(In progress)



BOOK II Summary: The Exodus Book. The nation of Israel is the central thought. The Book begins with a cry of oppression as does the Book of Exodus. The Hebrew title for Exodus translates to “AND THESE ARE THE NAMES” because it starts with the names of those who came into Egypt and were subsequently redeemed and delivered. The name of the Redeemer is proclaimed in Ex 15:3 making Exodus a book of Redemption, individually and collectively, from ruin and oppression.

   “NAMES” in Exodus

       - Moses known by name (33:12, 17)

       - Moses asks God’s name (3:14,15)

       - God proclaims His name (6:3; 33:19; 34:5-7)

       - Moses addresses Pharaoh in Jehovah’s name (5:23)

       - Pharaoh raised up for declaration of God’s name (9:16)

       - 3rd Commandment (20:7)

       - Bezaleel called by name (31:2)

       - Names engraved on ephod (28:9-12)

       - Names on breastplate stones (28:15-21)

The Divine Title “JAH” (He Who IS, and WAS, and IS TO COME) first occurs in Exodus 15:3. The first occurrence in Psalms is in the Exodus Book (68:4).

TEACHER’S NOTE: In Lk 9:31 the word rendered “decease” in the KJV is the Greek word “exodos” in reference to what He “should accomplish at Jerusalem”: His Redemption work paralleling the work accomplished by Moses.

Psalm 42 - Linked to Ps 43 which has no title and corresponding structure.

     - “Maschil” = “Instruction”  The 2nd of 13.

     - “for the sons of Korah” = “by the descendants of Korah”. The first of 11 so subtitled (42, 44-49, 84,85,87, 88). See Korah’s death by Divine judgment (Nu 16:31-35) and note “men”. The children were spared (Nu 26:11) and became prominent in the “service of song” for Temple worship (1 Ch 6:22-38). Samuel, the son of Elkanah, was of this tribe.

1 - Israel as a hunted (Persian fallow) deer

     - “hart” = Heb. “ayal” = “stag”, “male deer” BUT the verb is feminine and therefore refers to the hind, the smaller, anterless female of the species (Dama mesopotamica).

        TEACHER’S NOTE:  Parallels for the Nation of Israel

  • These deer are quick, surefooted and have exceptional vision as defenses. They spend most of the day hidden in dense woods and underbrush.
  • Ps 29:9 references these timid creatures being so terrified by thunder that they will prematurely give birth.
  • They were thought to have been hunted to extinction until a small remnant was found in Iran in 1955.
  • The vocalization of these deer is called “groaning”.
  • The fallow deer is a “clean” animal (Deu 14:4-5) but is not suitable for sacrifice.

     - “panteth” = “crieth longingly” as Israel in Egypt. See Joel 1:20.

     - “after” = “for”

     - “brooks” = Heb. “aphikim” = Constrained, narrow watercourses as in a gorge or marsh hidden from view for safety.

     - “after” = “upon”  See Jn 4:13,14

     - “God” = Heb. “Elohim” = “The Creator” later revealed as Jehovah in the oppression. Ex 3:12-15

2 - “GOD”= Heb. “El” in contrast to lifeless idols.

     - “appear before” = “see the face of” as in Ex 23:15.

3 - “continually” = “all the day”

     - “Where…?” - Standard question from the wicked. Ps 79:10; 115:2

4 - “remember” - How hope is renewed.

     - IMPORTANT: “had gone” = “shall go” and “went” = “shall go”

     - Go where? With the congregation (“multitude”) to the “house of God” with “the voice of joy and praise”.

     - “holyday” = “feast day”

        TEACHER’S NOTE: Understand the repeated demand to Pharaoh (Ex 7:16; 8:1,20; 9:1,13; 10:3)

5 - “Why…me?” - Repeated v.11 and Ps 43:5.

          The psalmist examines himself and recognizes his need for the help (“salvations” for emphasis) of his own (“His” should be “my”) countenance. Understand Phil 4:11-13 and the unsuitability of a pity party (Ps 100 and 1 Th 5:18).

