The DIVERSITY of the Gospels

4 Views of our Lord

MATTHEW - Jesus as KING. Royal genealogy. Uses the phrase "kingdom of heaven" 32 times, not once in any other Gospel. Genealogy is downward from Abraham and David. There are 31 events which are only here. Written for the Jews.

MARK - Jesus as SERVANT. No genealogy. Referred to as "Lord" only twice (both times due to imprecise translation) by others. Called "Lord" twice by the Holy Spirit after His ascension. Begins with His ministry and focuses on His activities and feelings. Written for the Romans (Gentiles).

LUKE - Jesus as MAN. Extensive pre-natal information. Human genealogy upward from Adam. Jesus depicted as a friend. Dependent upon the Father. Six miracles and 11 parables appear only in Luke. Women are emphasized  in this Gospel. Extensive use of medical terms by Luke, a physician. Written for the pagan Gentiles.

JOHN - Jesus as GOD. No genealogy. No temptation in the wilderness. No agony in the Garden. No Transfiguration. "Verily, verily" is found only in this Gospel and is used 25 times. Jesus is presented as "speaking" to the Father rather than "praying." (Translated "pray" in Jn 16:26;17:9(2),15,20 but Greek word is "erotao"="to ask familiarly", NOT "proseuchomai" as in the other Gospels). Written for Christians.

Webmaster's Note: There are 4 Gospels to present 4 views.  One Gospel cannot present the fullness of our Lord any more than one can view both sides of a car at once or all 4 sides of a house. They are necessarily different. The first 3 are "Synoptic" only from the standpoint of presenting the humanity of Christ rather than the divinity portrayed in John's Gospel. Attempts to harmonize the Gospels result in claims of discrepancy. For example, there are two different women with issues of blood. Satan tempted Jesus twice in the wilderness. See the following subject about the two entries into Jerusalem. It is error to try to force things to agree when they are different occurrences of similar events. Feel free to E-mail such "discrepancies" to us for clarification. Back to INDEX

 The TWO Entries Into Jerusalem

Another alleged "discrepancy" disappears

            Mt 21                                          Mk 11:1-3; Lk 19:28-31; Jn 12:12-15

- After leaving Jericho (Mt 20:29)         A week later than Mt 20,21

- Lord had arrived in Bethpage             Lk 19:29 "come nigh"

                                                                 Mk 11:1  "came nigh"

- Village is "over against"                    "over against"= Gr."katenanti"

  Gr. "apenanti"="next to"                    below and opposite (caddy corner)

- Two animals*                                       One animal*

- Zec 9:9 fulfilled, requiring                  Jn 12:15 - Zec 9:9 is not said to be

  two animals (v.4)                                 fulfilled. Only partially quoted.

- Mt 21:10,11 "Who is this?                  Jn 12:12,13 "heard He was coming"

  Unexpected entry.                                                                                  

- Entry from Bethpage                          Entry from Bethany after crossing

                                                                the boundary with Bethpage.


*Two animals to proclaim                   *One  to announce Judgment . 

  His mission - Transition                      When the "colt" is grown, He will

  ( mother-----foal)                                 return (Rev. 19:11-16) as King

  (Law-----Grace)                                   mounted on horseback, not astride

                                                                an ass as Servant. (To JOHN)

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Jesus Witnesses to the Pharisees

     7 Points

1. Son can do nothing without the Father (vv.19, 30)

2. The Father reveals everything to the Son  (20)

3. Both Father and Son can bestow life  (21)

4. God has given Judgment over to the Son  (22)

5. Father and Son share honor equally  (23)

6. Eternal life results from believing in the Son  (24)

7. Consummation of this age will be through and by the Son  (25-30)

Witnesses to the Deity of Christ

         5 Points

1. John the Baptist  (31-35)

2. His works  (36)

3. The Father  (37)

4. The Scriptures  (39-44)

5. Moses  (45-47To John 5  Back to INDEX



1. the little horn - Dan 7:8; 8:9

2. the king of Babylon - Isa 14:4

3. Lucifer, son of the morning - Isa 14:12

4. the Assyrian - Isa 14:25

5. the Prince that shall come - Dan 9:26

6. the king of fierce countenance - Dan 8:23

7. the vile person - Dan 11:21

8. the wilful king - Dan 11:36

9. the man of sin - 2Th 2:3

10. the son of perdition - 2Th 2:3

11. that Wicked - 2Th 2:8

12. the beast with ten horns - Rev 13:1    (To REVELATION)

 12 = the Biblical number associated with governments in heaven or on earth.

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"... And Elisha said, ' I pray thee, let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me.' " 

  2Ki 2:9

            ELIJAH'S MIRACLES (8)

1. Shutting Heaven - 1Ki 17:1

2. Oil Multiplied - 1Ki 17:14

3. Widow's Son Raised - 1Ki 17:22,23

4. Fire From Heaven - 1Ki 18:38

5. Rain - 1Ki 18:45

6. Fire From Heaven - 2Ki 1:10

7. Fire From Heaven - 2Ki 1:12

8. Parting the Jordan - 2Ki 2:8


            ELISHA'S MIRACLES (16)

