn. (e) In civil cases the whole body of the court may defend or accuse, while in criminal cases all of them may acquit, but the whole body must not accuse. (f) The former may be discussed in the daytime and the decision rendered at night, while in the latter the decision must be in the daytime. But if they did not come to a conclusion on the same day, they have to postpone it to the morrow. (g) The decision concerning the former may be reached on the same day either to one's advantage or to his disadvantage, while in the latter the decision may be rendered on the same day to free him, but not to condemn him until the next day; and, therefore, cases of capital punishment must not be begun on the eve of Sabbath or of a legal holiday. In civil cases, and regarding defilement and purity, they begin by asking the opinion of the eldest, while in criminal cases they begin with those who are sitting on the side.

All are qualified to judge civil cases, but not every one is qualified to judge criminal cases; as to the latter--only priests, Levites, and Israelites who may legally marry daughters of priests.

56 - The false testimonies were not alike.
57, 58 - based on the previous verse, these witnesses have conspired.

          - “We” - Emphatic.    “I” - Emphatic.

             The Lord’s actual statement is in Jn 2:19. Significant because “with hands...without hands...” must have been Divinely supplied making the statement true within the lie!

59 - Evil has confusion.

60 - “stood up” = “stood up and came down”

61 - There is no valid charge to be answered. The question has no connection to the testimonies offered.

          - “the Blessed” - The term used by the Jews at that time instead of the name “Jehovah”.

62 - “I am” = “I am He”

          - “see” = Gr. “opsomai” = To see, comprehend and be affected by.

          - “Son of man” - Last occ. in Mark.

          - “in” = “amid”    “heaven” = “the heavens”

63 - “rent his clothes” - A forbidden act (Lev 10:6, 21:10) triggered by the “I am” of v. 62.

64 - “blasphemy” - Words about oneself cannot be blasphemy.

          - “guilty of” = “liable to”

65 - “with the palms...” = Gr. “rapisma” = “with smarting blows”

66-68 - “understand” = Gr. “epistamai” - “I don’t even know what you’re talking about.”

          - “porch” = Gr. “proaulion” Only N.T. occ. = The vestibule leading from the outer gate to the court.

          - “the” = “a”

69 - “a maid” = “the maid”, i.e., the same one, who didn’t believe Peter.

70 - The 2nd denial of this set (See notes on John 18:26,27). Peter’s accent causes others to suspect.

71 - The 3rd denial. Peter’s fear makes this one more vehement.

          - “curse and swear” = “cursing and swearing” = Gr. “anathematizo” See 1 Co 16:22.

72 - The “weak flesh” of v. 38 begins to weep.

15:1- “in the morning” - Before sunrise, still dark. The trial is unlawful because of the time and the date (eve of the Sabbath).

          - “and” - 6 times to emphasize the concerted persecution.

          - “held a consultation” = “formed a council”

          - “carried away” = Gr. “apenegkan” = carried along as one who is faint.

              Mt 27:2 - “led” = Gr. “apegagon” = led away a living thing, as a horse is led.

              Lk 23:1 - “they led” = Gr. “egagon” = “they drove”.

           The 3 gospels combine to show the progression of the abusive journey with Mark’s account as the latest.

2- “Pilate asked” - In Matthew and Mark we have the Lord and the rulers alone at this point. In Lk 23:4 the multitude is present after a later interview (see v. 8).

3 - “accused...things...” = “kept accusing Him urgently”

4, 5 - See Isa 53:7.

6 - “released” - Customary at any of the 3 great feasts (Passover/Unleavened Bread, Tabernacles, Weeks/Pentecost).

7 - “Barabbas” = “Son of the Father”

          - “insurrection” - A crime punishable by crucifixion under Roman law.

8 - “crying aloud” = “having gone up”

9, 10 - “knew” = “was beginning to realize”. Note that the chief priests alone are specified.

11 - “moved” = Gr. “anaseio” = “stirred up”, as an earthquake (Gr. “seismos”). Their approach was to indirectly condemn the Lord by favoring Barabbas.

12 - Pilate poses the obvious question to the misdirected crowd.

13 - “Crucify” - The Roman punishment for treason. The Jewish penalty for blasphemy was stoning.

14 - “hath He done?” = “did He ever do?” (Aorist tense).

15 - “willing” = “deciding”

          - “content the people” = “satisfy the crowd”. Compare Aaron and the results of “people pleasing” (Ex 32).

