(In Progress)

The name “Psalms” is from the Greek title in the Septuagint, “Psalmoi” meanings “songs”. The word “Psalter” is sometimes used from the Greek “Psalterion” meaning “harp” or “stringed instrument”. The Hebrew name “Tehillim” means “praises” from a root word “halal” meaning “to make a jubilant sound”. The Psalms are in praise and celebration of Jehovah’s works and ways and provide instruction concerning His works and ways.

INDEX

1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25-26-27-28-29-30-31-32-33-34-35-36-37-38-39-40-41-42-43-44-45

46-47-48-49-50-51-52-53-54-55-56-57-58-59-60-61-62-63-64-65-66-67-68-69-70-71-72-73-74-75-76-77-78-79-80-81-82-83-84-85-86

87-88-89-90-91-92-93-94-95-96-97-98-99-100-101-102-103-104-105-106-107-108-109-110-111-112-113-114-115-116-117-118-119-120

121-122-123-124-125-126-127-128-129-130-131-132-133-134-135-136-137-138-139-140-141-142-143-144-145-146-147-148-135-150

THE STRUCTURE OF THE PSALMS

The 5 books of the Law given by Moses correspond to the 5 books of Psalms given by David. The structure of each Psalm is perfect and their sequence is divinely ordered. The 90th Psalm is the oldest (a prayer of Moses), but not the first and the second Psalm is specifically referenced as such by Paul in Ac 13:33.

NOTES

  • The Book of Psalms has the most chapters, but is not the longest book of the King James Bible. The longest book in the Bible is actually the book of Jeremiah, which consists of 33,002 words. The Psalms isn’t even next in line. The second longest book of the Bible is actually Genesis, which consists of 32,046 words. Third in line is the Psalms, which consists of 30,147 words.
  • There are 7 “Amens”. There are 24 “Hallelujahs”, 4 in book IV and the other 20 in Book V.
  • There are 9 Acrostics in the Psalms. There are 26 Beatitudes using the Hebrew word “Ashrey”, translated “blessed” 19 times and “happy” 7 times. 
  • Of the authors named in The Psalms we find “David” 73 times. “Asaph” 12 times. “The sons of  Korah” eleven times. “Solomon” twice. “Heman the Ezrahite”, “Ethan the Ezrahite” and “Moses the man of God” once each.
  • The book of Psalms is either quoted from or alluded to 103 times in the book of Revelation alone, and 149 times in the four Gospel accounts.
  • There are 594 chapters before Psalms 118. There are 594 chapters after Psalms 118. (Add the numbers 594 x2 you get 1188 …. the center verse in the Bible 118:8). What does the center of the Word say? Psalm 118:8 - “It is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in man”.
  • The psalms are used in both Christian and Jewish worship.
  • The psalms were composed over a period of approximately 1000 years.
  • By word count there are two shortest verses, both with 7 words each: LORD, remember David, and all his afflictions.  Ps 132:1. His foundation is in the holy mountains. Ps 87:1
  • The longest verse has 45 words: For in the hand of the LORD there is a cup, and the wine is red; it is full of mixture; and he poureth out of the same: but the dregs thereof, all the wicked of the earth shall wring them out, and drink them. Ps 75:8
  • By character count, three shortest verses share 28 characters: I said in my haste, All men are liars. Ps 116:11; I will love thee, O LORD, my strength. Ps 18:1; Unto thee, O LORD, do I lift up my soul. Ps 25:1
  • The longest has 181 characters: From men which are thy hand, O LORD, from men of the world, which have their portion in this life, and whose belly thou fillest with thy hid treasure: they are full of children, and leave the rest of their substance to their babes. Ps 17:14
  • Psalm 117, with 2 verses, is the shortest psalm.
  • Psalm 119, with 176 verses, is the longest psalm.
  • Psalm 118:8 is in the center of the Bible.        INDEX

TITLES FOR AND TYPES OF JESUS IN THE PSALMS

1. The Anointed King (2:2, 6)

2. The Son of the Lord (2:7)

3. The Believer’s Rock and Fortress, Deliverer, Strength, and Shield (18:2)

4. The God of Jacob (20:1; 46:7; 59:5)

5. The Suffering Savior (22:1-18)

6. The Good Shepherd (23)

7. The King of Glory (24)

8. The Forgiving God (32, 51)

9. The Obedient Servant (40:6-8)

10. The Betrayed Friend (41:9; 55:12-14)

11. God of the Eternal Kingdom (45:6)

12. The Lord of Hosts (46:7)

13. The Lord Most High (47:2)

14. God of Abraham (47:9)

15. The Mighty God (50:1)

16. The Self-Sufficient God (50:10-12)

17. A Compassionate Judge (68:5)

18. The Almighty (68:14)

19. Holy One of Israel (71:22)

20. God of the Aged (71:9, 18)

21. The Eternal God (72:17)

22. The Most High (77:10)

23. The All Forgiving God (78:38, 39)

24. Shepherd of Israel (80:1)

25. Lord God of Hosts (80:4)

26. The Lover of Jerusalem (87:2)

27. The Eternal God (90:1-2)

28. The Coming Judge (98:13)

29. The God of the Cherubim (99:1)

30. The God of All Nature (104)

31. The God of the Exodus (106, 107)

32. The Priest after the Order of Melchizedek (110:4)

33. The Only True God (115:1-8)

34. The Rejected Cornerstone (118:22)

35. The God of the Word of God (119)

36. The Scourged Savior (129:3)

37. The Merciful God (137)

38. The Omniscient, Omnipresent, and Omnipotent God (139:1-18)

39. Healer of Broken Hearts, the One who Numbers and Names the Stars (147:3, 4)     INDEX

 THE PSALM TITLES and WORDS (alphabetically)

There are 34 Psalms with no title, superscription or subscription.

Academic scholarly writings and theories abound regarding these as to meaning, origin, etc. For our purposes we will let the Word itself be the Guide.

See notes after Psalm 3:8 for order of sub and super-scriptions.

I.  AIJELETH-SHAHAR (The Day-Dawn).

  This title, sometimes misplaced as the super-scription of Psalm 22 is the sub-scription to Psalm 21. The meaning given both in Authorized Version and Revised Version is "the hind of the morning". The expression is a Figure of speech common in the East. It is used of the Day-Dawn, in which the beams of light from the rising sun are seen shooting up (like horns) above the horizon before the sun actually appears. It is used in Psalm 21 of the rays of Messiah's coming glory, and tells of the dawn of His approaching coronation which is the one great subject of Psalm 21.

II.  AL ALAMOTH (relating to maidens).

  “Al” = relating to, or concerning, connected with “Alamoth” (fem. plural), meaning damsels or maidens. It is the sub-scription to Psalm 45, and not as the super-scription of Psalm 46. There is no connection between "maidens" and Psalm 46, but there are many points in the subject-matter of Psalm 45 which link it on to that Psalm. There are references to the "king's daughter", and "honorable women" (verse 9). It is a "daughter" that is addressed as the bride (verse 10). There is the "daughter of Tyre" (verse 12); "the king's daughter" (verse 13); and "the virgins her companions" (verse 14).

III.  AL-TASCHITH = Destroy not.

  There are four Psalms which have this sub-scription, namely 56, 57, 58, and 74 (not Psalms 57, 58, 59, and 75, which some versions have it as the super-scription). The first three are David's, the fourth is by Asaph.  The two by David (56 and 57) are each connected with a crisis in his life, while the third belongs to a specific time of trouble. It is a cry of distress, a cry at a crisis.

IV.  GITTITH = Winepresses
(relating to the Autumn Feast of Tabernacles).

  There are three Psalms which have this word in the sub-scription. They are 7, 80, and 83 (not 8, 81, and 84, as the super-scription).

V.  HIGGAION.

  The word is found in three Psalms (9:16; 19:14, and 92:3). In 9:16 it is transliterated "Higgaion". In 19:14 it is translated "meditation"; and In 92:3 it is rendered "solemn sound".The word occurs also in Lam. 3:62, where it is rendered in the A.V. "device", and in the R.V. "imagination". It is derived from hagah, and means to soliloquize, to speak to one's self; hence, to meditate (Josh. 1:8. So Pss. 77:12 and 143:5). As a noun, it would mean a meditation, or a speaking in premeditated words; and therefore worthy of memory or repetition. If the three Psalms be read in the light of this word, we shall note the subjects which are so worthy of meditation, and not think about music. In Ps. 9:16 it is the judgment of Jehovah. In Ps. 19:14 it is the words and the work of Jehovah. In Ps. 92:2, 3 it is the lovingkindness and faithfulness of Jehovah.

VI.  JEDUTHUN.

  JEDUTHUN was one of the three directors (or the "chief Musicians") of the Temple worship (1Chronicles 16:41, 42; 25:1-6; 2Chronicles 5:12; 35:15). The three sons of Aaron were thus represented by the three men whose names occur in this category. JEDUTHUN was a descendent of MERARI (1Chronicles 26:10); while ASAPH was a descendant of GERSHOM; and HEMAN of KOHATH.
  JEDUTHUN seems to have had another name, "ETHAN" (1Chronicles 15:17, 19, compared with 16:41, 42; 25:1, 3, 6, and 2Chronicles 35:15). That there was an "Ethan", a Merarite, is seen from 1Chronicles 6:44; 15:17.
  In 2Chronicles 35:15 he is called "the king's seer"; and in 1Chronicles 25:1 it was the duty of these three men "to prophesy" and "to confess, and to praise Jehovah" (verse 3). This was according to the king's order (verse 6).
  The 3 Psalms connected with JEDUTHUN (38, 61 and 76 fulfil these conditions.

Properly aligning the subscriptions eliminates the confusion caused by two of these Psalms appearing to have the names of two different authors. The sub-scription of each Psalm now stands "To the chief Musician -Jeduthun."

VII.  JONATH-ELEM-RECHOKIM = The Dove in the distant Terebinths.

  There is only one Psalm with this sub-scription, that is, Psalm 55 (not Psalm 56, as the super-scription or title). There is a general agreement that this Title means "Relating to the dove in the distant terebinths (or oaks)". David is the "dove". He is far away in the distant woods, moaning over the trouble that has come upon him through the rebellion of Absalom, recorded in 2Samuel 15-19. There is no reference to a dove in Psalm 56, but there is in Psalm 55:6. In verse 2 he says, "I mourn in my complaint, and moan" (Revised Version).

VIII.  LEANNOTH.

  See number X, below.

IX.  MAHALATH
(The great Dancing).

  This is the sub-scription of Psalm 52, and not the super-scription or title of Psalm 53.
  This connects Psalm 52 with 1Samuel 18:6, 7, the occasion being celebrated and known afterwards as "the great dancing". Twice, later in David's life, this event is referred to as a landmark in David's history (1Samuel 21:11; 29:5). If we read Psalm 52, we shall note the references to Doeg's mischievous tongue (in verses 1-4); to David's assertion (1Samuel 17:37) in verse 5; to David's words, "all this assembly shall know" (1Samuel 17:47); in verses 6, 7 "the righteous also shall see and fear". The victory is ascribed to God in verse 9, as it is in 1Samuel 17:37.

X.  MAHALATH LEANNOTH
(The great Dancing and Shouting).

  The sub-scription to Psalm 87 not the super-scription or title to Psalm 88.
  As Mecholoth means dancing (see Number IX above),  Leannoth means shoutings (and, with the plural of majesty, the great shouting). (Compare Exodus 15:20, 21; 32:17, 18. Numbers 21:17. 1Samuel 18:6, 7. Ezra 3:11). So that the combined words "The Great Shouting and Dancing" give us the subject-matter of Psalm 87.
  1Samuel 6:14, 15 connects with David's bringing the Ark to Zion. In verse 2 there is a distinct allusion to the other places where the Ark had found a temporary dwelling, Shiloh (1Samuel 1:3; 2:14; 3:21. Psalm 78:60); Beth-shemesh (1Samuel 6:13); Kirjath-jearim (1Samuel 7:1); Gibeah (2Samuel 6:3, 4); the house of Obed-edom (verses 10-12). But none of these was the dwelling-place Jehovah had chosen. Hence, Zion is celebrated as "the Mount Zion which He loved".

XI.  MASCHIL.
Understanding or Instruction. (Public.)

  This word is found in the super-scription of thirteen Psalms (32, 42, 44 45, 52, 53, 54, 55, 74, 78, 88, 89, 142).
  Unlike the "Michtam" Psalms (which are all by David, see Number XII below), these are by various authors.
   Six are by David (32, 52, 53, 54, 55, and 142). Three are by the sons of Korah (42, 44, and 45). Two are by Asaph (74 and 78). One by Heman the Ezrahite (88). One by Ethan the Ezrahite (89).
  Maschil is from sakal, to look at, scrutinise, to look well into anything (1Samuel 18:30); hence the noun means understanding arising from deep consideration (Proverbs 13:15. Nehemiah 8:8). The Septuagint rendering is suneseos = understanding and eis sunesin = for understanding. It is the Old English verb to skill.
  The first of these Psalms (32) gives the basis of all true instruction and understanding. In verse 8 it is given:
  "I will instruct thee
  And teach thee in the way thou shouldest go . . .
  Be not as the horse, or as the mule, which have no understanding".

XII.  MICHTAM (Engraven).

  This word is found in the super-scription of six Psalms (16, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60). All are by David. The last five form a group by themselves.
  The word Michtam is from Katam, to cut in, or engrave, as in Jeremiah 2:22, "thine iniquity is graven before me" (not "marked", as in AV and RSVersion).
  The Septuagint renders it stelographia = a sculptured writing. Hence stele = a sepulchral monument, on account of the inscription graven on it.
  The word, therefore, points to a graven and therefore a permanent writing; graven on account of its importance (compare Job 19:24). What that importance is can be gathered only from the Michtam Psalms themselves.
  The Michtam Psalms are all pervaded by the common characteristic of being Personal, Direct, and more or less Private.
  The reference is to David's Son and David's Lord; and especially to His death and resurrection; or to a deliverance from imminent danger, or death, or even from the grave itself. See Psalms 16:10, 11; 56:13; 57:3; 58:10, 11; 59:16; 60:5, 12. It is David who, "being a prophet" (Acts 2:25-31), knew that God "would raise up Messiah to sit on his throne". Hence this is the truth engraven in the first of these Michtam Psalms (16).

XIII.  MUTH-LABBEN
(The Death of the Champion).

  This is the sub-scription of Psalm 8, and not as the super-scription or title of Psalm 9. “Muth”meansdeath”. As to the other word labben, the matter is not so simple. For ben means son, but there is nothing about a "son" in either Psalm (8 or 9): and, as it must relate (like the other Titles) to subject-matter, and not to the name of a "song", or a "tune", or a "musical instrument", there must be another explanation of ben. Now ben may be beyn, written what is called "defective", that is to say, without the full sign for its vowel (which is very often found in Hebrew). In that case it would mean the separator, and thus be related to bayin = "between" which is the dual form of this word in the designation of Goliath in 1Samuel 17:4, 23, "the man between [the two hosts" of Israel and the Philistines], or "the duellist". Hence, labben ("for the son") may be read labbeyn, "for the duellist" or "the champion", or "the one standing between". Indeed, this is exactly how the words are given in the ancient Jewish commentary called the Targum: "To praise; relating to the death of the man who went between the camps". That is to say, the champion, as he is called in 1Samuel 17:4, 23.¹
  Read in this light, Psalm 8 stands out with quite a new signification, seeing it relates to "the death of the champion", Goliath of Gath.
  We may compare with this Psalm 144, which in the Septuagint version has this remarkable title, "by David, concerning Goliath": in verse 3 of which Psalm we have the very words of Psalm 8:4. And in verse 10 the words, "Who delivereth David His servant from the hateful sword": that is, of Goliath.

XIV.  NEGINAH.

  See "Neginoth", Number XV below, of which it is the singular.

XV.  NEGINOTH (Smitings).

  This is in the sub-scriptions of eight Psalms, that is, 3, 5, 53, 54, 60 (singular), 66, 75, and Habakkuk 3. (Not in the super-scriptions of Psalms 4, 6, 54, 55, 61 (singular with 'al instead of Beth), 67, and 76).
  "Neginoth" is from nagan, to strike, or smite. Traditionally associated with the striking of the strings of some musical instrument, but it Scripturally refers to the stroke of affliction, or smiting with words. In Lamentations 3:63: "I am he whom they smite [with their words]". In all these Neginoth Psalms there is the note of deliverance from personal smitings. See 3:2; 5:6; 53:1; 54:3; 60:3, 5, 11; 66:10-12; 75:4, 5. We have the verb again in 77:7, "I call to remembrance my song", or my stroke of affliction. In Habakkuk 3:19 it is used as "relating to my smitings", that is to say, those referred to in verse 16.

XVI.  NEHILOTH
(Inheritances, or The Great Inheritance).

This is the sub-scription to Psalm 4, not the super-scription of Psalm 5. NehaLoTH means, inheritances, or the great inheritance. In Psalm 4 this reference is quite clear. Jehovah was the inheritance of His People (Psalm 16:5; compare 73:26; 119:57; 142:5. Jeremiah 10:16. Lamentations 3:24). Hence, in Psalm 4:6, the question is asked, "Who will show us [what] good [is]"? And the answer which follows is "Thou". For, joy in Jehovah is greater than joy in harvest.
  The same truth is seen in Psalm 144. See verses 11-15, with the true answer in verse 15.

                                                                                                                            XVII.  PSALM (Hebrew Mizmor).

  This word is used in the super-scriptions forty-four times in all (Psalms 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 29, 31, 38, 39, 40, 41, 47, 49, 50, 51, 62, 63, 64, 73, 77, 79, 80, 82, 84, 85, 98, 100, 101, 109, 110, 139, 140, 141, 143. Of these, twenty-one are in Book I, seven in Book II, seven in Book III, three in Book IV, and six in Book V.
  Mizmor means, and is invariably rendered, "a Psalm", and occurs nowhere but in the Psalm-Titles. It differs from Shir (see below), which is "a Song": that is to say, for singing, whereas Mizmor may be for meditation, etc.
  Mizmor is joined with Shir in thirteen Psalms (30, 65, 67, 68, 75, 76, 87, 92, preceding it; and 48, 66, 83, 88, 108, following it).

XVIII.  SELAH.

This word may be from one of two roots; from salah = to pause; or from salal =to lift up. This is often associated with musical terms. It is properly understood by connection with subject matter, not with music; and with truth, not with tunes. It does not always occur at the beginning of a verse or at the end. The outstanding fact is that in four cases it comes in the middle of a verse, i.e. Ps. 55:19; 57:3; and Hab. 3:3, 9.