1. Parting The Jordan - 2Ki 2:14

2. Waters Healed - 2Ki 2:21

3. Bears From The Woods - 2Ki 2:24

4. Water For Kings - 2Ki 3:20

5. Oil For Widow - 2Ki 4:1-6

6. Birth Of A Son - 2Ki 4:16,17

7. Raising From The Dead - 2Ki 4:35

8. Healing Of Pottage - 2Ki 4:41

9. Bread Multiplied - 2Ki 4:43

10. Leper Healed - 2Ki 5:10

11. Servant Smitten - 2Ki 5:27

12. Ax Floats - 2Ki 6:6

13. Sight To The Blind - 2Ki 6:17

14. Blindness Inflicted - 2Ki 6:18

15. Sight Restored - 2Ki 6:20

16. Dead Man Revived - 2Ki 13:21 (After Elisha's Death)   Back to INDEX


(see "VISIONS" below)

1. Gen 20:3 - Abimelech

2.        28:12 - Jacob

3.        31:10 - Jacob

4.        31:24 - Laban

5.        37:5 - Joseph

6.        37:9 - Joseph

7.        40:5 - Butler

8.        40:5 - Baker

9.        41:1 - Pharoah

10.      41:5 - Pharoah

11. Judg 7:13 - A man

12. 1Ki 3:5 - Solomon

13. Dan 2:3 - Nebuchadnezzar

14.        4:5 - Nebuchadnezzar

15.        7:1 - Daniel

16. Mt 1:20 - Joseph

17.      2:12 - Wise men

18.      2:13 - Joseph

19.      2:19 - Joseph

20.      27:19 - Pilate's wife


Visions are distinct from dreams. Visions occur in an awake state, though sometimes the receiver is entranced. Visions are made understandable to the receiver. Dreams sometimes require interpretation by another humanDivine interpretation through angels was given to Daniel (9:21ff) and John (Revelation). Visions are  more tangible and physical and may even involve transportation to another location (Eze 37:1). As all things of God, visions may be counterfeited by Satan through false prophets (Jer 14:14). The first vision in Scripture is sent to Abraham (Gen 15:1-11). The entire Book of Revelation from 1:10 through 22:17 is a vision. It contains no dreams.

Visions may be...

 - PERSONAL/INDIVIDUAL   Dan 10:7, 8    Eze 1:3


 - WARNINGS   Isa 21:2-6

 - INSTRUCTIONAL   Ac 16:9,10

 - ENCOURAGING   Gen 15:1

 - SENT FOR GUIDANCE/DIRECTION    Gen 46:2-4        Back to INDEX


*8 References (1 by title, 7 by attributes)

    * 1= Unity, Commencement

       7= Spiritual Perfection, Completeness

       8= Resurrection, Regeneration

v.1 - JEHOVAH-ROI = Jehovah My Shepherd

        - JEHOVAH-JIREH = Provider ("I Shall Not Want")

v.2 - JEHOVAH-SHALOM = Sender Of Peace ("Still Waters")

v.3 - JEHOVAH-ROPHEKA = Healer ("Restoreth My Soul")

       - JEHOVAH-ZIDKENU = Righteousness

v.4 - JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH = Presence ("Thou Art With Me")

v.5 - JEHOVAH-NISSI = Banner ("In The Presence of Mine Enemies")

      - JEHOVAH-MEKADDISHKEM = Sanctifier ("Anointest")

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Compiled from Genesis 5 & 11. Dated from Creation forward.

NAME                    BORN               DIED           AGE

Adam                           0                       930              930

Seth                         130                      1042             912 

Enos                        235                      1140             905 

Cainan                    325                      1235              905

Mahalaleel             395                      1290              895

Jared                      460                      1422               962

Enoch                      622                  987             365 (1)

Methuselah            687                      1656 (2)        969

Lamech                   874                      1651              777

Noah                      1056 (3)                2006 (4)        950

Japheth                  1556 (5)                  ?                 ?

Shem                      1558 (6)                2118             600

Arphaxad               1658                     2088             430

Salah                      1693                     2126             433

Eber                       1723                     2187             464 

Peleg                      1757                     1996             239

Reu                        1787                     2026             239

Serug                     1819                     2049             230

Nahor                    1849                     1997             148

Terah                     1878                     2083             205

Abram                    2008                    2183             175 

(1) Translated by God    Gen 5:24

(2) Year of the Flood. Noah 600 years old.  Gen 7:11

(3) 126 years after Adam's death.   Gen 6:3 (ha-adham=Adam) 

        Gen 6:6 (adam=mankind)

(4) Noah lived 350 years after the Flood.

(5) Gen 5:32

(6) Gen 11:10

(7) Ac 7:4

(Note that Eber ("Hebrew") actually outlived Abraham! )

Consider: 1,000 years is a day to the Lord (2Pe 3:8). Even Methuselah didn't live that long! 

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There are 3 complete listings. There are 3 distinct groupings which DO NOT change and are ALWAYS headed by the same name. The order within the groupings changes. Of the first group, Peter, James and John were present at Gethsemane, the Mount of Transfiguration, and the raising of Jairus' daughter.