6 - “O, my God” - As in Ps 22:1, no matter our circumstances, feelings, or perspective: God is still God. In this verse, the phrase anticipates deliverance as a Covenant principle.

     - “remember” - Remembering the goodness of the Lord is the course that leads to comfort.

     - “Jordan” - See Jos 3:11-17; 4:18-24

     - “Hermonites” = “Hermons” - Plural because Mt. Hermon has two peaks. See Jos 12:1-5

     - TEACHER’S NOTE: “hill” = “mountain” and “Mizar” = “little” or “insignificant”. Together, “Little Mountain”. This is an ancient reference to Mt. Sinai, where the Law was given (Ex 19:17-20,24-25). The “Mizar” name for Mt. Sinai is based on its height of 2250 ft. and its situation in the midst of higher peaks on all sides. It is located at the Southern end of the Promised Land while Mt. Hermon (9232 ft.) is at the Northern end. These two mountains and the Jordan River describe the Promised Land bounded on the West by the Mediterranean. This corresponds and connects to “Deep…unto deep” in the next verse acknowledging the sovereignty of God.

7 - “Deep…at the voice” - See Mk 4:37-41.

     - “Thy waterspouts…Thy waves…Thy billows” - Imagery of overwhelming misfortunes. Allowed by God and survived by those who are properly anchored. Heb 6:18,19

8 - “Yet” - Omit.

     - “the LORD” = Heb. “Jehovah” The Covenant God.

     - “command” - All, at all times, is in subjection to God (“day…night”). This includes “His lovingkindness”, “His song” and our “prayer”.

     - GOD of my life” = “living (Almighty) God”

9,10 - Enclosed in quotes, therefore spoken aloud. The psalmist cries out to the Almighty.

   - “rock” = Heb. “sela`” = “fortress”

       (10) - “As with” should be “Like”

                - “enemies” = “adversaries”

11 - See v.5. “For” is replaced by “Who is”

     - “health” = “salvation”

     - “and my God” - Added to verse 5 as praise for the Creator. See Ps 34:1.


Psalm 43 - The repeated cry, hope, appeal and praise of Psalm 42 but written at/for the later time of David’s exile.

1 - “Judge” = “Vindicate”

     - “plead” - As an advocate.

     - “ungodly” = “graceless”

     - “deliver” - As a redeemer.

     - “deceitful”, “unjust” - Therefore ungodly.

2 - See 42:9.

     - “God of my strength” = “my defending God”

     - “dost” = “didst”

     - “the enemy” = “an enemy”

3 - “Thy light and Thy truth” - A reference to Urim and Thummim (Heb. “Lights and Perfection”) the two stones in the breastplate bag of the high priest drawn out to reveal God’s decisions and judgment. David was separated from Urim and Thummim after his flight from Absalom.

     - “lead” = “comfort”

     - “bring” = “guide”, “counsel”

     - “Thy holy hill” = “Mt. Zion” - Sets the Psalm to David’s time.

     - “tabernacles” = “great habitations”, i.e., “the heavens”

4 - “Then…” - After being directed by God’s light and truth we will find ourselves at the altar with joy and praise.

5 - See Ps 42:11

     - “health” = “salvation”                                                          INDEX

Psalm 44 - The circumstances in this Psalm point to Hezekiah as the writer. There is Temple worship. The People are in the land but Israel had turned from the LORD. Judah had returned. Verse 16 references Sennacherib and Rabshekah (2 Ki 18:13-37).

       - “For the sons of Korah” - 2nd of eleven.

       - “Maschil” = “Instruction” - 3rd of thirteen

1-3 - The Exodus called to remembrance to inspire hope.

   (1) - “We have heard”, “…fathers told us” - Ex 12:26ff, 13:14ff; Jos 4:4-7

   (2) - “heathen” - the Canaanites

        - “them” - the Israelites

        - “people” = “peoples”. i.e., the Canaanites

        - “cast” = “spread” as a vine. Referring to the Israelites (Isa 5:1-7).