This helps us understand. Selah does connect the end of one segment with the beginning of the next; and, indeed, in four cases it connects the end of one Psalm with the beginning of the next, thus uniting the two Psalms (see Pss. 3 with 4; 9 with 10; 24 with 25, and 46 with 47). Selah, therefore, neither ends nor begins a passage, but it CONNECTS the two passages between which it is placed. We will articulate what this connection is with each occurrence. It is neither the pausing on one subject; nor the passing on from one subject to another: but it is the connecting of the two subjects together.

       Sometimes it is the Structures which are connected. Sometimes it adds a development of thought by connecting a prayer with that which forms the basis of it. Sometimes it adds a contrast. Sometimes it connects a cause with an effect, or an effect with a cause.

      It is a thought-link, which looks back at what has been said, and marks its connection with what is to follow; or to some additional consequent teaching. Thus, if it be derived from salah, to pause, it is not the instruments of music which are to pause while the voices continue to sing; but it is our hearts which are to pause and to note the connection of precious truths. If it be derived from salal, to lift up, then, it is not the instruments which are to lift up their sound in a louder degree, but our hearts which are to be lifted up to consider more solemnly the two truths which are about to be connected.

The phenomena connected with "Selah" may be thus stated :

  • The word occurs seventy-four times in the Bible, and all are in the Old Testament.

 Of these, seventy-one are in the Book of Psalms, and three are in the model Psalm, "the prayer of Habakkuk", ch. 3.

  • The use of the word is confined to thirty-nine Psalms out of the 150. In sixteen of these thirty-nine it occurs once (7, 20, 21, 44, 47, 48, 50, 54,60, 61, 75, 81, 82, 83, 85, and 143) : of these thirty-nine Psalms, thirtyone are in Psalms handed over to "the chief Musician". (See Ap. 64.)
  • In fifteen Psalms it occurs twice (4, 9, 24, 39, 49, 52, 55, 57, 59, 62, 67, 76, 84, 87, and 88).
  • In seven Psalms it occurs thrice (3, 32, 46, 66, 68, 77, and 140).
  • In one Psalm it occurs four times, Psalm 89.

 It is distributed over the five Books of the Psalms as follows :

  •  Book I (1-41), seventeen times in nine Psalms.
  •  Book II (42-72), thirty times in seventeen Psalms.
  •  Book III (73-89), twenty times in eleven Psalms.
  •  Book IV (90-150), four times in two Psalms.

XIX.  SHEMINITH. (The Eighth Division.)

  This is the sub-scription of two Psalms (5 and 11, not the super-scription of Psalms 6 and 12. There is a general agreement that it means "the eighth", and in its thirty-one occurrences it is always so rendered, except in 1Chronicles 15:21 and in these two sub-scriptions (Psalms 5 and 11), where it is transliterated "Sheminith".
  Though it is agreed that the word means "eighth", it is not agreed as to what "the eighth" refers to.
  1Chronicles 15:21 helps us to the solution. The 'Alamoth being maidens (verse 20), it would seem obvious that the Sheminith must be men (verse 21). But what class of men? The Talmud suggests a class of true Israelites, that is to say, those circumcised on the eighth day, and thus distinguished from all other Jews or Gentiles; for other nations who practise circumcision always do so on a later day, never on the eighth day. But as all others in the procession were, in this sense, Sheminith, and the Sheminith are further distinguished from these as well as the 'Alamoth,  it must refer, as well, to a division in that procession. Everything points to divisional order in such processions (compare Exodus 25:14. Numbers 4:15; 7:9. So also in 1Chronicles 24:1; 26:1, 12). The definite article seems conclusive. In 1Chronicles 15:21 the Sheminith were to lead (Revised Version), not "to excel" (as in Authorized Version). This is its general meaning (see 1Chronicles 23:4. 2Chronicles 34:12. Ezra 3:8, 9), where it is rendered "set forward".
  An examination of Psalms 5 and 11 show us that there is special emphasis on "righteous worshippers" as distinct from others. Compare 5:7, 11 with 11:1 and 7, and see the Structures of those Psalms.

XX.  SHIGGAION (A crying aloud).

  This word occurs only in the super-scription of Psalm 7, and in the super-scription of the prayer in Habakkuk 3:1, where it is in its right place. It comes from sha'ag, to cry aloud, in trouble, danger, or pain, and not shagah, which means to wander, or go astray. There is nothing in the Psalm to agree with the latter, and everything that points to the loud cry of David when he was in danger of being torn in pieces, and to the loud cries (plural) of Habakkuk: of pain in verse 16 and of praise in verse 18.

XXI.  SHOSHANNIM
(Lilies, or The Spring Festival, Passover).

  This is the sub-scription of two Psalms,  44 and 68, not the super-scription of Psalms 45 and 69.
  We have already seen under "GITTITH" (Number IV) that, as the spring and autumn were appropriately represented by flowers and fruit respectively, so lilies and winepresses were singled out from each.
 The Passover and Feast of Tabernacles divided the year into two fairly equal parts; the former being the spring festival and the latter the autumn.
  Lilies and pomegranates (spring flowers and autumn fruits) were everywhere seen in the Temple (1Kings 7:20-22).  The Hebrew shekel had, on one side, sometimes a lamb (Passover), and, on the other side, a wine-bowl (Tabernacles). The half-shekel had a triple lily and a wine-bowl.

XXII.  SHUSHAN, AND SHOSHANNIM EDUTH.
(Instruction as to the Spring Festival, or the Second Passover.)

  This is the sub-scription of Psalm 79, not the super-scription of Psalm 80, while SHUSHAN (singular) EDUTH is found in the sub-scription of Psalm 59, not the super-scription of Psalm 60.
  The first of these two words refers to the Spring Festival (see under Number XXI above), the latter refers to some testimony concerning it. There is no dispute as to the 'Eduth meaning "testimony". It is one of "the ten words" found twenty-three times in Psalm 119. But what is the "testimony" to which these two Psalms refer? It must be concerning something connected with the Spring Festival (Passover), respecting the keeping of the Passover in the second month, when, under special circumstances, it could not be kept in the first month (see Numbers 9:10, 11, and compare 2Chronicles 30:1-3). Psalms 59 and 79 refer to enemies being then in the land, which might well have created a difficulty in keeping the Passover in the first month.   

XXIII.  SONG.

  Is always the rendering of Shir, and denotes words that are to be sung, as distinct from Mizmor (see Number XVII above). It is joined with Mizmor thirteen times (see above). It is used by itself fifteen times (in the Songs of the degrees); and in Psalms 18 (shirah), 45 (with Maschil), and 46.       INDEX

Psalms 1-41: THE FIRST (GENESIS) BOOK - MAN

Book I - The Counsels Of God Regarding Man

The central Psalm of the 41 Psalms in Book I is Psalm 21 concerning the eternal life and blessedness of God’s King. All 37 Book I Psalms with titles are David’s: The man of God’s choice preceding the “true David”, the Messiah. All Psalms in the entire Book of Psalms attributed to David look forward to Jesus Christ.
Psalm 1 - Genesis 1:28 - Divine blessing on Man. Psalm 1:1 “Blessed is the man”. Psalms 1 and 2 are linked by having no titles. Psalm 1 begins and Psalm 2 ends with “Blessed” as does the last Psalm (41) of Book I.

Man’s blessedness is in subjection to God’s Law. The Tree of Life=Obedience. The obedient man becomes a well-watered tree in God’s Paradise.

1 - “Blessed” = “How happy”. The 1st Beatitude in the Psalms.

     - “not”, “nor” = “never did” (habitually). The verse begins in the negative, with what the righteous do not do. Sanctification by omission.

     - walketh  | counsel  |  ungodly  | = continue in = (What we believe)

       standeth |  way      |  sinners    | = carry out = (How we behave)

       sitteth    |   seat      |  scornful  | = settle down = (Where we belong)

2 - Switches to the positive. The Word of God defines the faith and practice of the righteous.

     - “law” - The instruction contained in the Pentateuch.

     - “meditate…” - To delight and meditate in the law (habitually) eliminates the negatives of v.1.

3 - Spiritual health and fruitfulness.

     - “be” = “become”. A process over time.

     - “tree” - Rooted unlike the chaff of v.4.

     - “rivers” = Heb. “palgey mayim” = “irrigation canals in a garden”, therefore “planted” and tended by a gardener, not growing wild. See the same Hebrew words in Pr 21:1.

     - “prosper” - See Gen 39:2, 3, 23

4 - “chaff” - Unlike the tree, it unstable and fruitless. See Eph 4:14

5 - “stand” = “rise” - A reference to the first resurrection of Rev 20: 5, 6

6 - “knoweth” - “acknowledges” in contrast to the ungodly who “perish” (“come to naught”). Anything/anyone not acknowledged by Omniscient God does not exist. Understand “I never knew you” in Mt 7:23.     INDEX

Psalm 2 -The rebellious man. Understand “presumptuously” (literally, “with a high hand”) in Nu 15:22-36. Understand Deu 21:18-21 relating to Rev 20:15. This is in contrast to “the man” of Ps 1:1.

1- “Why…?” - Compare to James 4:1.

     - “heathen” = “nations”  “rage” = “come together for violence”

     - “people”= “peoples”    “imagine” = Same as “meditate” in Ps 1:2.

2 - “set themselves” = “take their stand”

     - “take counsel together” = “have gathered by appointment”

     - “Anointed” = “Messiah”

3 - “their” - Jehovah’s and Messiah’s

     - “bands”, “cords” - The rebellious view God’s Word/Law as infringement on their freedom and refuse to be God’s bondservants. See Ro 1:1 and Phil 1:1.

4 - “laugh…derision” - Because defiance of God is absurd, not humorous.

5 - Understand  Ro 1:18 and  Heb 10:26-31.

6 - “set” = Heb. “nacak” = “poured out” as casting molten metal.

     - “My holy  hill” = “mount of my Sanctuary”

     - “Zion” - (154 times in O.T., 38 times in Psalms) South of Moriah, scene of Gen 22 and the crucifixion.

7 - “the” = “for a”

     - “Thou art…” - God’s words of anointing. See Mt 3:17, 17:5 and Heb 1:5. Quoted in Ac 13:33 and Heb 5:5.

     - “begotten thee” - Refers to resurrection. See Ro 1:3, 4; Col 1:18; Rev 1:5.

8, 9 - “Ask of me…” - In judgment. Rev 2:26, 27; 12:5

     - “break” = “rule” or “govern”

10, 11 - “Be wise…” - HOW? Proverbs 1:7, 8:13, 9:10, 10:27, 14:26,27, 15:33, 19:23, 22:4

12 - “Kiss” = Heb. “Nashak” = “Submit to”, “Be ruled by”

     - “Son” = Heb. “bar” (not “ben”, usually used for “son”) = “ground”. The entire phrase “Kiss the ground” means “Prostrate yourselves in submission”.

     - “He” = “Jehovah”    “a little” = “quickly”

     - “put their trust” = “flee for refuge to”         INDEX

Psalm 3 -The 1st Psalm with a historical title. Connected to Psalm 4 by a closing “Selah”. For background read 2 Samuel 15-18.

1, 2 – “increased” = “multiplied”

     - “Many” = “What multitudes” Twice for emphasis.

     - “help” = “deliverance”

     - “God” = “Elohim” (The Creator)

     - “Selah” - Connects the troubled David knowing God (Elohim) as his Creator to David knowing the LORD (Jehovah, the God of the Covenant).

3 - “shield…glory…lifter up” - Through the Covenant

     -“shield for me” = “defense around me”

4 - “cried” = “shall cry”   “heard” = “will answer”. Future certainty through faith.

     - “Selah” - Connecting prayer to the resulting peace. See Phil 4:6-8.

5, 6 - “slept” = “have slept”. After prayer.

     - “sustained” = “was sustaining”

     - “not afraid” - See 1 Jn 4:16-18

     - “ten thousands” - The multitudes (“Many”) of vv. 1, 2.

7 - “broken the teeth” = rendered harmless

8 - “Salvation” - Same as “help” in v.2

     - “blessing is” = “blessing has been and will be” - This is apart from David’s individual circumstances. See 2 Sa 15:25, 26.

IMPORTANT: “Selah” - The closing “Selah” connects Psalm 3 to Psalm 4.

    - “To the chief Musician” = Heb.”Lamenazzeah” - Mistakenly taken as a superscription by the Septuagint translators. Unfamiliar with ancient worship and faced with no spacing or punctuation delineating the Psalms, they decided that it belonged at the beginning of Psalm 4. This led to misalignment throughout the Psalms. How do we know it’s out of place? By using the Word itself. There are 2 independent Psalms which solve the mystery. Isa 38:9-20 and Habbakuk 3 are the models for placement at the end, not at the beginning.

    - Neginoth” = “Smitings” as on strings of an instrument. Here, a reference to words (v.2).       INDEX

Psalm 4:1 - “Hear” = “Answer”

     - “God of…” = “My Righteous God”

     - “Thou hast…” - David puts himself and God in remembrance.

     - “enlarged” = “made room for” (in a tight place)

     - “Have mercy upon” = “Show favor to”

2 - “O ye sons…” - An appeal to the not-totally committed followers of Absalom.

     - “vanity” - What is worthless and empty.

     - “leasing” - “falsehood”, “deceit”

     - “Selah” - Contrasting/ connecting his enemies actions and words with his own defense from God.

3 - “set apart” = “distinguished”

     - “him that is godly…” - The faithful for whom grace flows. The Grace-Mercy-Peace connection of 2 Jn 3.

4 - “sin not” - The result of standing in awe, not a separate command.

     - “still” = “silent”

     - “Selah” - Connects sin with its being put away.

5 - “sacrifices of righteousness” = “righteous sacrifices” which are not possible for those in rebellion.

     - “trust” = “confidence”

6 - “lift thou up…” - Having no priest available, David appeals directly to God. See 2 Sa 15:32-37.

7 - “gladness…” - Exceeding the benefits of material prosperity.

8 - “sleep” = “sleep at once”

     - “makest” = “will make” – Surety.

     - “safety” = “confidence”

     “upon Nehiloth” - Concerning the inheritance of God’s favor. The other Nehiloth Psalm is 144 (See vv. 12-15 there).     INDEX

Psalm 5 - Prayer in view of Psalm 2. The night of 4:8 is followed by the morning in 5:3.

1, 2 - A divinely structured entry into God’s presence.

               Give ear…Consider…Hearken

               Words…Meditation…Voice

               my cry…my King…my God

                         “will I pray”

     - “meditation” - Connects to Ps 1:2 and 2:1

        - “my cry” - Connects to 3:4

3 - “in the morning” - Twice for emphasis.

     - “direct” = “set in order” (as the wood on the altar in Gen 22:9). See Ex 40:4, 23. All that is offered to the Lord must meet His standards for acceptance.

     - “look up” - To await an answer.

4 - “GOD” = Heb. “El” (1st occ. in Psalms) - The Omnipotent God

     - “wickedness” = Heb. “rasha” = “lawlessness”

5 - “foolish” = “boasters”

     - “iniquity” = Heb. “aven” = Conduct born of evil desires resulting from a fallen nature rather than breaches of the Law. A heart condition beyond weakness or ignorance of God’s Word.

6 - “leasing” = “falsehood”

7 - “But…” - The true worshippers in contrast to the wicked and lawless.

     - “mercy” should be “grace”

     - “temple” = Heb. “heykal” = “palace” Referring to heaven itself, the pattern for the earthly tabernacle.

8 - “Lead me” - As a shepherd. Jn 10:3, 4

    - “Thy way” not “My way”. See Ps 37:23.

9 - “their” = “his” - The “man” of v.6

     - “Their” - 3 times for emphasis. The “foolish” and “workers” of v.5.

10 - “Destroy” = “Treat as guilty”

     - “by their own counsels” - See Ahithopel in 2 Sa 15:31; 17:14, 23

11 - “put their trust in” = Heb. “hasah” = “flee for refuge to”

     - “defendest” = “coverest”

     - “Thy name” = “Thee Thyself” - To love the Lord for Who He is, regardless of what He does.

12 - “the righteous” = “the justified one”  Ro 5:1, 2

     - “favour” - A shield. In His favour is life (Ps 30:5), preservation (Ps 86:2 where “holy” = “one whom Thou favourest”), victory (Ps 41:11), and mercy (Isa 60:10). See Ps 106:4.

     - “shield” = Heb. “zinnah” = The largest size of shields. 1 Sa 17:7, 41. In Psalms, only 35:2 (“buckler”) and 91:4. All other occ. in Psalms it is Heb.“magen”, smaller in size and weight.

     - “Neginoth” = “Smiting” (with words)

     - “upon Sheminith” = relating to the true worshippers (the “righteous” of v.12). The other “Sheminith” psalm is Psalm 11.           INDEX

Psalm 6 - Prayer in view of Psalm 2. The morning of Ps 5:3 followed by night (4:6). A model of Phil 4:6, 7.

1-5 - The Prayer

        (1) - “rebuke not”; “in anger”

             - “neither chasten”; “in displeasure”  See Nathan’s words 2 Sa 12:7-12.

        (2) - “Have mercy” = “Show favor”

             - “heal” - Based on weakness. Trials are used by God to stimulate submission, reliance and awareness of God. See Paul in 2 Co 12:7-10.

             - “bones” - Physical exhaustion.

        (3) - “soul” - Spiritual exhaustion.

              - “how long…” = “until when…”    See Jas 1:4.

        (4) - “Return…deliver…save” - The requested action.

              - “for thy mercies’ sake” - Hence the request for favor in v.2. It is favor because it is undeserved. David cannot make this request on any other basis.

        (5) - A common question in Psalms: “Would my death serve your purpose?” See Ps 30:9; 88:10-12; 115:17, 18; 118:17-19. Also Isa 38:18, 19

6, 7 - Exhaustion joined by tears and grief. - Beautifully expressed imagery of a man under unrelenting pressure as king, captain and father.

          - “consumed” = “wasted” - Due to the constant (“all night”) volume (“swim”) of tears on top of the unending vigilance from being under attack.

8, 9 - “Depart…” - Words of warning due to the certainty of the response to this prayer.

          - “hath heard…hath heard…will receive” - The essence of the believer’s supplication. To be heard (verbally) and to be certain of the Lord’s ability to deliver.

10 - The request “made known”. Phil 4:6.     INDEX

Psalm 7 - Shiggaion” - A loud outcry emanating from despair, or joy. Both meanings in this Psalm. Occurs 21 times, translated “roar”.