       (A) Mt 10:2-4                    (B) Lk 6:14-16                  (C)  Ac 1:13, 26

    Simon (Peter)                Simon (Peter)                   Peter

    Andrew                           Andrew                          James

    James                             James                            John

    John                                John                             Andrew

    Phillip                              Phillip                          Phillip  

   Bartholomew                Bartholomew                   Thomas

   Thomas                          Matthew                          Bartholomew

   Matthew                          Thomas                          Matthew

   James                              James                            James

   Thaddeus*                      Simon the Zealot            Simon

   Simon the Canaanite**  Judas (bro. of James)      Judas

   Judas Iscariot                Judas Iscariot                  Matthias  (v. 26)

* "Thaddeus" may be a corruption of "Yaddai" which is a form of "Judas"

   Both have the same meaning in Aramaic - "beloved child"  (Jn 14:22

**  an Aramaic word meaning "zealot"       Back to INDEX


    To Unbelievers                                          To Believers 

       A Building                                                  People

    An Organization                                       An Organism

    An Association                                             A Family

           Local                                                    Universal

  Headed by a Pastor                             Headed by Christ  

  A Means to Achieve Status                 A Means to Serve God

  A House of Religion                             A House of Worship

  For Stuck-Up People                            For Humble Servants

 For Those On Their Way                             For The Lost

  For Those Doing Well                                 For The Sick  

  People Who Take Your Money                People Who Give

  A Place To Get Help                            A Place To Provide Help

  A Place To Dress Up                           A Place To Come As You Are

  An Uncomfortable Place                        A Place of Peace

  A "Special Time" Place                                     24/7 

  About Feeling Good                                About Doing Good

  A Place To Gossip                                 A Place To Fellowship

  A Place To Get Food                         A Place To Be Fed The Word 

  Somewhere To Send The Kids        Somewhere To Unify The Family

Since many (too many) of the unbelievers are churchgoers (tares), their concept of the Church is perpetuated by their witness (word and deed). As a consequence, the Church becomes more like the world in focus and structure. The Church, in response, exacerbates the situation by seeking to make itself "relevant"  and "up-to-date", forgetting Jn 12:32.

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Exodus 7:3-5 

Introduction: The structure of the Bible reveals a total of ten plagues grouped as 9+1. Nine is used in Scripture as the number of judgment, being the product of the number of divine completeness (3x3). The nine plagues are in three groups of 3, with the 3rd plague of each group sent without warning. The Biblical symmetry also reveals Aaron's participation in the first 3 and Moses alone in the last 3. The 10th plague is the actual judgment and involves the number "1" (# of commencement) as it stands apart from the first 9, and the number "10" (# of perfect order). 

                       God used the plagues to systematically "defeat" the objects of Egyptian polytheism and demonstrate His sovereignty. This Divine demonstration culminates with the ultimate display of sovereignty, the power over life and death (Eze 18:4).

    Plague/Scripture                                      Object

1. BLOOD  (Ex 7:14-25)                       The Nile River itself

2. FROGS (Ex 8:1-15)                          Sacred symbol of fertility

3. LICE (Ex 8:16-19)                            Unlimited Power (vv.18,19)

4. FLIES (Ex 8:20-32)                           Beelzebub - "Lord of the Flies" 

5. MURRAIN (Ex 9:1-7)                       All animal worship

6. BOILS (Ex 9:8-12)                            Typhon - god of burnt sacrifice (v.10)

7. HAIL (Ex 9:13-35)                            Isis and Osiris - goddess of nature and god of the underworld.

8. LOCUSTS (Ex 10:1-20)                     Serapis - Protector from pestilence

9. DARKNESS (Ex 10:21-27)                Ra - The Sun god. Chief among all the gods of Egypt.

10. DEATH (Ex 11:1-10; 12:29,30)          Judgment. The redemption price for Israel. See Deu 15:15

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Introduction: The titles and subscriptions of the Psalms are often mysterious to Bible students. It is important to understand that the Psalms were originally written in unbroken sequence. Some of the original Septuagint translators lacked sufficient knowledge of ancient Temple worship to rightly divide the order. As a result, many of the Psalm titles are actually subscriptions for the preceding Psalm. We have listed the various titles as they appear in the KJV. At the end of this segment we will address two important words which appear within the text of the Psalms - "Higgaion" and "Selah". Your own usage of this information will verify its accuracy. The titles are presented alphabetically to ease reference. 

1. AIJELETH-SHAHAR=The Dawn of Day (sub to 21, not title of 22)

2. AL ALAMOTH=Pertaining to Maidens (sub to 45)

3. AL TASCHITH=Destroy Not (Distress Cry) (sub to 56, 57, 58, 74)

4. GITTITH=Winepresses (Feast of Tabernacles) (sub to 7, 80, 83)

5. JEDUTHUN (also ETHAN)=Musical Director (1Chronicles 15:17,19) (sub to 38, 61, 76

6,7. LEANNOTH/MAHALATH LEANNOTH=Great Dancing and Shouting   (sub to 87)

8. MAHALATH=The Great Dancing (sub to 52)

9. MASCHIL=re:Public Instruction (title to 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, 142)

10. MICHTAM=Engraven (Sign of Importance) (title to 16, 56-60

11. MUTH-LABBEN=Death of the Champion(Goliath) (sub to 8)

12,13. NEGINAH,NEGINOTH (Smitings)=Afflictions    (sub to 3, 5, 53, 54, 60, 66, 75 and Hab 3)  

14. NEHILOTH=Inheritances (sub to 4)

15. PSALM (Heb. "Mizmor")  Used for 44 titles.

16. SHEMINITH=The 8th Division (those circumcised on the 8th day)  (sub to 5, 11)

17. SHIGGAION=Loud Crying (title to 7, Hab 3:1 where the word is plural) 

18. SHOSHANNIM=Lilies, Spring Festival,Passover (sub to 44, 68)

19,20. SHUSHAN/SHOSHANNIM EDUTH=Instruction for Spring Festival  (sub to 59, 79)

21. SONG (Heb. "Shir")=Sung (not spoken as PSALM) (title to 18, 45, 46)


 - HIGGAION- "To meditate" or, as a noun "meditation". Derives from the Heb."hagah"="to speak to one's self" i.e., "to soliloquize". It is used to indicate the worthiness of the subject for meditation.