   (3) - “But” = Heb. “Ki” = “For”

        - “favour” - See Deu 4:37; 7:7,8; 8:1-20

4 - “Thou art my King” - Emphatic. Means “Thou Thyself art He my King”

       - “deliverances” = “a great deliverance”

5 - Victory through the LORD over the “enemies” (“adversaries”)

       - Victory because of “push down” AND “tread under”

6 - “trust in” = “place confidence in”

       - “bow”, “sword” - Representing military power. See Jer 17:5-8

7 - “hadst” = “didst” - Again, recalling the Exodus.

8 - See 1 Co 1:30,31

     - “Selah” - Connects the joys of the past with the trials of the present, the reason for the Psalm. Moves the structure from God’s help to Israel’s trouble in vv.9-22.

9-14 - “Thou” in each verse acknowledging God’s sovereignty.

     (9) - “cast off” = “cast us off” (with contempt)

           - “our armies” - Contrast with 1 Sa 17:26, 45-48

    (10) - “Thou” - The battle is the LORD’s, for or against. Here and v.11.

            - “spoil for themselves” - Literally, “have plundered at their will”. See Judges 2:14.

    (11) - “sheep appointed for meat” = “sheep of devouring”. Same in v.22.

            - “scattered…heathen” - On Sennacherib’s cylinder he takes credit for removing 200,150.

    (12) - “sellest” - A Hebraism for divesting oneself of something. See Judges 2:14; 3:8; 4:2, 10:7 and 1 Sa 12:9

13-18 - 2 Ki 18:13-19:20 details this situation.

    (13-15) - “reproach” - Rabshekah in 2 Ki 18:27-35

    (16) - “avenger” - A reference to Sennacherib.

    (17) - “All this…yet…” - Adversity may turn us back to God or lead us away. See Mk 4:16,17

            - “dealt falsely in Thy covenant” - Spiritual adultery. Jer 3:8.

    (18) - “steps…Thy way” - Our way must be His way. Pr 14:12, 16:25

19 - “dragons” = “jackals”. Scavengers gather among the dead, hence “the shadow of death”. Understand 2 Ti 2:3 where “endure hardness” = Gr. “kakapatheo” = “suffer evil”

20,21 - God is not mocked (Gal 6:7). God is a jealous God (Ex 20:1-6). God is all-knowing (Jer 17:9,10)

22 - “Yea” = “Surely” - Quoted in Ro 8:36. Understand Phil 2:8 and Heb 12:1-13.

23-26 - A plea to the Redeemer based on his lovingkindness. Our despair must not cause us to doubt the LORD’s sovereignty over our situation. We must call on His grace and mercy instead of hoping to “cash in our chips” for our accumulated goodness.


Psalm 45 - In Praise Of The Deliverer

     - “For the sons of Korah” - 3rd of nine.

     - “Maschil” = “Giving instruction” - 4th of thirteen

     - “A Song” = Heb. “Shir”

     - “loves” - Plural to indicate significance. The Psalm is located here, between Pss. 44 and 48 to highlight Hezekiah’s marriage to Hepzi-bah (“my delight is in her” Isa 62:4). Thus, in summary, we have Hezekiah and Hepzi-bah as types for the Messiah and the new Jerusalem. The fulfillment is in the Messiah (Rev 19:7). See Isa 54:5-8.

IMPORTANT: Why is Hezekiah’s marriage so significant? Read 2 Ki 20:1-6 and 2 Ki 21:1. Note Manasseh’s age (12). Therefore, at the time of Hezekiah’s prayer he was unmarried and childless. Had he died childless, the bloodline of Jesus Christ would have been severed! No marriage, no Manasseh, no Jesus. From Gen 3:15 forward the Old Testament concerns itself with Satan striving to prevent the birth of the Messiah. Each time he neared success, God’s grace intervened. The 15 additional years granted to Hezekiah = #3 (completeness and resurrection) x #5 (grace). Being saved by grace (Eph 2:8) applies to all humanity for all of time until the final marriage transcends time.