                  - “Cush” - Unknown.      “the” = “a”     “Benjamite” - Points to the time of Saul long before the trials with Absalom.

1 - “LORD”…“God” = “Jehovah”…“Elohim”

     - “put my trust” = “flee for refuge to”

     - “persecute” = “pursue”  Again, pointing to Saul.  1 Sa 18:8-12, 28-29; 19:1; 23:14,15

2 - “he” = Cush

     - “while there…” = “with no deliverer to rescue”

3, 4 - “iniquity” = Heb. “aval” = “unfairness”, “injustice”

        - “(‘…delivered…enemy’)” = “(‘rescued…adversary’)”   See 1 Sa 24

5 - “persecute,,,take…tread” - David outlines the steps of his demise.

     - “Selah” - Connects/contrasts the treading down with Jehovah’s rising up.

6 - “Arise...Lift up…awake for me to…” - The righteous anger of the Lord (“judgment”) in response to the cry.  Ex 2:23-25.

7 - “compass…” - Gather around to hear the Lord’s judgment.

     - “return” - After “coming down” for either deliverance or judgment. (See Gen 18:20, 21   Ex 3:6-10). In this case, He comes down to minister and returns for judgment.

8, 9 - “integrity” - Note the conditions (“If”) of vv. 3, 4.

10, 11 - “defence” = “shield”

             - “upright” - Plural, not David individually. Points to God’s nature, not man’s.

             - “righteous” – Also plural.

12, 13 - “sword…bow…instruments of death…arrows” - Heb 10:30, 31

            - “ordaineth” = “will ordain”

14 - “he” = Cush

       - “travaileth (will travail)…conceived...brought forth” - A process. Compare Jas 1:14, 15.

15, 16 - “pate” = “head”  See Haman (Esther 7:10). Also note Pr 12:13;29:6.

17 - The joyous cry.  “MOST HIGH” = “Elyon” 1st occ. in Psalms = The possessor of heaven and earth.

       - “upon Gittith” - relating to the Feast of Tabernacles commemorating safe dwelling after deliverance.     INDEX           

Psalm 8  - The rebellious man subdued. The background is 1 Sa 17. The companion is Ps 144. Ps 8:4 = Ps 144:3.

1 - “LORD” = “Jehovah” (God of the Covenant)     “LORD” = “Adonim” plural of “Adon” (The Lord Who rules His own)

       - “LORD our LORD” = “The Lord to Whom we (all) belong”

       - “excellent” - Surpassing all others.

       - “all the earth” - The subject of this Psalm.

       - “glory” = “excellence”

2 - Quoted in Mt 21:16.

       - “babes” - A reference to David’s youth.  1 Sa 17:14, 33, 42, 55, 56

       - “ordained” = Heb. “yasad” = “appointed”

       - “strength” - Put forth by praise “out of the mouth”

       - “enemies” = “adversaries” (The Philistines)

       - “enemy” = “foe” (Goliath)

       - “avenger” = “revenger” (Satan)

3 - “work” = “works”

       - “ordained” - Same as v.2. Intangible (“strength”) and tangible (“moon…stars”) all appointed/established by God.

4, 5 - v.4 same as Ps 144:3. Quoted in Heb 2:5-8

       - “man” = Heb. “enosh” = “mortal man”

       - “son of man” = Heb. “ben adam” - Title of earthly dominion from Gen 1:26-28 expounded in vv. 6-9. In contrast to celestial beings (“lower than the angels”).

       - “crowned” - Jesus Christ, the last Adam.   1 Co 15:27, 45

6 - “madest” - God’s design. Lost by man in the Fall.

       - “hadst” = “didst” Gen 1:26

       - “all things” - Six (#of man) listed in vv. 7, 8.

7, 8 - All created before man and placed under his feet.

9 - Psalm begins and ends (Alpha and Omega) with the greatness of Jehovah in the earth.

       “upon Muthlabben” = “relating to the death of the champion” (Goliath). See 1 Sa 17:4, 46-51 and the Septuagint title for Ps 144, “A Psalm of David concerning Goliath”             INDEX      

Psalms 9 &10 - This first acrostic in Psalms is unique in that it spans two psalms. Ps 9 goes from א‎ to כ‎ (11 letters) and Ps 10 continues from ל‎ to ת‎ (11 letters) so that the alphabet is split evenly between the two, even though some of the letters are missing. Furthermore, there are 164 words in Ps 9 and 162 words in Ps 10 so that the total acrostic of 326 words is split almost exactly evenly between the two psalms. The last word of Ps 9, “Selah” is a connector, not an integral part of the psalm. If we leave out this and the one from 9:16, then Ps 9 also has 162 words. The acrostic is split exactly in the middle both in its division of letters of the alphabet and in terms of word count. It is statistically significant that the word count for Ps 9, which contains ten of the first eleven letters of the alphabet, should be exactly equal to the word count of Ps 10, which includes only five of the last eleven letters of the alphabet. This is a first indication that that no words have been deleted in the text, and that the aberrations in the acrostic structure are intentional.

     Of the twenty two letters in the Hebrew alphabet only fifteen are present in the acrostic of Pss 9 and 10, while seven (ד‎ and מ,נ,ס,ע,פ,צ‎) are missing. The ד‎ verse is completely lacking while the other six consecutive missing letters seem to be replaced by ten verses which lack any semblance of alphabetic sequence. The problem of the omission of seven letters is compounded by the inconsistent verse distribution for the fifteen recognizable letters. Based on the pattern set out in the first four verses and in the majority of this psalm, we expect each letter of the alphabet to span two verses: a primary verse which begins with that letter of the alphabet, and an attached verse which apparently can begin with any letter. This is similar to the structure of Ps 37 which also has a primary and attached verse for most letters of the alphabet. The letter א‎ has one primary verse (v.2) and one attached verse (v.3); ב‎ also has one primary (v.4) and one attached (v.5). However, this pattern is not followed consistently. Five letters have only a primary verse and no attachment: ל, ר‎ ג, ה, י, ‎. The ו‎ has three attached verses (vv. 9-11) and the כ‎ has two attached verses (vv. 20,21). Thus, of the 15 letters present in the acrostic only eight (א, ב, ז, ח, ט, ק, שׁ, ת‎) comply with the standard pattern of one primary and one attached verse. Since most of the letters have one primary and one attached verse we can call that the norm and view the rest as deviations.

       As a second indication that the text is reliable, there are a few formal features of the acrostic. The ג‎ verse (v.6) ends with the letter ד‎. This is the only verse in Psalms which begins with a ג‎ and ends with a ד‎. The letter ה‎ verse (v.7) ends with the letter ה‎. The letter ו‎ verse (v.8) also ends with the letter ו‎. This pattern, besides displaying subtle artistry, also drops a hint to the missing ד‎ verse. Instead of ending the ג‎ verse with a ג‎, as is done for ה‎ and ו‎, the writer ends it with a ד‎ as a compensation for the potential missing verse and to hint that its absence is intended.

       A third proof that the text is not missing any words is the realization that word counts are an essential part of the structure of this acrostic. Analyzing word counts of four successive primary verses, we see that the ו‎ verse (v.8) has 6 words, the ז‎ verse (v.12) has 7 words, the ח‎ verse (v.14) has 8 words, and the ט‎ verse (v.16) has 9 words. Each of these verses contains the same number of words as the numerical value of the letter of the acrostic which begins that verse. Furthermore if we take v.11 as the attached verse for the ו‎ letter, then the attached verses for each of these letters all have 9 words.

Correspondence between the Psalms by subject:

    - “the wicked” (lawless one) 9:5, 16 and 10:2, 4, 13, 15

    - “times of trouble” 9:9 and 10:1

    - “the oppressed” (Heb. “dak”) 9:9 and 10:18

    - “mortal men” 9:19, 20 and 10:12, 17

    - “forget” 9:12, 17, 18 and 10:11, 12

    - “humble” 9:12, 18 and 10:12, 17

    - “not alway” 9:18 and 10:11 (“never”)

    - “for ever and ever” 9:5 and 10:16

    - “arise, Jehovah” 9:19 and 10:12

Psalm 9:1, 2 - “I will” = “Let me” - Praise, like prayer, is a privilege, not by commandment. The King must be approached properly. Ps 100:4

     - “whole heart” = “all” - “works” (What God does)

     - “shew forth”, “rejoice”, “sing” - “name” (Who God is)

     - “MOST HIGH” = Heb. “Elyon” = “Possessor of the Earth”

3, 4 - “at Thy presence” = “from before Thee” - The Lord sits in judgment, note “throne”.

         - “right” (2nd occ.) = “righteously”  See Ex 20:1-3

5 - “heathen”, “wicked” - The “enemies” of v.3.

     - “wicked” = “lawless one” - Here, the Antichrist because “destroyed”, not “killed”. Same distinction found in Mt 10:28.

     - “put out” = “blotted out” - From the book of life hence, “for ever and ever”.

6 - “destructions…end” = “the destruction is complete forevermore” - Referring to the enemy’s destructive acts being terminated.

     - “…perished…” - Accompanies the “blotting out” of v.5. When one is blotted out of the book of life, their accomplishments also disappear.

7, 8 - JUDGMENT

         - “endure” = “sit as king” - The Lord sits to judge, stands to minister. See Stephen in Ac 7:54-60.

         - “He shall judge…” - Quoted in Ac 17:31

9, 10 - DELIVERANCE

         - “oppressed” = “crushed one”

         - “times of trouble” = “great time of trouble”, i.e., The Tribulation. See Psalm 10:1

         - “know” - Critical to withstanding the delusion of 2 Th 2:11, 12.

11 - Matches the thanksgiving of vv. 1, 2. Praise and prayer before and after deliverance.

12 - “them” - The ones of v.10 who know His name.

       - “forgetteth not” - See vv.17, 18 and Ps 10:11, 12

       - “cry” = “outcry” Ex 2:23-25

       - “humble” = “oppressed” See Ps 10:12, 17

13, 14 - “Have mercy” - “Shew favor

             - “Consider…That” - Ps 30:8-10

             - “I will” = “So that I may”

15, 16 - Wickedness, departing from God’s Law, is self-destruction because the Lord is Judge.

               - “Higgaion” - Meditation

               - “Selah” - Connects the wicked one of v.16 to the wicked ones (pl.) of v.17.

17 - “wicked” = Heb. “rasha” = “wicked ones”

       - “turned” = “returned” - The second death. Rev 20:12-15

       - “hell” = Heb. “Sheol” = “grave”  Job 34:15

18 - Mt 5:10-12

19, 20 - “in Thy sight” = “at Thy coming”

               - “Put them in fear” = “Appoint them some terror”

               - “nations” = “heathens”

               - “Selah” - Connects Ps 9 (man generally) to Ps 10 (man in particular).      INDEX

Psalm 10 - The actions and thoughts of the wicked (lawless one). The earthly man ultimately embodied by the Antichrist.

1 - The appeal of one in despair.

2 - “wicked” = Heb. “rasha” = “lawless one”  In vv. 4, 13, 15 and 9:5, 16

       - “in his pride” - The root of wickedness and lawlessness.

       - “persecute” = “hotly pursue” as a predator.

       - “poor” = “oppressed one”

       - “let them be taken…” - Understand Eph 6:16. Our spiritual armor allows us to not lose focus, time or energy addressing everything that comes against us. Our faith allows us to trust that the battle is the Lord’s. 2 Chr 20:1-25.

3 - “boasteth” - The pride of v.2.

       - “blesseth…” - Should read “blasphemeth and abhorreth the Lord”.

4 - The wicked are self-reliant and have no place for God in their thoughts.

5 - “sight” - Ability to understand. 1 Co 2:14.

      - “enemies” = “adversaries”

      - “puffeth at” = “despises”, i.e., holds in low regard. This is a fatal flaw of the lawless (1 Sa 17:42-51) who cannot understand the authority and power of God’s servants.

6 - Denying God’s omnipotence. Cp. v.11. The thoughts of fools. Ps 14:1.

7 - Quoted in Ro 3:14. This mouth cannot bless in accordance with God. See Jas 3:8-12.

8, 9 - The avoidance of light by the predator. Jn 3:19-20.

          - “poor” = “weak”

10 - “humbleth” = “lowers” as lions crouching in tall grass.

        - “strong ones” - Lions typically hunt in groups.

11 - Denying God’s omniscience. Eze 8.

12 - “Arise…” - See 9:19.

        - “humble” = “humble ones”

13 - Denying God’s sovereignty. “require” = “look into”, “investigate”

14 - “Thou hast seen” - Contradicting v.11.

        - “fatherless” - See Jas 1:27

15, 16 - The predator becomes the Lord’s prey.

          - “find none…”, “perished”

          - “The Lord is King…” - Quoted in Rev 11:15.

17, 18 - “heard…prepare (establish)…cause…” See 9:9.

          - “To judge…” - The Lord’s judgment ends all oppression. Rev 20:11- 21:8.       INDEX

Psalm 11 - A prayer pursuant to Psalms 9 & 10.

1 - “I have fled to the Lord for refuge:”

       - “How say you…?” - “Do you think this is over? I have retreated to a position of strength.” See Jos 8:1-22

2 - “privily” = “in the darkness”

       - “upright” = “upright ones” Understand Eph 6:16

3 - “the foundations” = Heb. “hashshathoth” = The settled order of truth, i.e., the Word of God. Gal 6:7.

       - “the righteous” = “a righteous one”

     If the righteous cannot stand on God’s Word there is no refuge.

4 - Holy, Sovereign, Omniscient

5 - “trieth…hateth” = “tests…opposes”

6 - Gen 19:24, 25  Jude 3-7 

7 - “loveth the righteous” - In contrast to the wicked.

       - “His countenance…” = “An upright one shall gaze upon His face” 

               WE SHALL BEHOLD HIM  1 Co 13:12  

       - “Sheminith” - For the righteous worshippers     INDEX

Psalm 12 - Man’s character vs. God’s. The decrease of the godly vs. the increase of the wicked.

1 - “Help” = “Save”    “godly” = “gracious”    “ceaseth” = “is no more”

        - “the faithful” - The “gracious”. Those who receive the grace that flows through faith.

             An expression of grief. A lamentation. See Mic 7:2-7.

TEACHER’S NOTE: The “godly” will always be outnumbered in this world. It is God’s way. See Deu 7:6, 7 and Judges 7:1-7. Based on the 2016 world population of 7.4 billion, the 144,000 sealed with the truth in Rev 7:4 represent 0.002% of the current population and half that for all who have ever lived. IT IS GROSS ERROR TO THINK THAT ONLY 144,000 ARE SAVED! Simply finish the chapter by reading Rev 7:9-17 (“great multitude which no man can number…”) and understand that the abundant grace by which we are saved surpasses the odds of winning a lottery. Be not deceived by those who wrongly divide the Word! Study to shew thyself approved (2 Ti 2:15). Prove all things (1 Th 5:21).

2 - “They speak…” - Man’s word contrasted with God’s (v.6).

       - “double” = “deceitful”

3 - “the  tongue…” Quoted in James 3:5

       - “with…” = “thanks to…” - The unbreakable bond between pride and lawlessness.

4 - The heart of the wicked, therefore their words. Mt 12:34-37

       - “…who is…” - The question for which the evil seek no answer. 1 Chr 28:9  Isa 55:6-9  Heb 11:6

5 - “poor” = “wretched”

       - “saith Jehovah” = “let Jehovah say”

       - “from him…” = “let the oppressed despise the oppression”

     The LORD “arises” in response to the cries of His children TO PROVIDE REFUGE! He does not arise with futile efforts.

6 - “words” = “utterances”

      TEACHER’S NOTE: Place a period after “furnace” (“crucible”). The verse is dative case (indirect relationship), not genitive case (direct). Silver was sometimes purified in pits dug into the ground, hence the confusion. This verse refers to an actual container (crucible) used for refining providing the highest heat and degree of purification.

     - “of” = “pertaining to”   “earth” = Heb. “`erez” = “the Earth" NOT Heb. “adamah” = “the ground”

     - “seven” - # of spiritual perfection.

              Every word of God, sent from God (to and concerning Earth) is pure and holy.

7 - “them” = “him”  The godly man of v.1.

     - “this generation” - temporal       “for ever” - eternal

8 - The condition of this world/age. The need for spiritual armor.

     - “sons of men” – Same as “children of men” in v.1.

         See “prince of this world” - Jn 12:31, 14:30, 16:11

               “prince of the power of the air” - Eph 2:2 

               “god of this world” - 2 Co 4:4                    INDEX

Psalm 13 - Despair to Joy. 4 verses of Prayer followed by 2 verses of Praise. Connected to Psalms 9&10.

1, 2 - “How long” = “Until when”. Repeated 4 times. Understand Mt 6:30 “little faith” = Gr. “oligopistos” = “puny” referring to duration, not size, hence the reference to mustard seed. Having faith is not enough. We must abide in it. God has His own timing. Note “patience of the saints”: To endure (Mt 10:21, 22; Rev 13:10, 14:12), to let patience have her perfect work (Jas 1:4, 12).

     - “forget me”, “hide thy face” - Although prayer has not ceased, faith is eroding.

     - “my soul” = “myself” - David’s discouragement is based on his feeling of self-reliance. For the righteous, to look within ourselves is discouraging, because we know the Source of our strength. By contrast, the prideful always look within.

     - “enemy…exalted…” – How many battles must be lost to win the war? 1 Co 10:12, 13.

3 - “Lighten mine eyes” = “Revive me”

4 - “moved” - See Ps 16:8; 55:22. To be moved is to be defeated. Spiritually, to be still or “stablished” is our desired state. David is actually putting the Lord in remembrance. Jn 10:27-29.

5 - THE PAST: “mercy” = “lovingkindness”

      THE FUTURE: “shall rejoice”

6 - THE FUTURE: “will sing”

      THE PAST: “dealt bountifully” = “compensated”. The LORD values and rewards obedience, prayer, praise, worship and patience. David will rejoice and sing pursuant to “standing still”. See Ex 14:13 and Ps 46:10.            INDEX

Psalm 14 - Man’s Depravity

1 - “fool” - One who does not acknowledge or seek God in his heart. See Psalm 53:1 for public use (“To the chief Musician”). This psalm is private.