16 - “hall” = “court”

          - “band” = Gr. “speira” = A specific detail of soldiers, usually around a flag.

17 - “crown of thorns” - The Lamb bearing the world’s sin wears the symbol of man’s fall (Gen 3:17, 18).

18 - “Hail” = Gr. “Chaire” - Mocking use of an Aramaic salutation. Equivalent of the Greek “Peace”.

19 - “smote...spit” = “kept smiting...kept spitting”

          - “worshipped” - Paid mock homage.

20 - “own clothes” - Time to follow military procedure.

21 - “compel” = Force into service. Soldiers had the legal right to force someone to carry their gear for up to 1 mile.

          - “Cyrenian” = “Libyan”

          - “out of the country” = “away from a field”

22 - “Golgotha” - Aramaic from Hebrew “Gulgoleth”, an elevation or “head”. Latin is “Calvaria” (a skull). English is “Calvary”.

23 - “gave” = “were offering”

24 - “parted” = “divided”

25 - “third hour” - Of the day, 9AM.

26 - “superscription...written over” = “indictment...written down” (Gr. “epigrapho” 4 other occ. Ac 17:23; Heb 8:10, 10:16; Rev 21:12) - Nothing placed over His head.
           TEACHER’S NOTE:   One of 4 different writings.

  1. (Second) Matthew 27:37: “This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.” - A title brought to replace the first one (Jn 19) after they parted the garments, sat down and watched Him.
  2. Mark 15:26: “The King of the Jews.” - The written indictment of the charges against Him.
  3. (Last) Luke 23:38: “This is the King of the Jews.” - Brought much later, close to the sixth hour, written with the languages in different order (Greek, Latin, Hebrew) than John 19. Put up after the reviling of the People (Matthew was before).
  4. (First) John 19:19: “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.” - Written by Pilate before the Lord left his presence in Hebrew, Greek and Latin. Read after the cross was set up.

27 - “with Him” = “together with Him”. After the dividing of the garments. Two malefactors before (Lk 23:33, 34).

          - “...right...left” - Outside of the two malefactors. Total of 5, with the Lord in the middle.

28 - Isa 53:12.

29 - The passers by, chief priests, scribes and 3 of the 4 crucified with Him (Lk 23:39, 40). See Phil 2:7, 8.

          - “railed on” = “were blaspheming”

30 - “come down” - Same as “descend’ in v. 32.

31 - “among themselves” = “to each other”

32 - “Christ the King of Israel” - Referring to v. 2.

          - “see and believe” - Vain words. They did not believe after His resurrection.

          - “crucified with Him” - Both robbers, one malefactor.

33 - “sixth hour” - Noon.

          - “was” = “became”

          - “ninth hour” - 3 PM, time of the evening sacrifice.

34 - Quote from Ps 22:1.

35 - A great many did not understand Aramaic, the language of the high priests for whom it was intended.

          - “Elias” = “Elijah”

36 - “vinegar” = Gr. “oxos” = “sour wine”

          - “gave” = “was giving”

37 - “cried...voice and” = “having uttered a loud cry, He”

          - “gave up the ghost” = Gr. “ekpneo” = “breathed out”, “expired”.

38 - “veil” = Gr. “katapetasma” (Heb “masak”) - “a hanging” - See Heb 9:3, 10:20.

          - “from the top” = Gr. “anothen” = “from above”.

                 See Lk 1:3 where it is translated “from the very first”. The veil separated the Holy of Holies from the rest of the Temple and was rent from the TOP, from ABOVE, from the FIRST: GOD. The body and blood of Christ gave us access (Ro 5:2; Eph 2:18, 3:12).

39 - “the Son of God” should be “a Son of God” same as Dan 3:25. The statement is a recognition of Divinity.

40, 41 - “the less” = “junior” - To distinguish him from the apostle James, author of the epistle bearing his name and half-brother of the Lord (Mt 13:55).

          - “Salome” - Only here and 16:1. Mother and children are honored by their mention in Scripture.

          - “followed...ministered” = “used to follow and minister”, i.e., on an ongoing basis.

42 - “the preparation” - The 14th of Nisan. The high Sabbath, the 15th, commenced after sunset on the 14th.

43 - “honourable counsellor” - Ranking member of the Sanhedrin.

          - “went in boldly” = “took courage and went in”

          - “craved” - To prevent His burial among criminals and in fulfillment of Isa 53:9.