 - SELAH- From Heb."salah"="to pause". Not musically, but in order to consider something. It is a link which connects what precedes it to what follows. It occurs 74 times, all in the O.T. and occurs 4 times in the middle of a verse ( Ps 55:19; 57:3; Hab 3:3,9 ) and 4 times it is used for linking Psalms ( 3 & 4, 9 & 10, 24 & 25, 46 & 47).

ILLUSTRATION: In Psalm 9:16, where both "Higgaion" and "Selah" occur together, we are to meditate on the connection between the wicked one (sing.) of v.16 and the wicked ones (pl.) of v.17 and the resulting judgment in v.17.  Amen.       Back to INDEX


God's system of supporting His house through His people and keeping it unspotted from the world. It is based upon equal sacrifice, not equal giving and its design works for a body of any size. The question put forth by God in Mal 3:8 is the key to spiritual understanding. The word "rob" is better translated "defraud". How? God passes "meat" to His house through the members of the body. The amount of the tithe, 10%, does not belong to us, it has been entrusted to us to turn over. If we do not pass it on we have, in fact, defrauded God by keeping what does not belong to us. It is God's system. It works! He has neither altered nor replaced it. Since we are called to a higher standard under Grace (Mt 5:17-48), it constitutes minimum expectations. Knowing our hearts (1Ti 6:6-11), God challenges us to "prove" Him (Mal 3:10). This is unique in all of Scripture. Take heed.

                             The first specific mention of tithing in the Bible is by Abraham (Gen 14:20) as an expression of gratitude to God. It is done to acknowledge the authority and generosity of the One who has provided the blessing. A tithe is by definition, ten per cent. For this reason we often encounter the phrase "tithes and offerings." In Leviticus, the tithe is regarded as a type of vow and is included with the other vows. These were given as crops and livestock. Animals were sacrificed and could not be redeemed. The donor could repurchase crop tithes with money plus 20%, as with other vows and pledges (Note Deu 23:21-23).

                                Tithes were for the support of God's house and the ministry thereof including the priests who, in turn, offered a tithe of the tithe as a sacrifice to God. The giving of firstfruits also indicated confidence and faith in God for a good harvest to come. Giving a portion from the land acknowledged that the land belongs to God.


Tithes - Abraham to Melchizedek   Gen 14:16-20  Heb 7:2-6

           - Jacob's Vow to God   Gen 28:22  THE FIRST RECORDED VOW!

           - Mosaic Law  Lev 27:30-33  Nu 18:21-24

                                  Deu 12:6,7, 17-19; 14:22-29; 26:12-15

          - Customs  Neh 10:37,38  Amos 4:4  Heb 7:5-9

          - Tithe of Tithe  Nu 18:26  Neh 10:38

          - Storage In The Temple  Neh 10:38,39    2Ch 31:11,12     Mal 3:10

          - Payment (resumed under Hezekiah)  2Ch 31:5-10

                                        (under Nehemiah)  Neh 13:12

                                                     (withheld)  Neh 13:10   Mal 3:8

         - New Testament  Mt 23:23   Lk 11:42; 18:12

         - By Idolaters  Amos 4:4,5

         - Guidelines For Giving  1Co 16:2    2Co 9:6,7

Firstfruits - REQUIRED as Offering  Ex 22:29   Lev 2:12-16  Num 18:12

                   Deu 18:4  2Ch 31:5  Neh 10:35,37,39  Pr 3:9  Jer 2:3  Ro 11:16

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Numbers are an integral part of the supernatural design of the Bible and carry significance in their usage. This has nothing to do with man's superstitions, but accentuates our understanding and the Holy Spirit's authorship.

ONE - Unity, Beginning, Commencement

TWO - Difference or Division (see Day 2 of Creation).

THREE - Divine completeness and perfection. Also resurrection.

FOUR - The Earth. Material creation. (four winds, seasons, etc.)

FIVE - Grace (4 + 1) God adds blessing to his works.

SIX - The number of Man (created on the sixth day)

SEVEN - Spiritual Perfection (the work of the Holy Spirit)

EIGHT - New beginning, resurrection (Jesus = 888 by Gematria)

NINE - Judgment (3x3 the product of Divine completeness)

TEN - Ordinal perfection

ELEVEN - Disorder (one short of TWELVE)

TWELVE - Governmental order (Tribes, Apostles)

THIRTEEN - Rebellion, Apostasy , Defection, etc. (Always negative)

SEVENTEEN - Combination of Spirit and Order

TWENTY-FIVE - (5x5 Grace intensified)

FORTY - Probation (10x4 Divine Order applied to earthly things)

All numbers follow their components (factors, multiples, sums,products).

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 The 10 PASSOVERS Recorded In Scripture

"10" = # of Perfect Order

1. Ex 12:27,28

2. Nu 9:1-5

3. Jos 5:10

4. 2Chr 30:13-15

5. 2Ki 23:22,23  (2Chr 35:1)

6. Ezra 6:19

7. Mt 26:17

8. Lk 2:41,42

9. Jn 2:13

10. Jn 6:4       Back to INDEX


The 13 Famines Recorded In Scripture

1. Gen 12:10

2. Gen 26:1

3. Gen 41:54

4. Ruth 1:1

5. 2Sa 21:1

6. 1Ki 18:2

7. 2Ki 4:38

8. 2Ki 7:4

9. 2Ki 25:3

10. Neh 5:3

11. Jer 14:1

12. Lk 15:14

13. Ac 11:28       Back to INDEX



(By Divine Prophecy and/or God)

 - Ishmael   Gen 16:11

 - Isaac   Gen 17:19

 - John   Lk 1:13

 - Jesus   Lk 1:31

 - Solomon   1Chr 22:9

 - Josiah   1Ki 13:2

 - Cyrus   Isa 44:28         Back to INDEX


HOUR OF TEMPTATION (Trial,Testing) Rev 3:10

What is being tested?