       - “no” = “no sign of a”. A prominent question by the heathen: “Where is He?”  Ps 42:3,10; 79:10; 115:2   Joel 2:17  Mic 7:10  Mal 2:17  2 Pe 3:3,4  See Ro 1:18-20

       - “There is none…”. Quoted in Ro 3:10-12. Not limited to the heathen. Salvation is never merited. It is only by grace. Eph 2:8,9

2, 3 - “children of men” = “mankind”

          - “filthy” = “corrupt” See Gen 6:5, 6   Ro 7:14-25

4 - “no knowledge” - A fatal condition.  Hos 4:6

     - “eat up”. Common figure of speech. See Jer 10:25  Amos 8:4-6   Mic 3:1-3

     - “call not” See v.1

5 - “they” - The workers of iniquity

       - “generation” = “company” - The wicked, even while denying God, cannot stand in His presence. Deu 2:25; 28:7, 9-10   Jn 1:5, 3:19-20, 18:4-6   Jas 4:7

6 - “shamed” = “mocked” A common attitude for the fool of v.1.  Jer 20:7-11

7 - “bringeth back the captivity” = “provide relief”  See Deu 30:1-6

       - “Jacob” - The natural nation

       - “Israel” - The spiritual nation  See Gen 32:28, 45:26-28                      INDEX

Psalm 15 - The perfect man. Positive actions. A lack of negative actions. Psalm 15 describes the character and conditions of a true citizen of Zion. When The Sermon on the Mount is rightly divided the correspondence of the subjects treated, in the same order as they are set forth in the Psalm, are so complete that it evidently formed the text on which the Sermon on the Mount was based.

PSALM 15.
The Citizen of  Zion.

MATTHEW 5:1-7:29.
The Subjects of the Kingdom.

v 1. 

  The Introduction.

   5:3-12.  

 The Introduction.

v 2. 

  "He that walketh uprightly"

   5:13-16.  

 Walking in the light.

 

  "and worketh righteousness".

   5:17-20.  

 "Your righteousness to exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees".

 

  "And speaketh the truth from his heart".

   5:21-6:34.  Truth in the heart.

   

                    

 Heart hatred. 5:21-26.
 Heart adultery. 5:27-32.
 Heart alms-giving. 6:1-4.
 Heart prayer. 6:5-15.
 Heart fasting. 6:16-18.
 Heart treasure. 6:19-21.
 Heart service. 6:22-24.
 Heart rest. 6:25-34.

v 3. 

  "He that backbiteth not with his tongue. . . nor taketh up a reproach against his neighbor".

   7:1-5.  

 "Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye?"

 

  "Nor doeth evil to his neighbor".

   5:43-48.  

 "Love your enemies".

v 4. 

  "In whose eyes a vile person is contemned; but he honoreth them that fear the LORD".

   7:15-23.  

 "Beware of false prophets". "Ye shall know them by their fruits".

 

  "He that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not".

   5:33-37.  

 "Let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay".

v 5. 

  "He that putteth not out his money to usury, nor taketh reward against the innocent".

   5:38-42.  

 "Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee, turn not thou away".

 

  "He that doeth these things shall never be moved".

   7:24-27.  

 "Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock. . . . it fell not".

 1 - The questions. The “tabernacle” (“tent”, i.e., “dwelling”) and “holy hill” (Mt. Zion) represent the heavenly kingdom, therefore spiritual and eternal. Not about the church.

2 - “walketh…worketh…speaketh” - Cp. “walketh…standeth…sitteth” in Ps 1.

     - “walketh” - Habitual behavior.  “uprightly” = “blamelessly”

     - “in his heart” - “truth” is the Word of God.

3 - “He that” = “He that never hath” for all 3 lines of this verse.

     - “evil” = Heb. “ra’a” = Literally, “breaking up what is good”, thereby causing harm to others. Includes rumor, gossip and slander (the tongue).

     - “neighbor” = “friend” - Speaking “evil” of a “friend” is a particular indication of duplicity and betrayal as character elements.

     - “taketh up” = “receiveth” - Willing listeners of evil speech bear guilt as well as the speakers.

4 - This verse is not proposing elitism. It is calling us to value others in terms of character instead of wealth, etc. See Jas 2:1-10. We must be mindful of our associations and beware of leaven. Mt 10:12-16 and Hag 2:11-13.

     - “own hurt” - Septuagint (Greek) and Vulgate (Latin) translate “his neighbor”. Either way, the crucial words are “changeth not”. See Mt 5:37 and Jas 5:12.

5 - Lack of negative actions.

     - “usury” - Ex 22:25  Lev 25:36, 37   Deu 23:19, 20

     - “reward” = “bribery”  Ex 23:8  Deu 27:25

     - “never be moved” - Mt 7:24-27  Ps 16:8; 125:1                                        INDEX

Psalms 16-41 concern the Man Christ Jesus (the humbled One who became the Exalted One)

Psalm 16 - His place of suffering. “Michtam”- the first of six (16, 56-60) all by David relating to the Lord. They address death (crucifixion), resurrection and ascension.

1 - See the Lord in Heb 5:7-9

     - “Preserve” = “Save”

     - “GOD” = Heb. “EL” - The Creator putting His omnipotence into operation. The One Who knows all and performs all things for His people (Ps 57:2).

     - “put my trust” = “flee for refuge”

2 - “LORD” = “Jehovah” - The God Of the Covenant

      - “My goodness…” = “I have no good beyond thee”

3 - David honors God in service to and for the saints (the separated ones).

     - “But to” should be “As for”

     - “the earth” = “His own land”       “to” - Omit

     - “in whom” should be “in them”       “my” should be “His” (Jehovah’s), and therefore David’s.

4 - “another god” - Instead of, or in addition to, Jehovah.

     - “blood” - Both animal and human used in some pagan sacrifices.

     - “their names” - The names of other gods.

5, 6 - The quality of God’s provision

        - “portion” - Also path, presence and pleasures (v.11)

        - “maintainest” = “will maintain”

        - “lot”, “lines” - The land, always representative of inheritance. The process in Jos 13:14-17:17.

7 - “counsel” - Ps 37:23, 24

     - “reins” = inner thoughts    “night seasons” = times of darkness

       Even without specific instructions from God, the thoughts of a godly man tend to righteousness. Understand Phil 2:5.

8-10 - Quoted in Ac 2:25-28; 13:35.

         (8) - Life

              - “always” = “through every event”

              - “before me” = “in my eyes”  “right hand” - Position of strength (Ps 18:1, 2)

              - “moved” = “shaken”

         (9) - Death

              - “my heart…my glory…my flesh”

              - “in hope” Heb 6:11-20

        (10) - Resurrection

                  - “hell” = Heb. “Sheol” = “the grave”

                  - “Holy One” = “Christ the Messiah”

                  - “see” = “experience”

                  - “corruption” - of the body   See 2 Co 5:6-8

11 - Ascension - “pleasures for evermore” - Rev 7:16, 17; 21:3-7

                              1 Co 15:12-28                                  INDEX

Psalm 17 - “Prayer” - One of 5 (17, 86, 90, 102, 142). Concerning the Messiah connecting to Ps 16:6-11.

1 - “Hear…attend…give ear” - Threefold opening.

     - “right” = “righteousness” See v.15

     - “ear” - An anthropomorphism: God is spirit described in natural/human terms for our understanding. See “eyes” (v.2), “hand” (v.7), “wings (v.8), “face” (v.15)

     - “not…feigned” - Without guile or deceit. Insincerity has no place in prayer.

2 - “sentence” = “judgment”

     - “things…equal” = “the upright ones”

3 - “find nothing” - True only of Christ. Dan 9:26  Jn 14:30  Heb 4:15

     - “purposed” = “resolved”  See Jas 3:2

4 - “I have kept me from” = “I have marked”. This is done “by the word of Thy lips”. Our experiences should be viewed through the lens of God’s Word. Trials and suffering may come from God (Jas 1:2-4). The enemy offers pleasure for a season (Heb 11:24-26). David had matured to a “strong meat” stage of his life (Heb 5:14). See Joseph (Gen 50:15-21).

     - “paths” = “tracks”  Believers must understand the ways of the world. The meaning of Matthew 10:16.  See Pr 1:10-19

5 - “Thy paths” - The ways of the LORD. Ps 1:6; 119:133

6 - “hear” = “answer”  Note the lack of a reference to time.

7 - “right hand” - The emblem of power.

     - “put their trust in” = “flee to for refuge” Spiritual power vs. natural enemies.

8, 9 - “Keep” = Heb. “shamar” = Lit. “to hedge about” esp. with thorns. To guard, protect.

     - “apple of the eye” = Literally, in Hebrew “the little man of the eye”. A reference to the pupil of the eye (from the Latin “pupilla” meaning “orphan child”). The pupil is where one can see oneself as a small reflection in someone else’s eye. Therefore as a reflected image, as a child and therefore precious and deserving of protection from the Father. See Mt 18:1-6.

     “Hide” = “Thou wilt hide” as an eagle protecting its young.

     - “deadly enemies” = “the enemies of my soul”  See Lk 4:28-30

10-12 - “inclosed…” - A Hebraism similar to English idiom “wrapped up in” indicating obsession. They are in bondage to materialism, greed and pride. Always needing more, never satisfied. Their covetousness leads them to lurk and hunt like lions seeking prey for survival.

            - “compassed” - As a pride of lions deploys when hunting together. Ps 22:12, 13

            - “set their eyes…prey” - Feeding lions keep a sharp lookout for others, such as jackals, who might steal their prey.

            - “young lion” - Waiting for what is left over after the older ones finish.

13, 14 - “Arise” - To minister.

              - “Disappoint” = “Anticipate” - Action, not reaction.

              - “cast down” - To break them.   - “Deliver” = “Rescue”

              - “Thy sword” - In battle.    - “Thy hand” = Without battle. See 2 Ki 7:1-7

              - “world” = Heb. “heled” = The present, temporary world. The context for the remainder of this Psalm.

              - “belly” - See Phil 3:18,19

              - “hid” = “stored up in secret” as valuables left in a vault. See Mt 6:19-21   Lk 12:15-21  Jas 5:1-3

              - “They are…” = “Their children are also full and have enough to leave an inheritance.”

                              Even the young lions have more than enough yet they still seek more prey. See Job 21:7-21   Ecc 2:17-20, 26

15 - “As for me” - In contrast to the wicked.

        - “satisfied” = “full” same as v.14.

        - “awake” - In Resurrection

        - “Thy likeness” - 1 Jn 3:2                                          INDEX

Psalm 18 - Written about 1018 B.C.  (See 2 Sa 22) by the prophet David (Ac 2:29-31). Later edited by David and turned over “to the chief Musician” for public use. Psalm 18 looks forward to the true David, the Messiah, “the servant” (Isa 42:1; 52:13).

     - “delivered…” - See Lk 1:70-75     “hand” = “paw” Another lion image.

1 - Added by David.

     - “I will love Thee” = “I do intensely love Thee”

     - “strength” = Heb. “hazak” = strength for holding fast

2 - “rock” = Heb. “sela`” = “fortress”

     - “fortress” = Heb. “mezad” = “mountain stronghold”

     - “GOD” = Heb. “El” - The God who knows and performs all things.

     - “strength” = Heb. “zur” = “rock” – In its original natural location, i.e., never moved.

     - “trust” = flee to for refuge

     - “buckler” = Heb. “magen” = “shield”   Also in Ps 5:12

     - “horn…” - Quoted Lk 1:69

3 - “Lord…praised” = “the praised One”

     - “so shall…” - Quoted Lk 1:71

4 - “sorrows” = Heb. “hebel” = “meshes”

     - “ungodly men” = Heb. “Belial” A variation of “Baal”, a name for Satan.

5 - “hell” = Heb. “Sheol”  = “the grave”

     - “snares” = Heb. “yakash” = “noose”

     - “prevented” = “confronted”

6 - “temple” = “palace” - Heaven, where God is enthroned.

7-15 - Vengeance upon the ungodly. A prophetic look at the return of Christ.

    (7) - “shook…trembled…shaken” - Paranomasia (rhyming) in Hebrew. English would be “shaked…quaked…shaked”

            - “hills” = “mountains”

    (8) - “out of” should be “into”. Note “up”. Clearing the air before the “fire”.

    (9,10) - “darkness” = Heb. “`araphel” = Intense, thick darkness.

                - “rode…cherub” - See Ps 68:17   Eze 10

    (11) - “darkness” = Heb. “hashak” = Normal darkness, as nighttime.

    (12-15) - Endtimes events: Brightness (2 Th 2:8), Clouds (Rev 1:7), Hail (Rev 8:7; 11:19; 16:21), Fire (25x in Rev.), Thunder (Rev 6:1; 14:2), Lightning (Rev 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18)

         (12,13) - “thick clouds” - See Ex 19:16-19

                       - “HIGHEST” = Heb. “Elyon” - The possessor of the earth, the dispenser of blessings.

         (14,15) - “channels” = Heb. “aphikim” - A definitive watercourse. Determined by the Creator demonstrating His power over creation. Pr 8:27-29

                        - “blast…nostrils” - See Ex 15:7,8 

16 - “many waters” - A symbol of troubles.  Ps 46:3; 69:1,2; 124:4,5 

17 - “strong” = Heb. “’azaz” = “mighty”

       - “strong” = Heb. “’amaz” = “active”, “relentess”

18, 19 - “large place” - Indicative of safety. The opposite of a “tight spot”.

                 Note the 5 (#of grace) step delivery process: The Lord “sent from above”, “took me”, “drew me out”, “delivered me”, “brought me forth”.

             - “because…” - The basis for blessing.

20-24 - David’s personal relationship with God.

     (20) - “rewarded…recompensed…(v.24) “recompensed”.   WHY?

                  See the words of Boaz in Ruth 2:12

              - The connection: “righteousness (heart), “cleanness” (hands/deeds). Obedience tied to blessing.

     (21) - “kept the ways” - Positive

               - “not wickedly (willfully) departed” - Lack of negative. Not a claim of sinlessness, but an absence of rebellion.

     (22) - “statutes”, “judgments” - See Ps 1:1,2; 119:1-3

     (23) - “before” = “with” - In confession and prayer.

               - “mine iniquity” = Heb. “avah” = “wickedness”, or “the wicked”

     (24) - “in His eye sight” - By God’s standards, not man’s.

25, 26 - Others relationship with God.

      - “merciful”, “upright”, “pure”, “forward” - See Gal 6:7

        - “merciful” = “gracious”

        - “the froward” = Heb. “’ikesh” = “the perverse”

        - “froward” = “contender”

27 - God’s justice.

28 - God’s help.

       - “candle” = “lamp” - God’s provision.

       - “darkness” - God’s defense.

29 - “run through” = “broken through”

30 - “GOD” = Heb. “El” with the definite article “the El” = “God the Omnipotent”

       - “word” = “sayings”

       - “tried” = “refined”

       - “trust in Him” = “flee to him for refuge”

31 - “GOD” = Heb. “Eloah”, singular of “Elohim” = God as the object of worship. The living God in connection with His will.

       - “rock” - Emblem of stability and strength.

       - “save” = “except”

       - “God” = Heb. “Elohim” = “The Creator”

                         Who else is like Him? Who else can do what He does? Who else is perfect? Who else…? (Job 38-41)

32-34 - GOD supplies courage, adaptability and power.

    (32) - “strength” = Heb. “hil” = “valor”, strength of spirit for bravery.

    (33) - “hinds” - mountain deer (agility)

              - “my” - Omit

    (34) - “broken” = “bent” (strength)

35 - GOD supplies protection, support, and grace.

     - “shield” = Heb. “magen” - “buckler” in v.2.

     - “gentleness” = “condescension”  See Ps 8:4.

36 - GOD anchors.

37,38 - Enemies as the lion’s prey.

           “pursued…overtaken…wounded…fallen”. Prophetic future.

39-43 - Enemies subdued.

    (39) - “girded…battle” - See v.32.

    (40,41) - “cried…save” - Rhymes in Hebrew. English “they cried with fear, but none gave ear”

                       The Lord responds to the cries of those who love Him.

    (42) - “cast them out” = “scattered them”

    (43) - “strivings” = “contentions”

              - “head” - See Deu 28:13

              - “heathen” = Gentiles

44 - “hear of me” - See Phil 2:9-11

       - “strangers” = “foreigners”

       - “submit” = “come cringing” - Unwillingly obedient.

45 - “be afraid” = “come trembling”

       - “close places” = “hiding places”

46-48 - The spiritual source of natural victory.

     (48) - “violent man” - In 2 Sa 22:49 specifically, Saul. Here prophetically, Satan.

49 - “Therefore…” - Quoted in Ro 15:9.

50 - “His king” - David

       - “His ANOINTED” - The Messiah

       - “seed for evermore” - The glory which follows suffering. Isa 53:10-12

                                                                                                                                                                         INDEX

PSALMS 19 & 20

Gen 1:16 “THE STARS ALSO” (a summary)

In the first mention of the heavenly bodies, the purpose of the Creator is clearly stated.  Gen 1:14-19 reveals the fact that they were created, not only "to divide the day from the night, and to give light upon the earth"; but, they were set "for SIGNS, and for SEASONS, and for days and years". The figure of speech Polysyndeton (connecting by “and”) emphasizes these four purposes, and singles them out for separate and independent consideration.

They are “for SIGNS”

    Heb. 'oth, from 'athah, to come.  Signs, therefore, of something or some One to come.  Those who understand them are enlightened by them.  Those who do not may well be "dismayed" (Jer 10:2). The stars are numbered and named.  There are twelve signs of the Zodiac, called "the stars" in Gen 37:9 (eleven of which bowed down to Joseph's, the twelfth).  The word Zodiac means the degrees or steps, which mark the stages of the sun's path through the heavens, corresponding with the twelve months.

        The stars were all named by God (Ps 147:4).  Most of these names have been lost; but over 100 are preserved through the Arabic and Hebrew, and are used by astronomers today, though their meaning is unknown to them.  Many of them are used in Scripture as being well known, though the translations are somewhat speculative, e.g. Job 9:9.  Heb. 'ash (Arcturus, R.V. the Bear), kesil (A.V. Orion), kimah (Pleiades). These names and the twelve "signs" go back to the foundation of the world.  Jewish tradition, preserved by Josephus, assures us that this Bible astronomy was invented by Adam, Seth, and Enoch.

        We see evidence of it as early as Gen 11:4, where we read of the Tower of Babel having "his top with the heavens".  There is nothing about the wrongly supplied italics "may reach unto".  The words refer to the signs of the Zodiac, pictured at the top of the Tower, like the Zodiacs in the Temples of Denderah, and Esneh in Egypt. The Babylonian "Creation Tablets" refer to them, though their primitive meaning had been either corrupted or lost. It is the same with the Greek mythology, which is a corruption of primitive truth which had been lost and perverted.
We have to remember that our written Scriptures began with Moses, around 1490 B.C. and thus, for more than 2,500 years from Creation (4004 B.C.), the revelation of the hope which God gave in Gen 3:15 was preserved in the naming of the stars and their grouping in Signs and Constellations.