44 - “marvelled” = “wondered”

          - “centurion” - The one “over against Him” in v. 39.

45 - “gave” = Gr. “doreo” = “made a gift of”

          - “body” - All texts read “corpse” (Gr. “ptoma”).

46 - “fine linen” = Gr. “sindon” as in 14:51, 52.

          - “stone” - Used to keep out animals.

47 - “beheld” = Gr. “theoreo” = “watched attentively to see exactly”

16:1- “sabbath was past” - The weekly sabbath. Now 3 days and 3 nights from the preparation day/burial.

          - “had bought” - Purchased between the two sabbaths. See Lk 23:56, 24:1.

          - “sweet spices” = “aromatics” - To cover the smell of decay.

2 - “week” = “weeks” - 1st day of the Sabbath (Feast of Weeks/Pentecost).

          - “at the rising” = “after sunrise”

3 - The question reveals their ignorance of the sealing and the guards.

          - “roll away” - Sepulchres were designed with an incline in front making it much more difficult to remove the stone than to put it in place.

          - “from” = Gr. “ek” = “out of”, i.e., out of the incline.

4 - “saw” - With surprise.

          - “was” = “had been”

5 - “long white garment” = Gr. “stole” - A long outer robe worn as a mark of distinction.

          - “affrighted” = “amazed”

6, 7 - “Be not affrighted” - Typically, “Fear not”

          - “...crucified...risen...see Him” - The sequence of events giving us blessed assurance.

          - “and Peter” - To help him deal with his denials (See 14:72).

8 - “fled...afraid” - Overwhelmed by the appearance, presence and words of the angel. Unable to process his message.

9-20 - The Last Twelve Verses of Mark's Gospel.
   Many critics contend that the last twelve verses of Mark 16 are not an integral part of his Gospel. The objective evidence is:   

  1. MANUSCRIPTS: There are none older than 4th century, and the oldest two uncial (a special kind of writing used almost exclusively in manuscripts) Manuscripts are without those twelve verses. Of all the others (consisting of some eighteen uncials and some six hundred cursive Manuscripts which contain the Gospel of Mark) there is not one  which leaves out these twelve verses.
  2. As to the VERSIONS:
    1. The SYRIAC. The oldest is the Syriac in it various forms: the “Peshitto” (2nd cent.) and the “Curetonian Syriac” (3rd cent.). Both are older than any Greek Manuscript in existence, and both contain these twelve verses, as do the “Philoxenian” (5th cent.) and the “Jerusalem” (5th cent.) Of these, the Aramaic (or Syriac), known as, the Peshitto,  is the most important, ranking as superior in authority to the oldest Greek manuscripts, and dating from as early as A.D. 170. Peshitto means a version simple and plain, without the addition of subjective input.
      NOTE: The Syrian Church was divided by the 3rd and 4th General Councils in the 5th century, into 3 (and eventually even more,) hostile communions, which have lasted for 1,500 years. Yet with all their bitter controversies they all exhibit the same text in every respect.
    2. The LATIN Version. JEROME (A.D. 382), who had access to Greek Manuscripts older than any now in existence, includes these twelve verses; but this Version (known as the Vulgate) was only a revision of the VETUS ITALA, which is believed to be from the 2nd century and contains these verses.
    3. The GOTHIC Version (A.D. 350) contains them.
    4. The EGYPTIAN Versions: the Memphitic (or Lower Egyptian, sometimes called “COPTIC”), from the 4th or 5th century contains them; as does the “THEBAIC” (or Upper Egyptian, sometimes called the “SAHIDIC”), from the 3rd cent.
    5. The ARMENIAN (5th cent.), the ETHIOPIC (4th-7th cent.), and the GEORGIAN (6th cent.) also bear witness to the genuineness of these verses.
  3. The EARLY FATHERS. Whatever their value as to doctrine and interpretation, in determining actual words, or their form or sequence, their evidence, as to whether a verse or verses existed or not in their day, is more valuable than even manuscripts or Versions.
  4. There are nearly a 100 ECCLESIASTICAL WRITERS older than the oldest Greek codices; while between A.D. 300 and A.D. 600 there are about 200 more, and they all refer to these twelve verses.
  • PAPIAS (about A.D. 100) refers to verse 18 (as stated by Eusebius, Hist. Ecc. iii. 39).
  • JUSTIN MARTYR (A.D. 151) quotes verse 20 (First Apology c. 45).
  • IRENAEUS (A.D. 180) quotes and remarks on verse 19 (Against Heresies. lib. iii. c. x.).
  • HIPPOLYTUS (A.D. 190 - 227) quotes verses 17-19 (Lagarde's ed., 1858, page 74).
  • VINCENTIUS (A.D. 256) quoted two verses at the seventh Council of Carthage, held under CYPRIAN.
  • The ACTA PILATI (2nd cent.) quotes verses 15, 16, 17, 18 (Tischendorf's ed., 1853. pages 243, 351).
  • The APOSTOLICAL CONSTITUTIONS (3rd or 4th cent.) quotes verses 16, 17, 18.
  • EUSEBIUS (A.D. 325) discusses these verses, as quoted by MARINUS from a lost part of his “History”.
  • APHRAARTES (A.D. 337), a Syrian bishop, quoted verses 16-18 in his first Homily (Dr. Wright's ed., 1869, i., page 21).
  • AMBROSE (A.D. 374-97), Archbishop of Milan, freely quotes verses 15 (four times), 16, 17, 18 (three times), and verse 20 (once).
  • CHRYSOSTOM (A.D. 400) refers to verse 9; and states that verses 19, 20 are “the end of the Gospel”.
  • JEROME (b. 331, d. 420) includes these twelve verses in his Latin translation, besides quoting verses 9 and 14 in his other writings.
  • AUGUSTINE (fl. A.D. 395-430) more than quotes them. He discusses them as being the work of the Evangelist MARK, and says that they were publicly read in the churches.
  • NESTORIUS (cent. 5) quotes verse 20, and
  • CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA (A.D. 430) accepts the quotation.
  • VICTOR OF ANTIOCH (A.D. 425) confutes the opinion of Eusebius, by referring to very many Manuscripts which he had seen, and satisfied himself that the last twelve verses were recorded in them.