Let's connect some Scriptures. First, Rev 22:18,19 warn us not to add or take away from the Word. We also know that 2Ti 2:15 tells us to "rightly divide" the Word. This is the Greek word "orthotomeo" which is also found in the Septuagint in Pr 3:6 translated "direct." It is in this verse that we are told that the Lord will direct our paths if we "acknowledge" Him. This is the Hebrew word "yada" meaning "to take ownership of" something (See the usage in Jer 3:13). The question becomes, "How do we take ownership of the Lord?" Let's go to Heb 11:1 and look at two key words. First of all, "substance" = Gr."hupostasis" a word used for title-deeds. Next, "evidence" = Gr."elenchos" ="proof of ownership." It is this "ownership" of God, shown by our enduring faith, which is being tested. (Jas 1:1-4 written to the twelve tribes.) This concept may be obscured in English by the use of the word "little" for 3 specific Greek words. To understand, read:

Mt 6:30 Heb."oligopistos" refers to to quality or duration

NOT Mt 18:3-6 "paidion" referring to maturity

NOT Lk 19:3 "mikros" referring to size (our "micro" is from this)

Revelation repeatedly mentions "patience", "holding fast", "overcoming". Those who know about God shall waver. Those who know/own God shall stand.   Eph 6:13-16  Faith is a shield.

DECEPTION PROTECTION - 1Co 15:51,52  "moment" = Gr."atomos" (only occurrence in Scripture) = something too small to be divided (Eng."atom"). The "rapture" will be instanteous upon His return. THEREFORE,  we can be certain that as long as we exist in flesh bodies, ANY and ALL who claim to be Christ are FALSE (Mt 24:25-27).    Back to INDEX              


To avoid pointless speculation on discerning fulfillment of prophecy based on projected dates, here is a brief discussion of Man's calendars.

Clock times are man-made: 60 sec = 1 min.  60 min = 1 hr  24 hrs. = 1 day

To mark celestial events: Day = 1 rotation of Earth on its axis.

                                         Month = Moon's cycle- New moon to new moon

                                         Year = 1 trip around the Sun by Earth

Seven day week from ancient Hebrew calendar based on Genesis.

BUT, a Day = 23hrs. 56 min. 28 sec.

         a Month = 29 1/2 days

         a Year = less than 365 1/4 days... SO adjustments were necessary. 

Our calendar is from the Romans, based on 12 lunar months = 354 days. SO the Romans added an extra month every few years. Eventually, Julius Caesar realized that the calendar was off by 80 days, SO he consulted Sosigenes, a mathematician, who informed him that the year equalled 365 1/4 days, SO Caesar went to a 365 day year with a 366 day leap year every 4 years, and gave up lunar months. This "Julian calendar" began in 46 B.C., the "Year of Confusion." New Year's moved from March 1 to January 1. Two months were added between November and December and another after February. The year lasted 445 days and ran smoothly afterwards. BUT a year is really 11 minutes and 14 seconds shorter than 365 1/4 days, SO in 1600 years, by 1582, the vernal equinox (Spring) was 10 days early, arriving on March 11 instead of March 21, SO Pope Gregory XXIII went to Christopher Clavius, an astronomer, and dropped 10 days, SO October 4 was followed by October 15. To prevent this from recurring, he decreed that century years should not be leap years unless evenly divisible by 400, SO 1900 A.D. was not a leap year, but 2000 A.D. was. Catholic countries adopted this "Gregorian" calendar, BUT Protestant and Greek Othodox countries did not. SO, 170 years later England and the American colonies dropped 11 days and adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752. Russia did not change its calendar until 1918, Rumania in 1924. The Chinese calendar is about at the year 4710 (as of 2012 Gregorian) and they celebrate New Year's twice: January 1 and again between January 21 and February 19 based on the lunar calendar. The Jewish New Year (Rosh Hashanah) is between late September and early October. Vietnam's New Year is in February,etc.
             The Greek Monk Dionysius Exiguus was commissioned in Rome to coordinate the Church's festival calendar. He dated the birth of Christ as March 25 of the Roman year 754, which became year 1. He was proven to be off by 4 years based on Mt 2:1. This has led to the confusing fact that Jesus' date of birth is unanimously agreed to be 4 B.C.


A. The dates in most Bibles are off by 110 years due to assuming an error in Scripture rather than finding a reason for the alleged "discrepancy." Most Biblical dating hinges on 1 Ki 6:1 (480 years). However, the same time frame referred to by Paul (Ac 13:17-22) covers 573 years. This 93 year difference has been dismissed as error or estimation on Paul’s part when, in fact, it is a Scriptural safeguard against error. The 573 years are according to the calendar. The 480 years are by God’s reckoning of Israel as a nation. God does not include 93 years during the period of the Judges when Israel was Lo-Ammi (not my people).

              Ac 13:17-22                                                      Judges

       Wilderness       40 years                                3:8       8 years

      Judges             450 years                               3:14    18 years

     Saul                   40 years                                 4:3     20 years

     David                 40 years                                   6:1     7 years

  Solomon(1 Ki 6:1 3 years                                  13:1   40 years

                              573 years           less                         93 years   = 480 years

This phenomenon is not uncommon. For example, the 42 generations of Mt 1:17 are by God’s reckoning, not literal. Many are skipped. Note that Ruth herself is omitted in the book of Ruth 4:17. God does not include every link in the royal line. He remains true to his order and structure.