        These groupings are quite arbitrary. There is nothing in the positions of the stars to suggest the pictures originally drawn around them. The Signs and Constellations were first designed and named; then, the pictures were drawn around them respectively. Thus the truth was enshrined and written in the heavens, where no human hand could touch it. In later years, when Israel came into the possession of the written "Scriptures of truth", there was no longer any need for the more ancient writing in the heavens. Hence, the original teaching gradually faded away and the heathen, out of the smattering they had heard by tradition, evolved their theories and mythologies concerning Creation and the solar system.

Ps. 19 contains a vivid reference to the Signs and Constellations, two Books of revelation. That is why there is the very sudden change of subject at verse 7; a change which still perplexes and baffles many commentators. The teaching is preserved in the structure of the Psalm, where we have

A |   1-4-.    The Heavens.

B |   -4-6.    "In them, the sun".

A |   7-10.    The Scriptures.

B |   11-14.  "In them (the same Heb. as in v. 4.), Thy servant".
        In this structure every line emphasizes the elaboration of the design. In the first half, all the terms are literary, in the latter half they are all astronomical, thus merging the two portions of the Psalm into one harmonious whole. For the meaning of the words, reference must be made to the Psalm itself.  The first part does not refer to the wonders of creation, but to the eloquence of its teaching and revelation: they "declare", tell, or narrate (Gen 24:66  Ps 71:15), they "utter speech", but without words (omit "where" in v. 3); they prophesy "day by day", "night by night".  The question is: What do they prophesy?  What knowledge do they show forth?  What glory do they tell of?

The answer is - Gen. 3:15.  The one great central truth of all prophecy - the coming of the One, Who, though He should suffer, should in the end crush the head of the old serpent, the Devil.

        Through the "precession of the Equinoxes" (An equinox is the moment in which the plane of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun's disk, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 23 September and day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet) the sun gradually shifts its position a little each year, till in about every 2,000 years it begins the year in a different sign.  This was foreseen; and it was also foreseen that succeeding generations would not know when and where the sun began its course, and where the teaching of this Heavenly Book commenced.  Hence the "Sphinx" was invented as a memorial.  It had the head of a woman and the body and tail of a lion, to tell us that this Book, written in the Heavens, began with the sign "Virgo", and will end with the sign "Leo". The word "sphinx" is from the Greek “sphingo”, to join; because it binds together the two ends of this circle of the heavens.

The number of the Signs is twelve, the number of governmental perfection or "rule": (Gen 1:18).  They are divided into three books of four chapters (or signs) each: twelve being the product of 3x4, i.e. of Divine truth working in the heavens and in the earth. Each book, therefore, consists of four signs; and these are all arranged, by structure, in exactly the same way. Each is an introversion. Thus we have the three books corresponding to the three ages of heaven and earth.

First Book.  The Redeemer.
(His first coming)

A | VIRGO.    The prophecy of the promised seed.

B | LIBRA.    The Redeemer's work (grace).
B | SCORPIO.    The Redeemer's conflict.

A | SAGITTARIUS.    The prophecy fulfilled.

Second Book.  The Redeemed.
(His work and its results)

C | CAPRICORNUS.    The prophecy of deliverance.

D | AQUARIUS.    Results of work bestowed.
D | PISCES.    Results of work enjoyed.

C | ARIES.    The prophesied deliverance fulfilled.

Third Book.  The Redeemer.
(His Second Coming)

E | TAURUS.    The prophecy of coming judgment.

F | GEMINI.    The Redeemer's reign in glory.
F | CANCER.    The Redeemer's position safe.

E | LEO.    The prophecy of triumph fulfilled.

Each of the four chapters in each of these three Books consists of three sections; and each section is represented by a Constellation.  There are thus thirty-six (3x12) Constellations, which, with the twelve Signs, make forty-eight (4 (#of the earth) x 12(#of rule)) in all.

The First Book.  The Redeemer.
"The sufferings of Christ."

I.  VIRGO (Zebulon) (A)
The prophecy of the promised seed.

  1. COMA (= The desired).  The woman and child the desired of all nations (in the most ancient Zodiacs).
  2. CENTAURUS (with two natures).  The despised sin-offering.
  3. BOOTES.  The coming One with branch.

II. LIBRA (Levi) (B).
The Redeemer's atoning work.

  1. CRUX.  The Cross endured.
  2. LUPUS.  The Victim slain.
  3. CORONA.  The Crown bestowed.

III. SCORPIO (Dan) (B).
The Redeemer's conflict.

  1. SERPENS.  Assaulting the man's heel.
  2. OPHIUCHUS.  The man grasping the serpent.
  3. HERCULES.  The mighty man victorious.

IV. SAGITTARIUS (Asher) (A).
The Redeemer's triumph.

  1. LYRA.  Praise prepared for the Conqueror.
  2. ARA.  Fire prepared for His enemies.
  3. DRACO.  The dragon cast down.

The Second Book.  The Redeemed.

I.  CAPRICORN (Napthali) (C).
The result of the Redeemer's sufferings.

  1. SAGITTA.  The arrow of God sent forth.
  2. AQUILLA.  The smitten one falling.
  3. DELPHINUS.  The dead One rising again.

II. AQUARIUS (Reuben) (D).
The Blessings assured.

  1. PISCIS AUSTRALIS.  The blessings bestowed.
  2. PEGASUS.  The blessings quickly coming.
  3. CYGNUS.  The Blesser surely returning.

III. PISCES (Simeon) (D).
The Blessings in abeyance.

  1. THE BAND.  The great enemy, "Cetus."
  2. ANDROMEDA.  The redeemed in bondage.
  3. CEPHEUS.  The Deliverer coming to loosen.

IV. ARIES  (Gad) (C).
The Blessings consummated.

  1. CASSIOPEIA.  The captive delivered.
  2. CETUS.  The great enemy bound.
  3. PERSEUS.  The "Breaker" delivering.

The Third Book.  The Redeemer.
"The glory that should follow."

I.  TAURUS (Manasseh) (E).
Messiah coming to rule.

  1. ORION.  The redeemer breaking forth as Light.
  2. ERIDANUS.  Wrath breaking forth as a flood.
  3. AURIGA.  Safety for His redeemed in the day of wrath.

II. GEMINI (Benjamin) (F).
Messiah as Prince of princes.

  1. LEPUS.  The enemy trodden under foot.
  2. CANIS MAJOR.  The coming glorious prince.
  3. CANIS MINOR.  The exalted Redeemer.

III. CANCER (Issachar) (F).
Messiah's redeemed possessions
.

  1. URSA MINOR.  The lesser sheepfold.
  2. URSA MAJOR.  The fold and the flock.
  3. ARGO.  The pilgrim's arrival at home.

IV. LEO (Judah) (E).
Messiah's consummated triumph
.

  1. HYDRA.  The old serpent destroyed.
  2. CRATER.  The cup of wrath poured out.
  3. CORVUS.  The birds of prey devouring.

The modern names are used for our identification. Some of these names were given in ignorance, by those who had lost the primitive signification of the twelve Signs and of the thirty-six Constellations. The Hebrew and Arabic names of these, and of the principal stars contained in them, are full of truth, and eloquent in their teaching.

Virgo (the Virgin).  Here we have the star Al Zimach.  Heb. Zemach, the branch.  Isa 4:2  Jer 23:5, 6  Zech 3:8; 6:12.  All the other stars have connected meanings.

  • COMA.  The Desired (Hag 2:7Num 24:17.  (Egyptian Shes-nu = the desired son.)
  • CENTAURUS, Al Beze, the despised (Isa 53:3).
  • BOOTES (Heb. bo', to come), Ps 96:13.  Heb. Arcturus (Job 9:9 = He cometh).  Egyptian = Smat, one who rules.

*Libra was anciently the Altar (accadian = Tulki).  The two bright stars are to-day called in Arabic "Zuben al Genubi" = the price which is deficient, and "Zuben al Chemali"= the price which covers.

  • CRUX.  Heb. karath, cut off (Dan 9:26).
  • LUPUS.  Greek name Thera, a beast.  Lat. Victima.  Heb. sabah, slain.  In the Zodiac of Denderah = Sura, a lamb.
  • CORONA.  Heb. 'atarah, a royal crown.  Arab. Al iclil, a jewel.  Its brightest star = Al phena, the shining one.

              *The only sign not represented by a living thing as the Levites were redeemed by God as sacrifice without sacrifice (Nu 3:12). Represented today by scales. 

Scorpio.  Heb. 'akrab (Ps 91:13).  Coptic name = Isidis = the attack of the enemy.  Arabic = Al aterah, the wounding of the coming One.  The brightest star is Antares (Arab. = wounding).  Heb. Lezuth, perverseness.

  • SERPENS.  The brightest star is called (Heb.) 'anak = encompassing.  Heb. kelalah = the accursed.  Arab. Al hay, the reptile. Referenced in Job 26:13  Isa 27:1
  • OPHIUCHUS is from Arab. Afeichus = the serpent held.  The brightest star is Ras al hagus = the head of him who holds.  Other names are Megeras = contending.  In the Zodiac of Denderah he is Api-bau = the chief who cometh.  Other stars are Triophas = treading under foot; Saiph = bruised; Carnebas = bruised.
  • HERCULES.  In the Zodiac of Denderah called Bau = who cometh.  Arab. Al giscale, the strong one.  The brightest star, Ras al Gethi = the head of him who bruises.

 Sagittarius.  Heb. kesheth (an archer) (Gen 21:20).  The brightest star, Heb. channun = the gracious one (Ps 45:2).  Accadian, Nun-ki = Prince of the earth.  In Zodiac of Denderah, Pi-maere = graciousness, and Knem, He conquers.

  • LYRA.  (Ps 65:1)  The brightest star Vega = He shall be exalted.  In Zodiac of Denderah = Fent-kar = the serpent ruled.  Originally an eagle, from confusion between Heb. nesher, and shir (song, or music).
  • ARA (an altar upside down), pointing to Tartarus (Isa 63:4, 5).  Arab. Al mugamra = the completing or finishing (Ps 21:9-12).
  • DRACO.  Ends the first book.  The dragon cast down.  CETUS ends the second book.  Leviathan bound.  HYDRA ends the third book.  The old serpent destroyed.  Draco = trodden on.  (Ps 91:13; 74:12-14  Isa 27:1).  In Zodiac of Denderah it is a serpent under the fore-feet of Sagittarius and called  Her-fent = the serpent accursed.  The brightest star called Thuban = the subtle.

 Capricorn = the goat of atonement.  In Zodiac of Denderah and Esneh, Hu-penius = the place of the sacrifice.  Heb. Gedi, the kid, or Gada, cut off.  The brightest star is Al-gedi = the kid.  The next is Deneb al gedi = the sacrifice of the kid.

  • SAGITTA, the arrow.  (Ps 38:2  Isa 53:4, 5)  Heb. Shamad, or shamem = destroying.
  • AQUILA, the eagle, pierced and wounded and falling.  The brightest star, Al tair = wounding.  All the others are similar.
  • DELPHINUS.  Always a fish full of life, the head upwards.  Heb. Dalaph = the pouring out of water.  Arab. Dalaph = coming quickly.

Aquarius. In the Zodiac of Denderah he has two urns. The fish seems to have come out of one of them.  Heb. name Dali = water-urn or bucket (Num 24:7).  Brightest star Sa'ad al Melik = the record of the pouring forth.  The next Sa'ad al Sund = who goeth and returneth (cp. Isa 32:1, 2; 35:1, 6; 41:18; 44:2-6; 51:3).

  • PISCIS AUSTRALIS.  The southern fish.  Arab. Fom al haut = the mouth of the fish.  Zodiac of Denderah = Aar, a stream.
  • PEGASUS.  The winged horse.  Zodiac of Denderah Pe and ka = Peka, or pega.  Heb. pehah = the chief, and sus, a horse (name thus come down).  The brightest is Markab, Heb. merhak = returning from afar.
  • CYGNUS.  In the Zodiac of Denderah, Tes-ark = this from afar.  A mighty bird, not falling dead like Aquila.  Brightest star Deneb = the Judge; called also Adige = flying swiftly.  The second, Al Bireo = flying quickly.  Two others:  Azel = who goes and returns quickly, and Fafage = gloriously shining forth.

Pisces.  Egyptian name in the Zodiac of Denderah = Pi-cot Orion or Pisces Hori = the fishes (i.e. swarms and multitudes) or Him Who cometh.  Heb. Dagim, the fishes (Gen. 48:16).  Syr. name, Nuno = lengthened out (i.e. in posterity).  Cp. Isa 53:10  Ps 33:12; 37:22; 115:14, 15  Isa 61:9; 65:23; 26:15; 9:3  Jer 30:19  Ezek 36:10, 11; 37:26.  Note the two fishes = the earthly and heavenly callings (one fish horizontal, the other looking upward).  113 stars much of the same magnitude.  The brightest star is Okda = the united.  The next (Arabic) Al samaca = the upheld.  (Isa 41:8-10)

  • THE BAND.  Egyptian name U-or = He cometh binding them together (Hos 11:4); and breaking the band which binds them to their old enemy Cetus.
  • ANDROMEDA.  Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Set, which means seated as a queen.  Also, Sirco = the chained.  The brightest star is Al Phiratz = the broken down.  The next, Mirach = the weak.  The next, Al amok (Arab) = stuck down.  (Isa 54:11-14; 51:21-52:3  Jer 14:17)
  • CEPHUS.  The king.  In the Zodiac of Denderah Pe-ku-hor = this one cometh to rule.  Cepheus is Greek from the Heb. zemah = the Branch.  Ethiopian name, Hyh = a king.  The brightest star is Al Deramin = coming quickly.  The next is Al Phirk - the Redeemer.  The next, Al Rai' = who bruises or breaks.  (Jer 31:1).

 Aries. The ram or lamb full of vigor. Not falling in death like Capricornus.  The name in the Zodiac of Denderah Tametouris Ammon = the reign of rule of Ammon.  Heb. name Taleh = the lamb.  Arab. Al Hamel = the sheep.  Syr. Amroo, as in John 1:29.  The Accadian name was Bar-Ziggar = the altar making right = the sacrifice of righteousness.  The brightest star is El nath, or El natik = wounded, or slain.  The next, Al Sharatan = the bruised, or wounded.  Cp. Rev 5:9-12.

  • CASSIOPEIA.  The enthroned woman.  Arabic name El seder = the freed.  In the Zodiac of Denderah Set =  seated as queen.  Arabic Ruchba = the enthroned.  The brightest star is Schedir = the freed.  The next, Kaph (Heb.) = the branch.  (Isa 54:5-8; 62:3-5  Jer 31:3-12  Ps 45:9-17  Isa 61:10, 11)
  • CETUS.  The sea monster.  The great enemy bound (Rev 20:10; cp. 20: 1-3).  The name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Knem = subdued.  The brightest star is Menkar = the enemy chained.  The next is Diphda, or Deneb Kaitos = overthrown, or thrustdown.  Another is Mira = the rebel.  (Job 41:1-10  Isa 51:22, 23; 26:21-27:1  Ps 74:12-14)
  • PERSEUS.  The Breaker.  Heb. Perez.  Greek, Perses, or Perseus (Rom 16:12  Mic 2:12, 13).  Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Kar Knem = he who fights and subdues.  The brightest star is Mirfak = who helps.  The next, Al Genib = who carries away.  The next is Athik = who breaks.

Taurus.  Messiah coming in judgment.  Chald. Tor.  Hence, Arabic Al thaur; Greek, Tauros; Lat. Taurus.  The common Heb. name is Shur = coming and ruling, and Re'em = pre-eminence.  The brightest star is Al Debaran = The Leader or Governor.  The next is El nath = wounded or slain.  The group Pleiades is Kimah = heap or accumulation.  (Job 9:9; 38:31  Amos 5:8.)  A bright star is Al Cyone = the centre.  Heb. and Syr. name is Succoth = booths.  Another group, Hyades = the congregated.  (Deut 33:17  Ps 44:5  Isa 13:11-15; 34:2-8; 26:21)

  • ORION.  The coming Prince.  Light breaking forth, through the Redeemer.  In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Ha-ga-t = this is He Who triumphs.  Oarion = Heb. 'Or, light; or coming forth as light (cp. Job 9:9; 38:31  Amos 5:8).  Heb. Kesil = a strong one (translated "Orion" in Job 9:9; 38:31 Amos 5:8).  The brightest star is Betelgeuz = the coming of the Branch (Mal. 3:2).  The next is Rigel or Rigol = the foot of him that crusheth.  The next is Bellatrix = swiftly destroying.  Another is Al Nitak = the wounded One.  Many others with names of cumulative meanings.  (See Isa 42:13,14; 60:1-3)
  • ERIDANUS.  the river of judgment.  In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Peh-ta-t = the mouth of the river.  The brightest star is Achernar =  the after part of the river.  So with the other names, going forth, flowing on (to the lower regions of the south).  Dan. 7:9-11  Ps 97:3-5; 50:3  Hab 3:5  Isa 30:27-33  Nah 1:5,6  Isa 66:15,16  2Thess 1:7, 8
  • AURIGA.  The Shepherd.  (Isa 40:10,11  Ezek 34:22).  Auriga = Charioteer.  The brightest star is Alioth = a she-goat.  Modern Lat. name is Capella, same meaning.  The next is Menkilinon =  the band of the goats; bound, never to be again lost.  (John 10:11)  In the Zodiac of Denderah, the shepherd carries a sceptre (Trun), the top with a goat, and bottom with a cross.  (Mal 4:1-3  Ps 37:38-40).  