1 - The Psalmist

     - “inditing” = “bubbling over with”

     - “matter” = “subject”, “theme”

2-8 - The King

        - (2) - “fairer” - In glory following suffering. Isa 52:14, 53:2

                - “Grace…” - Jn 1:14

3,4 - The king and The King.  See Rev 19:11-16

      (3) - “Gird” - Applies to all 3: “sword”, “glory”, “majesty”

           - “most mighty” = Heb. “gibbor” = “O, Mighty One”

      (4) - “Because of” = “On behalf of” 

            - “terrible” = “fearful” as in “awesome” in a reverential sense.

  5 - The imagery of a conqueror.

  6,7 - Quoted in Heb 1:8,9. See Isa 9:6,7 and (“righteousness”) Jer 23:6, 33:16

     - “anointed” = Messiah (The Anointed One)

  8 - “All” = “So that all”

       - “myrrh…” - See Ex 30:22-38

9-16 - The Queen

  9 - “honourable women” = Court ladies (“maids of honor”)

       - “did” = “doth”

       - “queen” - Hephzi-bah and in the future, Israel

       - “Ophir” - An ancient port city noted for wealth. See 1 Ki 9:26-28

  (10) - “Hearken”, “consider”, “incline” - Emphasizing the importance of what follows.

           - “Forget…people…father’s house”

                 Women in Scripture: Rebekah (Gen 24:58); Rachel (Gen 31:14); Asenath (Gen 41:45); Ruth (Ruth 1:16)

  (11) - “LORD” = Heb. “Adonim” - The plural of “Adon”, used of an overlord or proprietor, i.e., “ruler”

           - See Eph 5:25-33   1 Pe 3:1-7

  (12) - “daughter” = The queen or the people as a whole.

           - “Tyre” - A mercantile nation representing material wealth, hence, “Even the rich”. See Phil 2:9-11.

  (13) - “The king’s daughter” = Israel

            - “is…within” = “sits all glorious enthroned within (the inner palace)”

  (14) - “raiment of needlework” = “embroidered robes”

           - “virgins…” = “bridesmaids”

  (15) - “gladness” = “great gladness”

16,17 - The Queen addressed (verbs are feminine)

    (16) - “…fathers…children” - The continuation of the bloodline.

    (17) - “people” = “nations”

   - “for the sons of Korah” - Only here and Ps 87 do we find the title given at both the beginning and the end. Psalm 45 celebrates the king’s marriage. Ps 87 celebrates the Ark being brought up from Zion.                                                                                  INDEX    

Psalms 46-48 - A trilogy relating to Sennacherib’s siege during Hezekiah’s reign. Psalm 46 acknowledges the help of the Deliverer. Psalms 47 and 48 are in praise of the Deliverer. Read Isa 36.

Psalm 46 - “Song” = Heb. “Shir”, therefore delivered to the chief Musician.

1 - “refuge” = Heb. “hasah” = The place to which one flees. Also in vv. 7 and 11.

     - “very pleasant” = “nearby” referring to God. See Jer 23:23,24   Jas 4:8.

     - “strength” = Heb. “owz” = “security” or “force”

     - “trouble” = Heb. “tsarah” = “tightness”

2 - “be removed” = “quake”. Same as “moved” in v.6.

     - “carried” = “moved”

     - “midst” = “heart”

3 - “waters…roar” - An image of the invading Assyrians.

     - “Selah” - Connects the roaring waters to the silent stream in the channel beneath Zion. The boastings of the enemy contrasted to the secret purposes of God.

4 - “river” = Heb. “hahar”. Specifically, the river flowing beneath Zion and supplying Siloam*.

