(In progress)

INDEX

42-43-44-45 46-47-48-49-50-51-52-53-54-55-56-57-58-59-60-61-62-63-64-65-66-67-68-69-70-71-72

BOOK II Summary: The Exodus Book. The nation of Israel is the central thought. The Book begins with a cry of oppression as does the Book of Exodus. The Hebrew title for Exodus translates to “AND THESE ARE THE NAMES” because it starts with the names of those who came into Egypt and were subsequently redeemed and delivered. The name of the Redeemer is proclaimed in Ex 15:3 making Exodus a book of Redemption, individually and collectively, from ruin and oppression.

   “NAMES” in Exodus

       - Moses known by name (33:12, 17)

       - Moses asks God’s name (3:14,15)

       - God proclaims His name (6:3; 33:19; 34:5-7)

       - Moses addresses Pharaoh in Jehovah’s name (5:23)

       - Pharaoh raised up for declaration of God’s name (9:16)

       - 3rd Commandment (20:7)

       - Bezaleel called by name (31:2)

       - Names engraved on ephod (28:9-12)

       - Names on breastplate stones (28:15-21)

The Divine Title “JAH” (He Who IS, and WAS, and IS TO COME) first occurs in Exodus 15:3. The first occurrence in Psalms is in the Exodus Book (68:4).

TEACHER’S NOTE: In Lk 9:31 the word rendered “decease” in the KJV is the Greek word “exodos” in reference to what He “should accomplish at Jerusalem”: His Redemption work paralleling the work accomplished by Moses.

Psalm 42 - Linked to Ps 43 which has no title and corresponding structure.

     - “Maschil” = “Instruction”  The 2nd of 13.

     - “for the sons of Korah” = “by the descendants of Korah”. The first of 11 so subtitled (42, 44-49, 84,85,87, 88). See Korah’s death by Divine judgment (Nu 16:31-35) and note “men”. The children were spared (Nu 26:11) and became prominent in the “service of song” for Temple worship (1 Ch 6:22-38). Samuel, the son of Elkanah, was of this tribe.

1 - Israel as a hunted (Persian fallow) deer

     - “hart” = Heb. “ayal” = “stag”, “male deer” BUT the verb is feminine and therefore refers to the hind, the smaller, anterless female of the species (Dama mesopotamica).

        TEACHER’S NOTE:  Parallels for the Nation of Israel

  • These deer are quick, surefooted and have exceptional vision as defenses. They spend most of the day hidden in dense woods and underbrush.
  • Ps 29:9 references these timid creatures being so terrified by thunder that they will prematurely give birth.
  • They were thought to have been hunted to extinction until a small remnant was found in Iran in 1955.
  • The vocalization of these deer is called “groaning”.
  • The fallow deer is a “clean” animal (Deu 14:4-5) but is not suitable for sacrifice.

     - “panteth” = “crieth longingly” as Israel in Egypt. See Joel 1:20.

     - “after” = “for”

     - “brooks” = Heb. “aphikim” = Constrained, narrow watercourses as in a gorge or marsh hidden from view for safety.

     - “after” = “upon”  See Jn 4:13,14

     - “God” = Heb. “Elohim” = “The Creator” later revealed as Jehovah in the oppression. Ex 3:12-15

2 - “GOD”= Heb. “El” in contrast to lifeless idols.

     - “appear before” = “see the face of” as in Ex 23:15.

3 - “continually” = “all the day”

     - “Where…?” - Standard question from the wicked. Ps 79:10; 115:2

4 - “remember” - How hope is renewed.

     - IMPORTANT: “had gone” = “shall go” and “went” = “shall go”

     - Go where? With the congregation (“multitude”) to the “house of God” with “the voice of joy and praise”.

     - “holyday” = “feast day”

        TEACHER’S NOTE: Understand the repeated demand to Pharaoh (Ex 7:16; 8:1,20; 9:1,13; 10:3)

5 - “Why…me?” - Repeated v.11 and Ps 43:5.

          The psalmist examines himself and recognizes his need for the help (“salvations” for emphasis) of his own (“His” should be “my”) countenance. Understand Phil 4:11-13 and the unsuitability of a pity party (Ps 100 and 1 Th 5:18).

6 - “O, my God” - As in Ps 22:1, no matter our circumstances, feelings, or perspective: God is still God. In this verse, the phrase anticipates deliverance as a Covenant principle.

     - “remember” - Remembering the goodness of the Lord is the course that leads to comfort.

     - “Jordan” - See Jos 3:11-17; 4:18-24

     - “Hermonites” = “Hermons” - Plural because Mt. Hermon has two peaks. See Jos 12:1-5

     - TEACHER’S NOTE: “hill” = “mountain” and “Mizar” = “little” or “insignificant”. Together, “Little Mountain”. This is an ancient reference to Mt. Sinai, where the Law was given (Ex 19:17-20,24-25). The “Mizar” name for Mt. Sinai is based on its height of 2250 ft. and its situation in the midst of higher peaks on all sides. It is located at the Southern end of the Promised Land while Mt. Hermon (9232 ft.) is at the Northern end. These two mountains and the Jordan River describe the Promised Land bounded on the West by the Mediterranean. This corresponds and connects to “Deep…unto deep” in the next verse acknowledging the sovereignty of God.

7 - “Deep…at the voice” - See Mk 4:37-41.