Gemini. The Twins.  Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Clusus, or Claustrum Hori = the place of Him Who cometh.  The old Coptic name was Pi-Mahi = the united.  Heb. Thaumim (from ta'am) = double.  The root used in Ex 26:24 (twinned together).  The brightest star is Apollo = ruler or judge.  The next is Hercules = who cometh to labour and suffer.  Another is Al henah = hurt, wounded.  (Isa 4:2; 32:1,2  Jer 23:5,6; 33:14-16)

  • LEPUS (the enemy trodden under foot).  In the Zodiac of Denderah the name is Bashti-beki = falling confounded.  Aratus says "chased eternally".  The brightest star is Arnebo = the enemy of Him Who cometh.  Other stars are Nibal = the mad; Takis, the bound; Sugia, the deceiver.  (Isa 63:3,4)
  • CANIS MAJOR.  Sirius, the Prince.  In Zodiac of Denderah it is Apes = the head.  In Persian Planisphere = a wolf (Heb. Ze'eb).  The brightest star is Sirius = the Prince.  In Persian Tistrya or Tistar = the chieftain.  The next is Mirzam = the prince.  Another is Wesen = the shining, and another Adhara = the glorious.  Many other related names.  (Isa 9:6; 55:4  Dan 8:23,25)
  • CANIS MINOR.  The second Dog.  In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Sebak = conquering, victorious.  The brightest star is Procyon = Redeemer.  The next is Gomeisa (Arabic) = the burdened, bearing for others.  Many other related names.  (Isa 49:24-26; 59:19,20; 53:12)

 Cancer. The Crab. Messiah's possessions held fast.  In the Zodiac of Denderah and Esneh it is a sacred beetle.  Its name there give is Klaria = cattle-folds.  Arabic name is Al Sarta'n = He Who holds or binds together (Gen 49:11).  The Greek name is Karkinos = encircling; the same as the Lat. Cancer, from Arabic Khan an Inn, and Ker, or Cer = encircling.  The ancient Accadian is Su-kul-na = the seizer, or possessor of seed.  A bright cluster is called Praesepe = a multitude or offspring.  The brightest star is Tegmine = holding.  Another is Acubene = the sheltering or hiding-place.  Another, Ma'alaph = assembled thousands.  North and south of Praesepe are two bright stars, Assellus North and Assellus South; their sign is 69, and called the two asses, thus connecting it with Cancer, which is the sign of Issachar (cp. Gen 49:14  Num 2:5).

  • URSA MINOR.  The little Bear = the lesser sheep-fold.  The brightest star of Ursa Minor is Dubheh = a herd.  Arabic Dubah means cattle.  Heb. Dober = a fold, from dobe' = rest or security, rendered "strength" in Deut 33:25.  All points to this (cp. Judg 5:16).  The Heb. Dob = a bear.  So Arabic Dub, and Persian Deeb or Dob.  Hence the mistake.  The brightest star is Al riccaba = the turned or ridden on, denoting it as the Polar star.  The Greeks called it Kunosoura = Cynosure, but this word is Accadian. An-nas-sur-ra = high in rising; or high in heavenly position.  The next bright star is Kochab = waiting Him Who cometh.
  • URSA MAJOR.  The great Bear = the Fold and the Flock (Obad 17-19).  In Job 9:9 and 38:31,32 it is called 'Ash and her offspring.  A.V. = Arcturus and her sons.  R.V. = Bear and his train (marg., sons).  Arabs still call it Al Naish or Annaish = the assembled together as in a fold.  The brightest star is Dubhe = a flock, which gives its name to the two constellations.  The next is Merach = the flock (Arabic = purchased).  The next is Phaeda or Pharda = numbered or guarded (Ps 147:4).  Another is called Benet Naish = daughters of the assembly. Another, Al Kaid = the assembled.  Many other related names.  (Cp. Ezek 34:12-16)
  • ARGO.  The Ship = the Pilgrims, safe at home.  In the Egyptian Planisphere there are two ships (like the two folds). They occupy one-half of the south meridians.  The brightest star is Canopus = the possession of Him Who cometh.  Other names are Sephina = the multitude.  Tureis = the possession.  Asmidiska = the released who travel, &c.  (Jer 30:10,11  Isa. 60:4-9)

Leo. The Lion. Messiah's consummated triumph.  In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Pi Mentikeon = the pouring out (of Divine wrath).  The tree constellations crystallize the truth :

  1. Hydra = the old serpent destroyed.
  2. Crater = the cup of wrath poured out on him.
  3. Corvus = the bird of prey devouring him.

The Denderah picture exhibits all four in one.  The Syr. name is Aryo = the rending lion.  Arab. Al Asad = the lion leaping forth as a flame.  The brightest star is Regulus = treading under foot.  The next is Denebola = the Judge or Lord Who cometh. The next is Al Giebha = the exaltation.  Another is Zosma = shining forth.  All the others are connected. (Gen 49:8,9  Num 24:8,9  Amos 3:4, 8  Isa 42:13)

  • HYDRA.  The Old Serpent. Hydra = he is abhorred.  The brightest star is Cor Hydra = the heart of Hydra.  Its ancient name is Al phard = the put away.  Another is Al Drian = the abhorred.  Another is Minchar al Sugia = the piercing of the deceiver.
  • CRATER.  The Cup [of wrath poured out].  (Ps 75:8; 11:6  Rev 14:10; 16:19)  The constellation has thirteen (# of rebellion) stars.
  • CORVUS.  The Raven.  The birds of prey devouring.  The name in the Zodiac of Denderah, Her-na = the enemy breaking up.  there are nine (# of judgment) stars.  The brightest star is Chiba (Num 23:8) = accursed.  Another is Minchar al Gorab = the raven tearing to pieces.

Thus end the Scriptures of the Heavens.  This is the story they tell forth.  This is the "speech" they "utter".  This is the "knowledge" they "shew forth".  There is no articulate speech or voice; and no words are heard; but, their sayings have gone out into all the world (Ps 19:1-6).

They are “for SEASONS”

        Not only are the stars made for signs ('othoth, from the root 'athah = to come), but for Seasons.  These are not the four seasons of the year, but Cycles of time.  The “and”s in Gen 1:14 emphasize this: "and for seasons, and for days, and years". The word means appointed times.  (Cp. Gen 17:21; 18:14; 21:2)  Thus the sun, moon, and stars are for "signs" (things to come), and for "seasons" (appointed times).

There are no less that ten of these cycles, all of them different; not concentric, but yet all of them coinciding at creation, but never since, like a number of hoops of different sizes hanging from a nail.  This shows that they must have had a given simultaneous start.

  1. The cycle of 24 hours for the day, an evening and morning.
  2. The revolution of the Moon round the earth.
  3. The lunar cycle, which began at the same moment as the solar cycle.
  4. The daily revolution of the Sun, which places it on the meridian at noon each day.
  5. The Solar Cycle, coinciding with the first of the seven years of lunar motion and repeating itself every 365 days.
  6. The beginning of a Week of seven days on the first day of the week, of the first month of the first year of the first solar cycle.
  7. The first Eclipse of a cycle of eighteen years and eleven days, to which the ancient astronomers gave the name of Saros; each Saros containing an average of seventy eclipses, divided into two portions of 594 years and 666 years, making together 1,260 years.
  8. Besides these, there is the period of the Heliacal rising of Sirius, in a cycle of 162 years.
  9. The Transits of Venus.
  10. And the grand cycle known as the Precession of the Equinoxes.

By working backwards, all these combine and unite in showing that the chronology of Archbishop Ussher (1581-1656) fixing Creation at Sunday, October 23rd, 4004 B.C. was substantially correct.  And this proves that the inflated chronology of modern historians and theologians (some claiming that man has been on earth for millions of years) is entirely un-scientific, being the hypothesis of men who dabbled in things outside their own sphere, and of which they were incompetent to form a correct judgment.

Psalm 19 - “Concerning God’s glory and voice in Creation (the “creature” of Ro 8:18-22). All Creation personified. See Lk 19:39, 40.

                         Verses 1-6: The Heavens (Glory)   Verses 7-14 (Voice/Word)

 1 - “declare” = “rehearse” - Indicating repetition. See Ps 71:15 (“shew forth”).

       - “GOD” = Heb. “El” - The God Who has ALL the Divine attributes. 

       - “firmament” = “expanse”. What we refer to as the galaxy.

       - “sheweth” = “is setting forth” - See Gen 3:11 (“told”)  Ps 97:6 (“declare”)  Ps 111:6 (“shewed”)

       - “handywork” - See Gen 1:31

2 - “Day unto day” = “Day after day”

       - “uttereth” = Heb. “naba’” = “tells forth”, “prophesies”

       - “speech” = “speaking”

                      The testimony of the heavens is non-stop.

3 - “language” = “words”

       - IMPORTANT: Omit “Where”

       - “voice” = “sound”

                       The constant praise of the heavens is inaudible.

4 - Quoted in Ro 10:18 from the Septuagint (Greek) and Vulgate (Latin) which read “voice” instead of “line”, connecting with written words later in this verse.

       - “line” = “inheritance”, represented by measuring (allotment) lines.

       - “earth” = Heb. “eres” = the created Earth

       - “words” = “teachings” or “sayings”

       - “world” = Heb. “tebel” - the inhabited world

       - “them” = the heavens

       - “tabernacle” = “tent” or “house”. Hence, Zodiac signs referred to as “houses” of the sun which moves and dwells within them as ordered by God. In correspondence to God’s servants moving and dwelling within His word. Note “circuit” in v.6.

       - “sun” - The subject of vv. 5 and 6.

5,6 - “Which is” should be “And he”. The sun is personified as a servant of God.

         - “chamber” = Heb. “chuppah” - The canopy under which the groom and bride stand during the wedding ceremony. Often decorated to symbolize the bridal chamber. Sometimes with a hole in the top to allow sunlight to enter.

         - “And” - Omit

         - “strong man” = Heb. “gibbor” - Man in respect of his physical strength (“mighty man”).

7-14 - The written words in Scripture compared with the words written in Heaven.

  (7-9) - Six (#of man) titles, attributes and effects of the Word.

  1. Law / perfect  /conversion
  2. Testimony  / sure / wisdom
  3. Statutes / right / rejoicing
  4. Commandment / pure / enlightening
  5. Fear / permanence / cleansing
  6. Judgments / true / righteousness

    (7) - “the LORD” = Heb. “Jehovah” - God of the Covenant (7x in last 8 verses).

            - “perfect” - As are all of God’s works.

            - “converting” = “returning”

            - “testimony” = “witness”

            - “sure” = “faithful and enduring”.  See Ps 89:36,37

    (8) - “statues” = Heb. “pikkudim” = “precepts”, “principles”

            - “right” = “righteous” - Equitable and just.

            - “enlightening” - Giving light. Gen 1:15-18

    (9) - “fear” = “reverence”

            - “clean” = Heb. “taher” = “cleansing”, specifically ceremonially as in Lev 16:30.

            - “judgments” - Things required by law such as restorations and punishments.

            - “true” = faithful in perpetuity,

10 - Eternal vs. temporal.

11 - “by them” = Heb. “bahem” = “in them”.  As we move and dwell in the Word. See Ac 17:28.

       - “warned” = “enlightened”, “taught”

       - “keeping” = “observing”

12 - “understand” = “discern”

       - “his” - Omit

       - “errors” = “wanderings”, as of the planets.

       - “Cleanse” = Heb. “nakah” = “Clear”, “Acquit”

       - “secret” = “undiscerned”, “hidden”. A reference to sins of which we may be unaware. See Nu 15:22-29.

13 - “Keep back” = “Constrain” or “Restrain” as heavenly bodies are held in their orbits.

       - “presumptuous sins” should be “presumptuous men”

       - “have dominion” = “rule” as in Ps 136:8,9

       - “the great” = “much”

       - “transgression” = Heb. “pasha” = “rebellion”. Sin against lawful authority.

14 - “be acceptable in Thy sight” = “come with acceptance before Thee”

       - “strength” = Heb. “zur” = “rock”

       - “redeemer” = Heb. “ga’al” - See Ex 6:6

            The psalm begins with the Creator and ends with the Redeemer. The same occurs with the heavenly worship in Rev 4:11 - 5:9.

                                                                                                                                                                           INDEX

Psalm 20 - Trust in Christ. His Peoples’ prayer. (v.5 “We”)

1 - “The LORD” = Heb. “Jehovah” = The God of the Covenant.

     - “hear” = “answer”

     - “name” - 3 times. Defending Name (v.1), Displayed Name (v.5), Delivering Name (v.7)  See Lk 11:2.

     - “God of Jacob” - The N.T. “God of all grace”. The God Who met Jacob, who deserved nothing, and gave him everything.

     - “defend” = “shall defend” - Always used of God in the Psalms.

              A spiritual 911 call placed to superior rank, authority and power for protection from the enemy’s violence.

2 - “thee” should be “thy”

     - “strengthen” = Heb. “sa`ad” = “sustain”

     - “Zion” - The location of the Ark, representing the power of God.

3 - “offerings” = Heb. “minchah” = “meal offering”. A gift offering to secure favor. See Gen 32:13-21 (“present”)

     - “accept” = “turn to ashes”. Sacrifices “accepted” by heavenly fire. See Lev 9:24  Jud 6:21  1Ki 18:38.

     - “Selah” - Connecting the accepted sacrifice with the prayer of v.4.

4 - “thine own heart”, “thy counsel”. All acceptable prayer and petition is submissive to the will of God. See Mt 26:39.

5 - “banners” = “standards”, “flags” - Denoting the presence of the LORD in the midst of the camp before “setting forward”.  See Nu 2:34; 10:11-25.

       - “fulfill” = “will fulfill” - Trust and confidence in the LORD’s faithfulness.

6 - “His Anointed” = “His Messiah”

       - “will hear” = “heareth”, continually

       - “strength” = Heb. “gabar” = “might”, “mighty deeds”

7 - “Some by chariots, and some by horses: But we by…”

8 - “They” - “brought down”, “fallen”

       - “We” - “risen”, “stand upright” (“established”)   Mt 7:24-27

9 - Closing prayer

       - “when” = “in the day when”

                                                                                                                                       INDEX

Psalm 21 - The Coronation of the King. Like much of Scripture, written in the 3rd person as one not worthy. The psalm begins with the Messiah strong in Jehovah’s strength. It ends with the Messiah strong in His own strength, received from above.

        - “of David” = “pertaining to David”, therefore prophetic of the Messiah.

1 - “strength” = Heb. “araz” = “dominant strength”  Cp. Neh 8:10

2-7 - Jehovah addressed

  (2) - “his heart” - Cp. 20:4 “thine heart”. See 1 Sa 13:13,14

          - “Selah” - Connects the answer (v.2) to the reason (v.3) and with 20:4 connected by the “Selah” of 20:3 and thereby pointing to atonement, not sinlessness.

  (3) - “preventest” (= “comes to meet”) and “settest a crown” - See Lk 15:20-24 and prophetically, Rev 14:14.

  (4) - “life” = “resurrection life”

  (5,6) - “Honour…” - See Rev 5:13

  (7) - “trusteth” = Heb. “batah” = “confides” (for security).

          - “mercy” = Heb. “hesed” = “lovingkindness”

          - “MOST HIGH” = Heb. “Elyon” = The possessor of heaven and earth.

8-12 - The King addressed

  (8) - “Thine hand” - Representing skill and wisdom.

          - “Thy right hand” - Representing strength and power.

  (9) - “make them as a fiery oven” = “place them as in a furnace of fire”

           Teacher’s Note: An important Biblical image to apply spiritually and naturally. The same fire which consumes what is of little or no value purifies that which is precious. Note and contrast the 6 (#of man) things listed in 1 Co 3:11-15 AND contrast the effect of the fire on Nebuchadnezzar’s mighty men and Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego in Dan 3:20-27.

  (10,11) - The guilt of the King’s enemies.

            - “children” = “sons”

            - “not able” = “could not accomplish”  See Isa 54:14-17 and its contrast in Isa 55:11.

  (12) - The defeat of the King’s enemies.

           - “turn their back” = flee

           - “strings” = “bowstrings”

13 - “Thine own strength”, “Thy power” - Received from the LORD by His servants.

          - “Aijeleth Shahar” = “the Day Dawn” - David’s coronation (953 B.C.) looking ahead to the Messiah’s coronation. Obviously not the superscription to Psalm 22.

                                                                                                                                                                  INDEX

Psalms 22-24 - The Shepherd’s Trilogy

The Sufferings and Glory of the Man Christ Jesus

Psalm 22- The Good Shepherd, On Earth, In Death (Jn 10:11)

Psalm 23 - The Great Shepherd, In Heaven, By Resurrection (Heb 13:20)

Psalm 24 - The Chief Shepherd, Returning To Earth in His Glory (1 Pe 5:4; Rev 19)

Psalm 22 - A PRAYER and PLEA from THE CROSS: Scriptural Holy Ground pointing to the instruction of Ex 3:5-15. The sufferings followed by Deliverance and Glory. Phil 3:10 alerts us to the example set by the Lord and calls for our conformance. The Psalm has 2 major divisions: vv.1-21 (Sufferings) and vv.22-31 (Glory).

Ps 22 presents Christ as the sin offering (heart) Lev 4:1-5:13

Ps 40 presents Christ as the burnt offering (voluntary) Lev 1:1-17

Ps 69 presents Christ as the trespass offering (behavior) Lev 5:14-6:7

1 - Written by David, Quoted by the Lord. This verse contains the 4th of the 7 Last Sayings and is, therefore, the centerpiece of the group. It is a sobering lesson for believers: Despite pain, suffering, despair and tears we must have unwavering faith in the One Who is unwaveringly faithful.

     - “My GOD” = “My El” - Not Jehovah, the God of the covenant, but God in relation to His Creation. The Omnipotent One with His strength and power in operation. The repetition, with the possessive “My” shows the relationship trumping the circumstance. This is an appeal based on misery, but with no semblance of doubt.

     - “Why” - He was without sin, therefore the suffering was without cause. The suffering of the righteous has purpose. Jas 1:2-4.

     - “hast” - Past tense, therefore dealing with the effects, not the action.

     - “…thou forsaken me?” - Feeling separation though still clinging to “My GOD”, David was seeking an answer. Christ, the sin offering, manifested the answer. THIS IS NOT A RHETORICAL QUESTION! To answer this question is to understand the meaning of the cross.

     - “so far” - Both time and distance. For David, no help from the hills. For Christ, 3PM was the time of the evening sacrifice.

See Daniel, (21 days) in Dan 10:1-14. For Joseph, 22 years from the dream (Gen 37:4-11) to its ultimate fulfillment Gen 50:18-20. For believers time can be, and often is, the enemy of faith. Understand “little faith” (Gr. “oligopistos”) in Mt 6:30 where the reference is to time. GOD CREATED TIME (Gen 1:5), HE IS NOT SUBJECT TO IT! Time is a component of mortality/death. We cannot turn from God because it doesn’t suit our schedule.

     - “roaring” = Heb. “sha`ag” used of lions and thunder. Here modified by “words” indicating groanings and sounds of anguish rather than articulate speech.

2 - “God” = Heb. “Elohim” - The Creator and Redeemer.

     - “daytime”, “night” - Without ceasing (1 Th 5:17)

     - “hearest not” = “don’t answer”

     - “not silent” - Yet the prayer continues fueled by unfailing faith. The example set by obedience to Lk 18:1.