NOTES: 1.The "four hundred and eightieth year" referenced in 1Ki 6:1 is the 480th year of the 490 years from the Exodus to the Dedication of the Temple (the subject of Ch.6). The remaining 10 years include 7 years of construction (1Ki 6:38) and 3 years to complete the furnishing. 

            2. Judges 10:7-9 references an additional 18 years that  affected only a specific portion of the nation "on the other side Jordan..." and did not have national impact.

B. There is a gap of 13 years between the reigns of Amaziah and Uzziah which God ignores. There are 6 years that Athaliah usurped the throne. There is a 1 year gap between Uzziah and Jotham (2 Ki 15:2, 27, 32)

                        93 + 13 + 6 + 1 = 113 years of "Not My People"

                    Specifically: From Eli to Athaliah is off by 93 years

                                      From Joash to Amaziah is off 99 years

                                      From Uzziah to Captivity is off by 113 years

The additional 3 years result from numerous fractional years being counted. This error causes us to miss some of God’s order and sovereignty. For example, this adjustment places David’s anointing at 974 B.C. Exactly 1,000 years before the baptism of Jesus Christ in A.D. 26.

This correction will be necessary to fully appreciate the pinpoint accuracy of many prophecies.  Back to INDEX

The 9 Stonings In Scripture

1. Son of Shelomith for blasphemy - Lev 24:10-14

2. The sabbath breaker - Nu 15:32-36

3. Achan - Jos 7:24,25

4. Abimelech - Judges 9:50-53

5. Adoram - 1Ki 12:18 (2Ch 10:18)

6. Naboth - 1Ki 21:13

7. Zechariah - 2Ch 24:20,21

8. Stephen - Ac 7:59

9. Paul - Ac 14:19        Back to INDEX



4 (# of the Earth) occurrences in Scripture

1. Ex 10:21-23

2. Mt 27:45

3. Jude 13

4. Rev 16:10                                  Back to INDEX 


The period of Israelite bondage in Egypt was NOT 400 years (Carefully note the punctuation in Gen 15:13). It was 121 years (11x11=disorder intensified). The period of sojourning was 430 years to the day (Ex 12:40,41). The total time in Egypt was 215 years, exactly half.


430 - Abraham begins sojourning at age 75 (Gen 12:4) (1921 B.C.)

405 - Abraham is 100; Isaac born (Gen 21:5) (1896 B.C.)

365 - Isaac marries at 40 (Gen 25:20) (1856 B.C.)

345 - Isaac is 60;Jacob, Esau born (Gen 25:26) (1836 B.C.)

215 - Jacob arrives in Egypt at 130 (Gen 47:9) (1706 B.C.)

198 - Jacob dies at 147 (Gen 47:28) (1689 B.C.)

144 - Joseph dies at 110 (Gen 50:22) 71 years after Jacob's arrival. Joseph was 39 when Jacob came (30 at 41:46, 39 at 45:6 after 7 years of plenty and 2 years of famine). Joseph lived 54 years after Jacob's death. (1635 B.C.)

121 - Ex 1:6 sets bondage after all of Joseph's brothers died. Levi*, 3rd of 7 sons in 7 years, was 4 years older than Joseph and died at 137 (Ex 6:16). He was 60 at Jacob's death, surviving him by 77 years and surviving Joseph by 23 years (144-23=121 years remaining). (1612 B.C.)

80 - Moses born (1571 B.C.) 41 years after Levi's death (Moses is 80 years old at Ex 7:7). 

The Exodus was in 1491 B.C. when Moses was 80.

*Gen 29:28 - Important to know that Jacob owed 7 years service for Rachel, BUT did not wait the 7 years first AND the order  of children in Gen 29, 30 is NOT chronological. There are, in fact 20 different orders given in Scripture. Note that at Gen 30:17, 19 the sons are numbered according to Leah only. The actual birth order of the first 7 years is Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Napthali, and Joseph.  Back to INDEX 

The 7 Names Of The Ark of The Covenant

1. The ark of the testimony (Ex 25:22)

2. The ark of the covenant of Jehovah (Nu 10:33)

3. The ark of Adonai Jehovah (1 Ki 2:26)

4. The ark of Jehovah (Josh 3:13)

5. The ark of Elohim (1 Sa 3:3)

6. The holy ark (2 Chron 35:3)

7. The ark of thy strength (Ps 132:8)                                    Back to INDEX


Urim and Thummim (Ex 28:30)
Specifically mentioned elsewhere: Lev 8:8    Deu 33:8    Num 27:21    1 Sam 28:6  Ezra 2:63    Neh 7:65 .  Note Nu 26:52-56.