     - “streams” = Heb. “palag” = “channels”. The rock-cut channels supplying water for Zion when Hezekiah cut off all other supplies to the enemy. 2 Ki 20:20; 2 Ch 32:30

*Pool of Siloam / Hezekiah’s Tunnel - Located near the Temple (Neh 3:15)

         The pool of Siloam is fed by a conduit that is cut for a distance of 1,780 feet through solid rock, and which starts at the so-called Virgin's Spring (En-rogel). It was constructed because the Virgin's Spring is the only spring of fresh water in the immediate neighborhood of Jerusalem, and in time of siege it was important that, while the enemy should be deprived of access to it, its waters should be made available for those who were within the city. But the spring rose outside the walls, on the sloping cliff that overlooks the valley of Kidron. Accordingly, a long passage was excavated in the rock by King Hezekiah in 701 BC, by means of which the overflow of the spring was brought into Jerusalem; the spring itself was covered with masonry, so that it could be “sealed” in case of war to protect Jerusalem’s water source, the Gihon Spring, from the invading Assyrians (2 Chron. 32:2-4).

        The course of the tunnel is serpentine, and the farther end near the pool of Siloam enlarges into a passage of considerable height. If the tunnel was straight it would have only needed to have been 1070 feet, or 40% shorter. Although the tunnel is far underground (about 131 feet), the slope of the tunnel is precise. The tunnel slopes at a steady 0.6% grade. Once inside the tunnel the head room within the tunnel varies considerably. The tunnel is always about as wide as a man’s shoulders. At the beginning of the tunnel the head room is pretty tight causing people to have to walk through it a bit hunched over. The last 160 feet of the tunnel, however, the ceiling soars up to 17 feet tall. Down this channel the waters of the spring rush to the pool whenever the sudden flow takes place. In autumn there is an interval of several days; in winter the sudden flow takes place sometimes twice a day. A natural siphon from an underground basin accounts for this flow. Hence, the name “Sent” because of the intermittent flow.

         Near the exit of the tunnel, the British explorer Captain Charles Warren (who first rediscovered it in 1867) found an ancient Hebrew inscription describing the construction. The inscription on the rock records only the making of the tunnel: That it began at both ends, that the workmen heard the sound of the picks of the other party and were thus guided as they advanced, and that when they broke through they were only a few feet apart. The pool itself is an oblong tank, partly hewn out of the rock and partly built with masonry, about fifty-three feet long, eighteen feet wide, and nineteen feet deep. It was from Siloam that water was brought in a golden vessel to the Temple during the feast of Tabernacles.

Questions: How was Hezekiah’s Tunnel constructed without modern day equipment? How could two teams 131 feet underground, without GPS, meet in the middle connecting the two tunnels? How were the workers and subsequent users of the tunnel able to breathe oxygen? Why was the tunnel S-shaped and not straight? How were the workers able to maintain a precise 0.6% grade slope underground for 1,780 feet?


     - “The holy place…” = “The MOST HIGH hath hallowed His habitation”

           See Ex 3:5 where “holy” means “set apart” for God.

5 - “midst” = “middle”

     - “her” = “Zion”

     - “and that right early” = “at dawn”

6 - “heathen raged” = “nations roared”

     - “moved” - “carried away”

     - “earth” = Heb. “erets” = “ground”. With the “voice”, an image of torrential thunderstorms.

7 - “The Lord of hosts” = Heb. “Jehovah Sabaoth” = The Commander-in-chief title.

     - “God” = Heb. “Elohim”. The God of Creation.

     - “Jacob” - The natural nation of Israel.

     - “refuge” = An impregnable place. Overseen by the Creator, protected by the Lord of hosts.

     - “Selah” - Connects the confidence in God’s deliverance to its fulfillment.

8 - “behold” = “gaze upon” as in “stand still and see” used in reference to God’s glory. (The thought concludes in v.10). Here attributed to “the LORD” = Heb. “Jehovah”, the Covenant God. See Deu 28:7.

9 - “He maketh…” - The ultimate design of God’s plan.

     - “bow”, “spear”, “chariot” - The weapons of war.

10 - “Be still” = Heb. “rapha” = “Cease your own efforts”

      - “I will be exalted” - God’s grace, mercy and favor towards us provide witness to believers and non-believers alike (“in the earth”). Every knee shall bow.

11 - Same as v.7

      - “Selah” - Connects Psalm 46 with 47 and 48, all 3 referencing the same events.