3 - “But” = “And yet”

     - “holy” - An expression of moral purity when used of God. For all else, it means set apart for God.

     - “inhabitest the praises” - Praises create a Sanctuary, a place where praise is offered up.

Unanswered prayer does not cause the true believer to question God’s holiness or faithfulness. We must not deny God’s righteousness by making up our own reasons/answers. Instead, as Christ does, we should petition God based on His holiness.

4,5 - “trusted” - 3 times for emphasis.

     - “our fathers” - Understandable from David, but Jesus had no earthly father. Here we have the Lord speaking as the High Priest, making atonement for all the People (Lev 16:33; Heb 5:1-10; 9:11-26). Accordingly, He speaks from the cross in Aramaic, the language of the High Priest (Mt 27:46). We actually have Christ, the High Priest, offering up Himself as both the goat and the scapegoat of Lev 16:1-10.

     - “delivered”, “not confounded” - We may put God in remembrance of his grace and mercy towards others.

            See Gideon (Jud 6:12-15) where “thy might” is based on his knowledge of the LORD’s strength and his own weakness.

6 - “But” - He lowers Himself beneath the “fathers”.

Ps 22:6 “… a worm”

               Usually in the Bible, the Hebrew word for a worm is “rimmah”, which means a maggot. The Hebrew word David prophetically used in Ps 22 for “worm”, is “tola’ath”, which means “Crimson worm” or “Scarlet worm”. It is translated “crimson" in Is 1:18 (see below). Both scarlet and crimson are the colors of blood.

             The Crimson worm (coccus ilicis) resembles a grub more than a worm. Its round shape often makes it unrecognizable to the untrained eye. It is common in the regions of ancient Israel. In ancient times, the dead bodies of the female worms were scraped from trees and ground into a powder used to make scarlet dye for clothing. To this day it is used to make Royal Red dye. Crushed bodies of the worms were also used medicinally to treat irregular heartbeats. The white wax shell left after death was/is used to make high quality shellac, a wood preservative.

                 When it is time for the female or mother Crimson worm to have babies (which she does only once in her life), she finds the trunk of a tree, a wooden fencepost or a stick. She then attaches her body to that wood and makes a hard crimson shell. She is so strongly and permanently stuck to the wood that the shell can never be removed without tearing her body completely apart and killing her.

                The Crimson worm then lays her eggs under her body and the protective shell. When the baby worms (or larvae) hatch, they stay under the shell. Not only does the mother’s body give protection for her babies, but it also provides them with food. The babies feed on the LIVING body of the mother! After three days, when the young worms grow to the point that they are able to take care of themselves, the mother dies. As the mother Crimson worm dies, she oozes a crimson or scarlet red dye which not only stains the wood she is attached to, but also her young children. They are colored scarlet red for the rest of their lives.

               On the fourth day, the dead mother Crimson worm’s tail pulls up to her head into a heart shape, loses its crimson color and turns into a white wax. The snow white wax looks like a little patch of wool on the side of the tree and begins to flake off and drop to the ground like snow.

                Just like the Crimson worm, Jesus sacrificed/gave up his life on a tree from which he knew He would not return so that his children might be washed with His crimson blood and their sins cleaned white as snow (Isaiah 1:18). He died for us, that we might live through Him!

     - “no man” - He lowers Himself beneath mankind.

     - “despised” - See Isa 53:3

7 - “All” - Those present in the crowd (“see me”)

     - “shoot out the lip” = “speak”  See Jer 20:7-10

8 - Quoted in Mt 27:43. Read Heb 12:2,3

IRONY: True believers walk by faith in God’s character. Those who don’t know Him create their own standards and expectations and dare to predict and analyze His actions (See Isa 55:8,9). Hence, the first word in the next verse.

9, 10 - “But…Thou art my GOD (3rd time)…” - This is what must never change about a believer’s position. See Ex 20:3; Mt 6:33

          - “out of the womb” - A point of complete helplessness.

11 - “none” = “none other” See Ps 69:20

12 - “bulls”, “Strong bulls” - The mighty ones at the crucifixion: Captains, soldiers, elders, priests, scribes, Pharisees, rulers.

       - “Bashan” - A particularly fertile region east of Jordan known for the quality of its cattle. See Nu 32:1-5.

       - “compassed”, “beset me round” - The “bulls” acting in concert.

13 - “gaped…mouths” - The metaphor is mixed, combining the strength and aggressiveness of bulls with the bared fangs of a lion when roaring or tearing at the flesh of its prey.

14-18 - These verses are purely prophecy with no Biblical direct application to David. For David, almost 1000 years before the Crucifixion, this is divinely given, unerringly accurate revelation of what was to come almost 1000 years later.

   (14) - “poured out” - As a drink offering. 1st occ. is Gen 35:14 by Jacob after God gave him the name “Israel”. See Ex 29:40 and Nu 15:4,5. Note Paul in Phil 2:17 where “offered” = Gr. “spendomai” = “poured out” as a drink offering and the same word in 2 Ti 4:6. See Hannah in 1 Sa 1:15,16.

          - “like water” - Instead of wine. His enemies had no idea of  His true value and the significance of His blood. Lk 22:20

          - “bones are out of joint” - Within minutes after crucifixion, the strength in the legs gives out causing the body weight to be borne entirely by the arms and shoulders. Shortly afterwards, the shoulders become dislocated, quickly followed by the dislocation of the elbows and wrists.

          - “in…bowels” = “within me”

   (15) - See Jn 19:28, the summary of the imagery here.

   (16) - “dogs…compassed” - The strong bulls and lions are joined by hungry, scavenging dogs. The common people have joined the “assembly” (“congregation”). See Rev 2:9, 3:9.

          - “They pierced” = Heb. “ka`ari” = “As a lion” they “pierced” (“dug through”). Completely prophetic by David who had no knowledge of the yet-to-be-invented crucifixion process, much less the specific knowledge of the nails involved.

   (17) - “tell” = “count”, as in “bank teller”. The result of the scourging (Mt 27:26 and see Deu 25:1-3 and 2 Co 11:23,24) and the distended body position on the cross. This description can only apply to death by crucifixion.

   (18) - In all 4 Gospels as blatant fulfillment of prophecy by ones in complete ignorance of Scripture.

               Mt 27:35  Mk 15:24  Lk 23:34  Jn 19:23,24

19 - Still turning to Jehovah in faith.

       - “my strength” - Understand 2 Co 12:9,10

       - “haste thee” - In prayer, urgency due to necessity is always valid. Urgency born of will or impatience is not.

20 - “darling” = Heb. “yahid” = “only one” - The soul is our only one, therefore dear and precious.

       - “power” = “paw” or “hand”. The “power of the dog” extends beyond the crowd to Satan himself, hence the singular “dog”.

21 - “Save me”, “Thou hast heard (“answered”) me” - The desperate plea from the cross ends as it began: in faith.

                 - “unicorns” - The “bulls” of v. 12.

22-31 - THE MESSIAH’S GLORY. After darkness, the Light returns. Death is confronted and conquered. The words of death are followed by the words of resurrection. Despair and suffering are superseded by praise and glory. The activities are continued by “the seed”.

   (22) - See Heb 2:11,12.

            - “I will declare” - The Evangelist.

            - “Thy Name” = “Thee” - The ways and character of God.

            - “my brethren” - See Jn 20:17 and Gal 4:4-7

            - “In the midst” - The humiliation was public, why not the praise?

            - “congregation” - “I will declare” becomes “They will declare” in v.31.

   (23) - “Ye” - The Gentiles of Ps 18:49

            - “fear” = Heb. “gur” = “stand in awe”

            - “Jacob” - The natural nation.

            - “Israel” - The spiritual nation.

            - “fear” = Heb. “yare” = “revere”

   (24) - “He” = “Jehovah”, The LORD

            - “affliction” = “humiliation”

            - “the afflicted” = “the patient One” (Christ)

            - “But…cried…He heard” - Our faith is that He always hears and always cares.

   (25) - “My praise” - In v.26 “They praise”

            - “pay my vows” - Praise, worship, service. See Heb 13:15,16

   (26) - “meek” = “lowly”

            - “be satisfied” - God is sufficient. 2 Co 12:9  Mt 6:25-34

            - “praise…seek…” - Heb 11:6

            - “Your heart…” - Declaration of His purpose by the One who demonstrated unfailing faith and spirit.

   (27) - “All…” - The whosoever God of Jn 3:16.

            - “remember…turn unto” = “reflect…repent”  Note Mt 3:1,2

   (28) - See Mt 6:13. At all times, in all circumstances, the Lord is sovereign.

   (29) - “All they…” - See Phil 2:5-11. Contrast “All they” in v.7.

            - “And none…” - Eze 18:4   John 14:6  The sword of Gen 3:24

   (30,31) - “A seed” - See Isa 53:10

                  - “accounted to” = “recounted of”

                  - “for a generation” = “unto a generation” (to come)

                  - “shall declare” = “His righteousness shall be declared”

                  - “that shall be born” = “born again”   See Jn 3:3-7

                  - “He hath done this” = “It is finished” Jn 19:30

Lk 24:26

TEACHER’S NOTE: This psalm was not given by David to the chief Musician for public worship. Its overwhelmingly prophetic content was reserved for private study.

                                                                                                          INDEX

 23rd PSALM - MESSIAH. THE GREAT SHEPHERD IN RESURRECTION (Heb 13:20)

JEHOVAH (I AM, ETERNAL, IMMUTABLE) *8 References (1 by title, then 7 by attributes)

 *1= Unity, Commencement  7= Spiritual Perfection, Completeness  8= Resurrection, Regeneration

v.1 - JEHOVAH-ROI = Jehovah My Shepherd

      - JEHOVAH-JIREH = Provider (“I Shall Not Want”)

v.2 - JEHOVAH-SHALOM = Sender Of Peace (“Still Waters”)

v.3 - JEHOVAH-ROPHEKA = Healer (“Restoreth My Soul”)

      - JEHOVAH-ZIDKENU = Righteousness

v.4 - JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH = Presence (“Thou Art With Me”)

v.5 - JEHOVAH-NISSI = Banner (“In The Presence of Mine Enemies”)

      - JEHOVAH-MEKADDISHKEM = Sanctifier (“Anointest”)

The perfect attributes of Jehovah are manifested on behalf of His sheep.

        - A psalm of (relating to) David - A shepherd (1 Sa 16:11) who became King (2 Sa 7:8)

1 - “The LORD is my shepherd” = Literally, “Jehovah-Roi”

What does it mean? A shepherd embodies faithfulness, compassion, guidance and protection. The shepherd serves the sheep.

  • Sheep will stray and require direction, leadership and discipline. The shepherd walks before the flock, leading by his voice and leads the mothers to and from the pasturage while carrying the tender lambs in his arms.
  • A shepherd is a constant companion who sleeps in the field near the sheep in fair weather and leads them to drink when they thirst.
  • A shepherd helps those that are lame and uses a crook to rescue them from dangerous places.
  • A shepherd takes full responsibility for the health of the flock by protecting against disease, insect infestation, poisonous foliage, etc. Pregnant ewes are carefully monitored.
  • A shepherd is responsible for shearing the sheep (an unshorn sheep can be toppled by the weight of its own wool and become unable to stand). An expert shearer can shear 125 sheep in a day removing the wool in one piece without a nick or cut.
  • A shepherd exposes himself to danger and protects against robbers and wolves. A good shepherd can triumph in battle with a mere slingshot. A good shepherd will lay down his life to save the flock. (1 Sa 17:34-37).
  • A shepherd individually names his flock and causes them to recognize his voice and respond to his call and separates the sheep from the goats.

      The GOOD SHEPHERD (Ps 22) must become a Lamb Himself and thereby be called THE GREAT SHEPHERD (Ps 23) Who will rise from the dead to care for His sheep.

      The GREAT SHEPHERD will become THE CHIEF SHEPHERD (Ps 24) when He comes again to lead His sheep to eternal pasture.

     - JEHOVAH-JIREH = “The LORD will see or provide”. The LORD is always cognizant of need and capable of supply. See Gen 22:14 and understand Mt 6:32

     -“I shall not want” - Because of the Provider (Jehovah-Jireh). Abundance is an attribute of God. See Jn 10:10 re: The Shepherd. Also, Gen 1:20,21; Isa 55:1; 1 Pe 1:3

2 - “maketh” = “causes”, continually (perfect tense)

     - “lie down” - An uncontrolled flock will trample its own grazing pasture. The application for humanity is enormous. We have phrases like “bite the hand that feeds you”, “cut off your nose to spite your face” and “you don’t know what’s good for you” to describe ignorantly working against our own self-interest.
     - “leadeth me” = “causes me to rest” (Heb. “nahal” used specifically of flocks).

     - JEHOVAH-SHALOM - The Sender of Peace

     - “still waters” = “waters of rests”. The double plural is the Hebrew indication of abundance. The image combines preservation and rest as elements of peace.

3 - JEHOVAH-ROPHEKA - The Healer. See Ex 15:26

     - “restoreth” = “bringeth back”. Specifically, from something which disables or causes dis-ease. See James 5:15 where “sick” = Gr. “kamno” = “wearied”.

              TEACHER’S NOTE: This differs from being “made whole”. See Luke 17: 11-19 where ten lepers are healed, but only one is pronounced “whole”.

     - “leadeth” = Heb “nahah” = “to guide”, “conduct”

     - JEHOVAH-ZIDKENU - The LORD our righteousness.  Jer 23:6, 33:16

     - “paths of righteousness” = “righteous paths”  See Ps 37:23, 24

     - “name’s” = “own” - God’s faithfulness and grace. We do not deserve or earn His lovingkindness.

4 - “Yea” = “Moreover” connecting the righteous paths to the “valley”. They are not mutually exclusive. Job’s righteousness was the root of his trials (Job 1:8-12).

     - “through” - Not merely into, but out of, into resurrection life.

     - “valley…” = “valley of deep shade”, i.e., lacking Light. In English, “death’s dark valley”. See Jer 2:4-7.

     - “I will fear no evil”, hence I will “walk”. See 1 John 4:17-19

     - JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH - Jehovah is there. See Eze 48:35, the end the book. The title refers to the abiding presence of Jehovah with the blessing, peace, security and glory found wherever He rests. This is the “Thou” to whom David refers.

     - “rod and…staff” = “club and…crook”. The club for use against the sheep’s enemies. The crook for the sheep’s defense/help. No good shepherd would ever be without either one. No good shepherd would be unskilled in the use of either.

     - “comfort” = “gently lead” same as “leadeth” in v.2. The sheep are so trusting of the shepherd’s care, that even if they spot a predator they will be unfazed as long as the shepherd is in their sight. Again, the applications for pastors/leaders/church members are enormous.

5 - “preparest” = “settest in order”

     “table” - See the “pastures” of v.2.

     - JEHOVAH-NISSI - Jehovah my banner (The flag, or standard carried before the army). See Ex 17:13-16.

     - “in the presence” - With the Standard Bearer in between. The LORD allows us to feast (on the battlefield) while He fights.

     - “enemies” = “adversaries”

     - JEHOVAH-MEKADDISHKEM - Jehovah that doth sanctify you. Ex 31:13 Lev 20:8; 21:8; 22:32  Eze 20:12

     - “anointest my head” - One of the most dangerous insects to a sheep is the nasal fly. These flies buzz around a sheep’s head attempting to lay their eggs in the sheep’s nose. If they are successful, the eggs will hatch, forming worm-like larvae. The larvae will work their way up the nasal passage, bury themselves into the sheep’s flesh and begin irritating the sheep, causing severe inflammation. To gain relief from this agonizing pain sheep will beat their heads against trees, rocks, posts, or brush. They will vigorously rub their heads on the ground and thrash themselves against fallen branches or stumps. In extreme cases, sheep have been known to kill themselves trying to find relief from the immense pain caused by the nasal flies. To protect a sheep from this agony, the shepherd will apply an ointment to the sheep’s head that will divert the flies. Gently and carefully, the shepherd will rub this ointment over the sheep’s nose and head. Once the ointment is applied the sheep are able to feast upon the green pastures that are before them. This is not a onetime application. A good shepherd will be ever watchful and be prepared to anoint his sheep whenever they are imperiled.

     - “my cup” - Shepherds have drinking cups used for sheep. Usually a large hollowed out stone holding 40 to 50 gallons. Using the cup prevented sheep from fouling their own water supply.

     - “runneth over” - See Ps 73:10. The abundant drink is not given “by measure”.

6 - “mercy” = Heb. “hesed” = “lovingkindness’, “grace”

     - “follow” = “pursue”, “follow closely”

     - “for ever” = “evermore”                                                                                                                                                                 INDEX

Psalm 24 - MESSIAH. THE CHIEF SHEPHERD IN GLORY. The background is 1 Chronicles 15.

        Chronologically, Psalm 24 is the second of 4 Psalms directly related to the Ark in Zion. Positioned first because of its primary relationship to Pss. 22 and 23.

  • Psalm 68 - The procession sets out.
  • Psalm 24 - The entrance into Zion.
  • Psalm 87 - The joy of the entrance.
  • Psalm 105 - Subsequent celebrations.

The ark entering Zion represents the glory of Heb 1:1-6.

1 - Quoted in 1 Co 10:26

     - “earth” = Heb. “erez” = the earth as created

     - “LORD’s” = “Jehovah’s” - Emphatic in the Hebrew.

     - “the fullness thereof” = “all that fills it”

     - “world” = Heb. “tebel” = the inhabited world

2 - “he” - Emphatic

     - “founded…seas…floods” - Gen 1:1,9; Ps 104:5-9, 136:6; 2 Pe 3:5,6

3 - “hill” = “mountain” - Zion, south of Moriah, same location as Gen 22:14; Nu 10:33; Isa 2:3, 30:29; Mic 4:2; Zec 8:3 (7 times total).

     - “Or” should be “and”

     - “stand” = “rise up”, i.e., “resurrect”. Same as Ps 1:5.

     - “holy” = Heb. “kodesh” 1st occ. in Ex 3:5.

4 - “clean” - Detailed in Ps 15. See Ex 20:13-17

        The compound requirements (“and”) must be understood. Many with evil hearts are constrained by a fear of punishment, lack of opportunity, etc. The pure heart seeks to do good. Note Ro 8:1-8.

5 - “righteousness” - A “received gift” from the One Who circumcises hearts (Deu 30:6), NOT the absence of doing wrong (clean hands”). Therefore, no “salvation” apart from God (Jn 14:6). The blessing is covenant-based (“LORD” = “Jehovah”). The righteousness is love-based (“God” = “Elohim”).