Why the divide?
 For nearly a hundred years after the destruction of Jerusalem there is a complete blank in ecclesiastical history, and almost a complete silence of Christian speakers and writers. So instead of the Churches of the present day being the continuation of Apostolic times, today’s “organized religion” was primarily influenced by a subsequent generation. When later transcribers of the Greek manuscripts came to the last 12 verses of Mark, and perceived no trace of such spiritual gifts in existence, they concluded that there must be something doubtful about the genuineness of these verses. Hence, some marked them as doubtful, some as spurious, while others omitted them altogether. The pendulum swings both ways. A phenomenon of the opposite kind also exists. Some of the believers in these 12 verses, became (and have become) so zealous and determined to prove their point, but not “rightly dividing the Word of truth”, that they are led into things like churches which use poisonous snakes to determine whether one is indwelt by the Holy Spirit. The resulting confusion is never authored by God. In simplest terms, to end this Gospel at v. 8 is unreasonable. To have verses lost and then uniformly replaced defies credulity.

9 - “early” - Any time after sunset on our Saturday.

10 - “she” - Emphatic.

11 - “they” - emphatic.

          - “was alive” = “is alive”    “of” = “by”

12, 13 - “that” = “these things”

          - “appeared” = Gr. “phaneroo” = “was manifested”

          - “as they walked” - See Lk 24:13-35

14 - “upbraided” = “reproached” - Because He had taught them repeatedly (8:31, 9:31, 10:32-34).

15 - “preach the gospel” = “proclaim the good news”

          - “every creature” = “all mankind”

16 - No third condition.

          - “damned” = Gr. “katakrino” = “condemned”

17, 18 - “shall follow” = “shall attend”, i.e., “follow closely” (in the time covered by the Book of Acts).

                          5 (#of grace) SIGNS

          - “cast out devils” - Ac 8:7, 16:16-18, 19:11-17.

          - “speak with new tongues” - Ac 2:4-11.

          - “take up serpents” - Ac 28:3-6.

          - “drink any deadly thing” - Eusebius (Book 3, Ch.39) records this of Barsabas, surnamed Justus (see Ac 1:23).

          - “lay hands” - Ac 3:7, 19:11,12, 28:8,9

19 - “heaven” = “the heaven”

20 - “every where” - See Col 1:23.

          - “the LORD” = “Jehovah” - To distinguish between the witness of the Son (Heb 2:3) and of the Father (Heb 2:4) and the gifts of the Holy Spirit (Heb 2:4).

          - “conforming” - See Heb 2:4

          - “word” = “logos”