“The Hebrew words “Urim” and “Thummim” mean, respectively, “Lights” and “Perfections”. (See 1 Sa 14:41 where “Give a perfect lot.” literally says “Give perfections”, i.e Thummim). Urim was therefore indicative of “guilt” (or “no”) as what is brought to light. Thummim was indicative of “innocence” (or “yes”) as what is morally perfect.
          There was no command given by God to make Urim and Thummim, there is only the instruction to place the two precious stones into the breastplate of the high priest which contained a bag (a doubled portion). Urim was a dark, or black stone. Thummim was a light, or white stone. The breastplate itself was known as “the breastplate of judgment” (Ex 28:15) since the usage of Urim and Thummim was to obtain Jehovah’s judgment and therefore reserved for very serious matters. In the book of Joshua we see the “lot” described as coming “up” (Jos 18:11), “forth” (Jos 19:1), and “out” (Jos 19:17) based on the stones being kept in the bag of the ephod. By default, the use of Urim and Thummim required the presence of the high priest, the wearer of the ephod.
          The most commonly used Hebrew word for “lot” in the Old testament is “goral” meaning “stone”. The last Biblical reference to  these “lots” is Ac 1:23-26. Note Rev 2:17 where those who overcome are given a white stone also known in ancient times as a “victory” stone
                                                                                    Back to INDEX 



The church is led from sin and bondage (Romans) to glory (Thessalonians) to be forever with the Lord. In Romans we are justified in Christ. In Ephesians we are sanctified in Christ. In Thessalonians we are glorified with Christ.

A   ROMANS - Doctrine, Instruction – God’s individual justification of Jew and Gentile. The foundation of the mystery. The primary lesson. Error in Romans eliminates “newness”.

B  CORINTHIANS – Reproof for practical failure relative to the teaching of Romans. Error in manifesting having died and risen with Christ. Leaven in practice. Pastoral theology.

C  GALATIANS – Correction for doctrinal failure relative to the teaching of Romans. Error due to being removed from truth (Spirit) and seeking perfection in flesh. Leaven in doctrine.

A   EPHESIANSDoctrine, Instruction - The mystery revealed. Jews and Gentiles gathered out and made “one new man” in Christ. Romans explains “Christ in us.” Ephesians explains “Us in Christ.”

B   PHILIPPIANS – Reproof for practical failure relative to the teaching of Ephesians. Error in manifesting “the mind of Christ” as members of one Body.

C   COLOSSIANS – Reproof for doctrinal failure relative to the teaching of Ephesians. Error due to “not holding the Head” and not trusting completeness and perfection in Christ.

A  THESSALONIANSDoctrine, InstructionNo reproof or correction, only warnings. An epistle of praise and thanksgiving. The “all truth” of  John 16:13.


 1st Seven                                                                




Prison Letters

Pastoral Letters

1 Thessalonians



1 Timothy

2 Thessalonians







2 Timothy

1 Corinthians




2 Corinthians










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The 10 Songs Of Praise In The Bible


1.    Exodus 15:1-9
2.    Numbers 21: 17, 18
3.    Deuteronomy 32:1-43
4.    Judges 5: 1-31
5.    1 Samuel 2:1-10
6.    2 Samuel 22:1-51
7.    Luke 1:46-55
8.    Luke 1:68-79
9.    Luke 2:29-32
10.  Revelation 14:3

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(1) The Shulamite - (2) The daughters of Jerusalem (Court ladies) - (3) Solomon - (4) The shepherd lover - (5) The brothers of the Shulamite - (6) The companions of the shepherd - (7) The people of Jerusalem


Ch 1:2-4 The Shulamite

 5,6The daughters/Court  ladies

 7 The Shulamite

 8 The Court ladies

 9-11 Solomon

 12-14 The Shulamite to her lover

 15 Shepherd lover to the Shulamite

 16-2:1 The Shulamite to her lover

 Ch 2:2 Shepherd to Shulamite

 3-7 Shulamite to Shepherd

 8-14 Shulamite to Court ladies

 15 Shulamite quotes her brothers

 16,17 Shulamite to Court ladies

 Ch 3:1-4 Shulamite tells of seeking and finding her lover

 5 Shulamite tells Court ladies to quiet down (also 2:7, 8:4)

 6-11 People of Jerusalem (4) utterances as procession approaches

  #1 - v.6        #2 - 7,8         #3 - 9,10       #4 -11

Ch 4:1-5 Shepherd follows to Jerusalem to express his love as he approaches

 6 Shulamite proposes her return (see 2:17)

 7-15 Shepherd speaks.

 16a Shepherd speaks

 16b Shulamite speaks

 Ch 5:1a Shepherd responds

 lb Court ladies, overhearing, offer encouragement 5:2-6:3 Shulaniite to  Court  ladies

 2-8 Shulamite relates her dream

 9 Court ladies ask a question

 10-16 Shulamite describes her beloved

Ch 6:1 Court ladies wish to see him

 2,3 Shulamite responds

 6:4-8:4 Conversation between the Shulamite and Solomon

 4-10 Solomon offers flattery

 11,12 Shulamite says their meeting is accidental

 13 Solomon asks. Shulamite responds. Solomon flatters through 7:9.

Ch 7:10 The Shulamite rejects Solomon.

 11- 8:3  Shulamite calls for her lover to take her away

 8:4 Shulamite addresses the Court ladies again

 5a The companions of the Shepherd

 5b-7 Shulamite and Shepherd revisit their betrothal place and renew their vows

 8,9 Brothers of the Shulamite discuss her dowry and virtue

 10-12 The Shulamite

 13 The Shepherd

 14 The Shulamite            BACK TO INDEX


I. Definitions from the AMERICAN DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE - Noah Webster 1828 (Words in red are teacher’s additions)

A.  F'AST, verb intransitive

1. To abstain from food, beyond the usual time; to omit to take the usual meals, for a time; as, to fast a day or a week.

2. To abstain from food voluntarily, for the mortification of the body or appetites (See Col 3:5), or as a token of grief, sorrow and affliction.