     - “Thy waterspouts…Thy waves…Thy billows” - Imagery of overwhelming misfortunes. Allowed by God and survived by those who are properly anchored. Heb 6:18,19

8 - “Yet” - Omit.

     - “the LORD” = Heb. “Jehovah” The Covenant God.

     - “command” - All, at all times, is in subjection to God (“day…night”). This includes “His lovingkindness”, “His song” and our “prayer”.

     - GOD of my life” = “living (Almighty) God”

9,10 - Enclosed in quotes, therefore spoken aloud. The psalmist cries out to the Almighty.

   - “rock” = Heb. “sela`” = “fortress”

       (10) - “As with” should be “Like”

                - “enemies” = “adversaries”

11 - See v.5. “For” is replaced by “Who is”

     - “health” = “salvation”

     - “and my God” - Added to verse 5 as praise for the Creator. See Ps 34:1.

                   INDEX

Psalm 43 - The repeated cry, hope, appeal and praise of Psalm 42 but written at/for the later time of David’s exile.

1 - “Judge” = “Vindicate”

     - “plead” - As an advocate.

     - “ungodly” = “graceless”

     - “deliver” - As a redeemer.

     - “deceitful”, “unjust” - Therefore ungodly.

2 - See 42:9.

     - “God of my strength” = “my defending God”

     - “dost” = “didst”

     - “the enemy” = “an enemy”

3 - “Thy light and Thy truth” - A reference to Urim and Thummim (Heb. “Lights and Perfection”) the two stones in the breastplate bag of the high priest drawn out to reveal God’s decisions and judgment. David was separated from Urim and Thummim after his flight from Absalom.

     - “lead” = “comfort”

     - “bring” = “guide”, “counsel”

     - “Thy holy hill” = “Mt. Zion” - Sets the Psalm to David’s time.

     - “tabernacles” = “great habitations”, i.e., “the heavens”

4 - “Then…” - After being directed by God’s light and truth we will find ourselves at the altar with joy and praise.

5 - See Ps 42:11

     - “health” = “salvation”                                                          INDEX

Psalm 44 - The circumstances in this Psalm point to Hezekiah as the writer. There is Temple worship. The People are in the land but Israel had turned from the LORD. Judah had returned. Verse 16 references Sennacherib and Rabshekah (2 Ki 18:13-37).

       - “For the sons of Korah” - 2nd of eleven.

       - “Maschil” = “Instruction” - 3rd of thirteen

1-3 - The Exodus called to remembrance to inspire hope.

   (1) - “We have heard”, “…fathers told us” - Ex 12:26ff, 13:14ff; Jos 4:4-7

   (2) - “heathen” - the Canaanites

        - “them” - the Israelites

        - “people” = “peoples”. i.e., the Canaanites

        - “cast” = “spread” as a vine. Referring to the Israelites (Isa 5:1-7).

   (3) - “But” = Heb. “Ki” = “For”

        - “favour” - See Deu 4:37; 7:7,8; 8:1-20

4 - “Thou art my King” - Emphatic. Means “Thou Thyself art He my King”

       - “deliverances” = “a great deliverance”

5 - Victory through the LORD over the “enemies” (“adversaries”)

       - Victory because of “push down” AND “tread under”

6 - “trust in” = “place confidence in”

       - “bow”, “sword” - Representing military power. See Jer 17:5-8

7 - “hadst” = “didst” - Again, recalling the Exodus.

8 - See 1 Co 1:30,31

     - “Selah” - Connects the joys of the past with the trials of the present, the reason for the Psalm. Moves the structure from God’s help to Israel’s trouble in vv.9-22.

9-14 - “Thou” in each verse acknowledging God’s sovereignty.

     (9) - “cast off” = “cast us off” (with contempt)

           - “our armies” - Contrast with 1 Sa 17:26, 45-48

    (10) - “Thou” - The battle is the LORD’s, for or against. Here and v.11.

            - “spoil for themselves” - Literally, “have plundered at their will”. See Judges 2:14.

    (11) - “sheep appointed for meat” = “sheep of devouring”. Same in v.22.

            - “scattered…heathen” - On Sennacherib’s cylinder he takes credit for removing 200,150.

    (12) - “sellest” - A Hebraism for divesting oneself of something. See Judges 2:14; 3:8; 4:2, 10:7 and 1 Sa 12:9

13-18 - 2 Ki 18:13-19:20 details this situation.

    (13-15) - “reproach” - Rabshekah in 2 Ki 18:27-35

    (16) - “avenger” - A reference to Sennacherib.

    (17) - “All this…yet…” - Adversity may turn us back to God or lead us away. See Mk 4:16,17

            - “dealt falsely in Thy covenant” - Spiritual adultery. Jer 3:8.

    (18) - “steps…Thy way” - Our way must be His way. Pr 14:12, 16:25

19 - “dragons” = “jackals”. Scavengers gather among the dead, hence “the shadow of death”. Understand 2 Ti 2:3 where “endure hardness” = Gr. “kakapatheo” = “suffer evil”

20,21 - God is not mocked (Gal 6:7). God is a jealous God (Ex 20:1-6). God is all-knowing (Jer 17:9,10)

22 - “Yea” = “Surely” - Quoted in Ro 8:36. Understand Phil 2:8 and Heb 12:1-13.

23-26 - A plea to the Redeemer based on his lovingkindness. Our despair must not cause us to doubt the LORD’s sovereignty over our situation. We must call on His grace and mercy instead of hoping to “cash in our chips” for our accumulated goodness.

                                                                                                             INDEX