3. To abstain from food partially, or from particular kinds of food; as, the Catholics fast in Lent.

 B. F'AST, noun

1. Abstinence from food; properly a total abstinence, but it is used also for an abstinence from particular kinds of food, for a certain time.

2. Voluntary abstinence from food, as a religious mortification or humiliation; either total or partial abstinence from customary food, with a view to mortify the appetites, or to express grief and affliction on account of some calamity, or to deprecate (pray against) an expected evil.

3. The time of fasting, whether a day, week or longer time. An annual fast is kept in New England, usually one day in the spring.

II. Though fasting is typically defined and thought of in terms of food, its spiritual objective is not achieved by simply NOT EATING! No part of our Christian walk is fruitful by merely going through the motions. Fasting is about drawing closer to the Lord and moving away from self-reliance and toward the promise of Isaiah 40:28-31.

Let’s start with Isaiah 58 where God Himself lays out Dos, Don’ts, Whys and Wherefores. It is here that the definition of fasting extends far beyond food.

1-4 - The people have fasted for the sole purpose of achieving a desired result from the LORD. They are well-churched and pride themselves on knowing how to handle God as a spoiled child prides himself on being able to get his parents to do whatever he wants. They can’t understand why it doesn’t seem to be working for them.

God explains:

“Behold...” - On the day of your fast the only difference is that you skip lunch.

                    - You get hungry and irritable and wind up quarreling and fighting. You will not find favor simply because you skipped a meal or two.

5 - God is not interested in suffering for the sake of suffering. Fasting must have proper purpose. The phrase “afflict his soul” refers to Lev 16:29, 31 (The Day of Atonement). See A.2 above.

6 - 12 - The fast that God has “chosen” - Self-denial for the benefit of others. A pause from the pursuit of our own objectives. The at-one-ment of peace and charity. God’s fast calls for us to be strengthened inwardly by looking outwardly. As we deny ourselves we are to focus on why we are doing it. Making our “voice heard on high” is conditionally promised in vv.8-12.

 III. Specifics

Matthew 6:14-18 - To rightly divide, the concept of atonement begins at v. 14. Hence, v. 16 begins with “Moreover”. Fasting that does not mortify the flesh has no spiritual benefit. If everyone is buzzing about how long you’ve been fasting, all you did was go on a diet. If one gives up watching television for a period of time and replaces it with bowling instead of study, meditation or charitable work, for example, it is pointless.

Mark 2:19 - Connects to Matthew 6. If the bridegroom is celebrating, the guests at the wedding feast should not be fasting. It’s difficult to fast “in secret” at the family barbeque when you’re explaining to everyone that you can’t have your usual plate of ribs because you are in the midst of a holy fast. Either eat or stay home.

Matthew 17:21 - Prayer and Fasting - In essence, Communion and Atonement. Maximizing the spiritual power that flows through us. This verse lets us know that evil exists at different levels of power, just as there are both angels and archangels. The prayer exercises the faith while the natural man is weakened. We have, in effect, turned the battle over to the Lord. See Psalm 109:4 where David says, “I give myself unto prayer” which is written, in the Hebrew, “I am all prayer”, that is, no flesh, 100% spiritual. Prayer and fasting is double-edged by spiritual increase operating in tandem with natural decrease.      Back to INDEX

The 9 Everlasting Things in ISAIAH

1.  The Covenant   55:3, 61:8

2.  Kindness   54:8

3.  Salvation   45:17

4.  Excellency   60:15

5.  Joy   51:11

6.  Name   56:5

7.  Light   60:19, 20

8.  Sign  55:13

9.  God   40:28                                   Back to INDEX


Kingdom Of Heaven/Kingdom Of God

The word “kingdom” (Gr. “basileia”) refers to sovereignty rather than territory, and to the sphere of its exercise rather than to its extent. In others words, it is not characterized as we regard natural kingdoms.

the Kingdom of heaven”, occurs only in Matthew, where we find it thirty-two times.

“the Kingdom of God” occurs only five times in Matthew (6:33; 12:28; 19:24; 21:31, 43). 

The Kingdom (or Sovereignty) of HEAVEN

  Has Messiah for its King;


  1. It is from heaven; and under the heavens upon the earth;
  2. It is limited in its scope;
  3. It is political in its sphere;
  4. It is Jewish and exclusive in its character;
  5. It is national in its aspect;            
  6. It is the special subject of Old Testament prophecy;
  7. And it is dispensational in its duration.


  The Kingdom (or Sovereignty) of GOD

  Has God for its Ruler;


  1. It is in heaven, over the earth;
  2. It is unlimited in its scope;
  3. It is moral and spiritual in its sphere;
  4. It is inclusive in its character (embracing the natural and spiritual seeds of Abraham, "the heavenly calling", and the "Church" of the Mystery). Making it,
  5. Universal in its aspect;
  6. It is (in its wider aspect) the subject of New Testament revelation;
  7. And will be eternal in its duration.



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The Ten Who Fell Before Jesus

  1. Mary, sister of Martha (Jn 11:32)
  2. The wise men (Mt 2:11)
  3. Jairus, a ruler of the synagogue (Mk 5:22)
  4. The woman with the issue of blood (Mk 5:33)
  5. The Syrophenician mother (Mk 7:25)
  6. Simon Peter, a fisherman (Lk 5:8)
  7. The leper (Lk 5:12)
  8. The Gadarene possessed by demons (Lk 8:28)
  9. The Samaritan leper who was healed (Lk 17:16)
  10. Judas and the band of officers (Jn 18:6)

A review of these varied individuals should produce a fuller understanding of Philippians 2:9-11.        Back to INDEX