6 - “This” = “Such”

     - “generation” = “class” - A reference to the Kohathites who bore the Ark on their shoulders, not on a “new cart”. See Nu 4:2,15; 7:6-9; Deu 10:8 contrasted to 2 Sa 6:1-15. By application for churches, all is at God’s will and by His direction, not subject to boards and big wheels.

     - “Jacob” should be “God of Jacob”

     “Selah” - Connects the first 3 verses to the Ark of the next 3 verses before connecting all six to the actions of v.7.

7 - “Lift…heads…gates” - The personification of the gates is for application to sinners opening themselves up to God, leaving nothing in between. Without fear. Without the need for the protection afforded by the gates. Repeated for emphasis,

     - “everlasting doors” = Literally, “age-abiding entrances”. Prophetically speaking of the permanent residence of God among His People. Rev 22:1-5.

     - “King of glory” = “Glorious king”. Both the “worm and no man” of Ps 22:6 and The Great Shepherd of Ps 23.

 8 - The question to be repeated to emphasize the importance of the answer.

     - “strong”, “mighty” - No need for gates or doors.

9 - The repetition.

10 - “Who…glory?” = “Who then, is He, this glorious King?”

     - “The Lord of hosts” = Heb. “Jehovah Sabaioth” - The God of Israel as the Lord of all the hosts of heaven and earth. First used in 1 Sa 1:3 when Shiloh was the location of the Tabernacle and the Ark.

     - “Selah” -  Connects Ps 24 (the place of worship) to Ps 25 (the worship itself).

                                                                                                                                                              INDEX

Psalm 25 - Prayer in view of Psalm 16. The worthiness of Jehovah contrasted to the unworthiness of His worshippers. The background is 1 Chronicles 16.

     - The 2nd acrostic psalm. Exquisitely structured. The letter Koph (“K” or “Q”) is omitted, leaving 21 (7x3) letters and making verse 11 the central verse. This verse is the first confession of sin in the Psalms, thus linking Repentance to Suffering and Resurrection in Ps 22.

     - The double Aleph (“A”) in vv. 1 and 2 connects the looking up of the worshipper to the double Resh (“R”) of vv. 18 and 19 speaking of the looking down of Jehovah which in turn looks back to the double “Selah” of 24:6 and 24:10.

1,2 - “lift up” - Connected to Jehovah looking down in 18, 19.

       - “soul” = Heb. “nephesh” - Used of the inner man’s mental faculties, feelings, affections and passions.

       - “God” = Heb. “Elohim”

       - “I trust” = Heb. “batah” = “I have confided”

       - “ashamed” = “put to shame”

       - “enemies” = “foes”  See 1 Sa 17:47  2 Ch 20:14,15

3 - “none” = “none with them” - A true leader’s prayer cannot be selfish. Cp. Solomon in 1 Ki 8:28-45.

     - “transgress” = Heb. “bagad” = “act treacherously”

4,5 - “Shew me…Teach me…Lead me…teach me…”

        - “Thy (not my nor any other’s) ways…paths…truth” - Ps 119:133 1 Jn 2:25-29

        - “On” = “And for”

        - “wait” = Heb. “qavah” = “wait expectantly”

6 - “Remember” - “Thy” not “my”

     - “mercies” = Heb. “raham” = “compassions”

7 - “Remember not” - “my” not “Thy”

     - “transgressions” = Heb. “pasha” = sins against authority

     - “mercy” = “Heb. “hasad” = “grace”

     - “Thy goodness” - Grace, by definition, is unmerited.

8 - “teach” = “direct” The subject of vv. 8-10.

9,10 - “meek” = “patient”

          - “guide” See Jn 10:4,5

          - “in judgment” = “to be vindicated”  See Ro 8:1

          - The “way”, “paths” and “truth” of v. 4 in response to prayer.

          - “unto such” - The redeemed and the righteous who “keep” His “covenant” (1st occ. in Psalms) and testimonies. We must stay on course. See Lk 9:57-62.

11 - The central verse in the Psalm.

     - “Pardon…” - The 1st confession in Psalms. See Pr 20:9 for words not uttered by God’s People. Ps 119:176

     - “for Thy name’s sake” - Remission of sins is based on God’s character and in spite of ours.

12 - The answer: The worshipper. The one of Ps 16 who has taken his designated place.

          In the Kingdom: The place of suffering is the place of glory. The place of repentance is the place of worship. The place of obedience is the place of blessing. The place of humility is the place of honor.

     - “that He shall choose” - Submission to the will of God in all aspects of life at all times. We will not all be directed in the same way.

13 - See Mt 5:3

14 - “secret” = “secret counsel” - Reserved for “them that fear Him”: those in covenant relationship, those indwelt with His spirit. The “peculiar people” of Deu 14:2, 26:18,19; Titus 2:13,14 and 1 Pe 2:9,10

       - “shew them” = “cause them to know” - Not just collectively, but individually. The “secret counsels” are often private and unique for individual believers. The same God Who created us to be unique maintains a personal relationship with each of us. The transition from general to personal takes place in the next verse (“mine”, “me”).

15 - “toward” = “looking toward” - Anticipation to see what the LORD will do next. Understand Phil 1:6.

       - “net” - Representing anything designed to ensnare the believer.

16 - “Turn thee…” = “Look (down) to me as I look (up) to You.” (“Face me.”)

       - “have mercy” = Heb. “hanan” = “show kindness”

       - “desolate” = Heb. “yachid” = “only one”. In the Greek version (Septuagint), “monogenes” = “only begotten”

17 - “The troubles…” = “My troubles have enlarged my heart.” - David’s troubles have made him more sympathetic towards others.

       - “O bring” = “Thou hast brought” - The prayer brings remembrance of past deliverance.

18 - “Look upon” - The response to “lift up” in v.1.

       - “affliction” = “humiliation” - Crucifixion prophecy.

       - “forgive” = “bear away” - See the scapegoat in Lev 16:6-10

19 - “Consider” - Same as “look upon” in v.18

       - “enemies” = “foes”

       - “cruel hatred” = “hatred without cause”

20 - “deliver” = “rescue”

       - “ashamed” = “put to shame”, same as v.2.

21 - “me”, “I” - Individual

22 - “Redeem” = Heb. “padah” = “Deliver” (by putting forth power)

       - “Israel” - Corporate

                                                                                               INDEX

Psalm 26 - Prayer connected to Psalm 17. Written by David looking ahead to Christ.

1, 2 - “Judge me” = “Do me justice” or “Vindicate me”

         - “trusted” = “confided” - Our integrity is not of ourselves, it is faith and trust in God that enables us (Ro 7:18).

         - “Examine…prove…try” - According to God’s standards, therefore looking at the inward man, hence “reins” (kidneys) and “heart” representing the innermost thoughts (Ro 7:22; 1 Sa 16:7)

3 - “before mine eyes” = “foremost in my mind”

4,5 - “have not”, “will”, “have”, “will not” - Uprightness in the past continuing in the future.

   (4) - “vain” = “empty”, “worthless”

          - “dissemblers” - Those who are false.

   (5) - “congregation” = “multitude”

          - “wicked” = “lawless”

6 - “innocency” = “purity” - Unlike those of vv. 5-6, David states that he will come before the Lord with a pure heart, not just ceremonially washed hands. Mt 23:25,26  Mk 7:1-7

7 - “publish” = “publicly proclaim”

     - “voice of thanksgiving” - At the altar, the sacrifice of praise. Heb 13:15

     - “tell” = “recount”

8 - “habitation of Thy house” - David’s tabernacle (tent) in Zion as a place of refuge. See 2 Sa 6:17; 7:1,2

     - “the place…” = “the place of Thy glorious tabernacle”

9,10 - “Gather not” = “Destroy not”

          - “my soul” = “me” Emphatic in Hebrew.

          - “life” = Heb. “chay” = natural life

          - “mischief” = “lewdness” All that is vulgar or profane.

11 - See v.3. To walk in integrity is to walk in Truth.

     - “Redeem” = Heb. “padah” = Redeem by power

     - “be merciful” = “show favor”

12 - “even place” - Hence, stable, not shifting. See Mt 7:26,27

     - “congregations” = “the great assembly”  Only here and Ps 68:26

                                                                                                                              INDEX

Psalm 27 - Prayer connected to Psalm 18. Vv. 1-3 express the confidence on which the prayer is based. Vv. 4-14 are the prayer resulting from the trust.

1 - “LORD” = Heb. “Jehovah” - The God of the Covenant.

     - “my” - In this psalm, used 11 times by David, once by Jehovah = 12 (the # of governmental perfection)

     - “light…” - 2 Sa 21:17 Jn 1:4,5

            Light for vision, guidance, warmth, joy and overcoming fear engendered by darkness.

     - “…and salvation” - The light which defines the path also guides along the way and is also the destination, BECAUSE GOD IS ALL IN ALL. Eph 4:6 Col 3:11

          His salvation delivers, protects, preserves and makes whole. It is the end product of faith. 1 Pe 1:3-10  See Pr 3:5,6

     - “whom shall I fear?” - In the presence, care and fellowship of the Omnipotent One, the answer is clear.   2 Ti 1:6-10  1 Jn 4:18

     - “strength” = Heb. “azaz” - strength for protection

     - “of whom…?” - See Ro 8:31

2 - Why “enemies” and “foes”? What’s the difference?

        - “enemies” = Heb. “tsar” = “adversaries”, “those in opposition”    “foes” = Heb. “oyeb” = “those who are hostile”

An adversary is in opposition, without reference to feelings. For example, two people may oppose one another in a game with no animosity. A “foe” has hostile intentions and ill will. The words are interchangeable in modern English, but in the Hebrew, “enemies” is indicative of a group which includes some who are not emotionally invested, but have other reasons for being part of the group. In Jn 10:1, the distinction between “thief” and “robber” is equally noteworthy.

     - “stumbled…” - Fulfilled in Jn 18:1-6.

3 - “In this” should be “In spite of this”. The foundation of David’s confidence is described in 1 Ch 17 - 18:6, 12-13

4 - “One thing”, i.e., “The primary thing” - See Mt 6:33

     - “dwell…” - See Ps 23:6

     - “beauty” = Heb. “benoam” = “delightfulness”, “pleasance”. The idea of something transcending physical beauty. Something so glorious as to be totally appealing to the spirit.

     - “enquire” = Heb. “baqar” = “contemplate with admiration”. Not simply to “behold”, but to be awestruck.

     - “temple” = Heb. “heykal” = “palace”

5 - “time” = “day”

     - “hide” - To provide protective covering, not to camouflage or keep at an undisclosed location.

     - “secret” = “secret place” - A place of exclusive, private access.

     - “rock” = Heb. “zur” - A rock in its original, natural position, i.e., immovable.

                 The LORD will cover, sanctify and set in place (ordain).

6 - “shall” - The unwavering trust.

     - “…lifted up…” - By the LORD. See Heb 11:6 Jas 4:10

     - “Therefore…” - The response to God’s grace, mercy and favor.

     - “sacrifices of joy” = “joyful sacrifices”  See Phil 4:4  1 Th 5:16

           Note the 1st verse of Psalms 105, 106, 107, 118 and 136:1-3, 26

     - “I will sing…” - Defining the joyful sacrifices.

7 - “Hear…have mercy (“show favor”)…answer…” - The attitude of prayer.

8 - Prayer is a privilege extended by God. Our heart should seek his face.

9 - “God” = Heb. “Elohim” - The God of Creation, therefore the Source of Life and the Source of Salvation.

10 - “When” - Subjunctive, meaning “If”

      - “take…up” = “receive and protect” as a parent picks up a distressed child.

11,12 - “Teach (“Direct”)…lead…Deliver me not”

              - “plain” = Heb. “miyshor” = “straight”

              - “false witnesses” - See fulfillment in Mt 26:59-61

13 - “I had fainted, unless” - Omit, not in text.

14 - “Wait on” = “Expect”

       - “He shall…” - See  Isa 40:29-31

                                                                                   INDEX

Psalm 28 - A continuation from Psalm 27. Related to Psalm 18 addressing deliverance.

1 - “LORD” = Heb. “Jehovah” - The God of the Covenant. Occurs 5x.

     - “rock” = Heb. “zur” - An unmoved, unchanged rock in its original position. Relating to Ps 18:2.

     - “not silent” = Heb. “harash” = “deaf”, therefore mute.

     - “be silent” = Heb. “hashah” = “quiet”

     - “pit” = Heb. “bor” = “sepulchre”

2 - “cry…lift up…” - Words representing prayer.

     - “oracle” = Heb. “dabar” Only occ. in Psalms = “a speaking place” and the words coming forth.

3 - An impassioned desire to be “sanctified” from the wicked. See 1 Pe 3:10-12.

     - “speak peace…but…” - The godly must place discerning of spirits ahead of understanding words. 1 Jn 4:1.

4 - “Give them” - Twice for emphasis (“them” 3x). Note the major difference between this request and seeking one’s own remedies. Deu 32:35-39  Ro 12:19

     - “deeds”, “endeavors” (“practices”) - The manifestation of the “mischief” in their hearts.

     - “Render” = Heb. “Shuwb” - Literally, “turn back”, i.e., recompense, repay

5 - “Because” - The reasons are not personal. Their disdain for the LORD makes them deserving of punishment. See 1 Sa 17:45-47.

     - “works”, “operation” - See Ro 1:18-21

6 - “Blessed be…” - The LORD’s regard for us is awesome. See Ps 8:4-6

7 - “strength” - Connection to Ps 18:1-3

     - “trusted…am helped…will praise” - Past, present and future.

8 - “their strength” - What covers the King, covers his people.

Covering

         In 1 Co 11:3, we have in one verse, a description of multilevel covering.  A more comprehensive understanding comes from connections between Isaiah and Ephesians 6.

          Isa 11:5 - 2 girdles for Jesus Christ - (God) righteousness for loins - physical, human

                                                                    - (Holy Spirit) faithfulness for reins - spiritual, Deity

            Neither one sufficient alone for One Who was 100% man AND 100% God. His righteousness made Him suitable for sacrifice. His faithfulness kept Him on the cross to finish His mission - “...having done all, to stand” Eph 6:13. In Eph 6:14, we have our loins “girt about with TRUTH”, i.e., the Word of God/Christ. We are therefore triple-girded by the Triune God.

         Isa 59:17 - Righteousness as a breastplate & Salvation as a helmet ... Just like us. (underarmour) Clothed with vengeance (Ro 12:19)

       - We are clothed with humility (1 Pe 5:5) first, THEN we put on Christ (Ro 13:14). (over armour) Cloaked with zeal (jealousy) since Christ is covered by the God of Ex 20:5. We are therefore triple-covered by the Triune God.

    - “saving strength” - Literally, “strength of salvations”

    - “His anointed” = “His Messiah”

9 - “Save…bless…Feed…lift them up…” - The all-sufficient God.

     - “Feed” = “Shepherd”                                                                             INDEX

Psalm 29 - A sequel to Psalm 28. Jehovah’s voice in response to David’s voice (28:6). The fulfillment of the promise to praise (28:7). It ends in concert with the ending of Psalm 28. The people’s praise of God’s glory in creation. Connects to Psalm 19. The People’s covering bows to his covering (vv. 10,11).

1 - “Give” - What is “due” (v.2), as tribute. See “render” Mt 22:16-21

     - “the LORD” = Heb. “Jehovah” - 4x in vv. 1,2. 14x in vv.3-11

     - “ye mighty” = Heb. “bene-elim” = “sons of gods” NOT “sons of God” which would refer to angels as often translated or interpreted. The context and structure of this psalm and its relationship to the previous psalm indicate earthly rulers such as King David who might potentially forget the Source of their power and consequently negatively impact the People. The acknowledgement of Jehovah’s sovereignty would likewise bless the People. Hence, this psalm focuses on the God of the Covenant and not the God of Creation (Elohim).

2 - “Worship” = “Bow down”

     - “the beauty of holiness” = “His glorious Sanctuary”

3 - “voice” = Heb. “kovl” = Any loud sound, i.e., “thunder”. Used 7x in this psalm. See Job 37:1-8 and Rev 10:1-7; 11:15-19

        Thunder is unstoppable power from above. The audible partner to visible lightning. By man’s science, thunder should always accompany lightning but often does not. It is controlled by God, and “fire from heaven” is often silent. See Lev 9:24; Judg 6:21; 1 Ki 18:38-39; 2 Ki 1:10-14  1 Ch 21:26

     - “many” = “mighty” - This means more than oceans or seas. These waters are above as well as below. See the Creator’s work in Gen 1:6,7.

4 - “powerful” = “(comes) with power”

     - “full of” = “(and) with”

5 - “cedars of Lebanon” - Renowned for durability and resistance to rot and insects. Therefore prized for constructing buildings and ships.

6 - “skip” - A reference to the effects of earthquakes on stately trees.

     - “Sirion” = “Mt. Hermon” - See Deu 3:8,9

     - “unicorn” - A bull calf of a wild ox.

7 - “divideth” = “clears with”, i.e., “fells trees”

     - “flames of fire” = “lightning”

8 - “Kadesh” = “Kadesh-Napthali” which is near Lebanon

9 - “to calve” - Fright commonly causes oxen and cattle to give premature birth.

     - “discovereth” = “lays bare”

     - “temple” = “palace”, i.e., heaven

10 - “sitteth…flood” = “sat enthroned at the flood (Heb. “mabbal”)” - Only occ. outside of Genesis. Refers to the Deluge of Noah’s time.

               See Gen 6:17; 7:6-7, 10, 17; 9:11 (twice), 15, 28; 10:1, 32; 11:10 (Total of 12x).

11 - “give strength” - From the Possessor (v.1) to the People.

     - “peace” = “His peace” See Jn 14:27 and Phil 4:6,7

                                                                                                          INDEX   

Pss 30-33 are the People’s prayer and praise pursuant to the day of trouble referenced in Psalm 20.

Psalm 30The People’s praise pursuant to Ps 20. A “Psalm” for meditation and a “Song” (Heb. “Shir” (only one in the 1st Book)) to be sung. Thanksgiving and praise for deliverance from past sin and trouble.

     - “dedication” = Heb. “hanak” (See Deu 20:5). As such, it has a place after the 1260 days of Rev 11:2, 3
          Daniel 12:11 - There will be 30 days (1260 + 30 = 1290) to build the new sanctuary of Ezekiel 40-43.
          Daniel 12:12 - There will be 45 additional days (1290 + 45 = 1335) to the wedding.
          The purification of the church (Eph 5:27) - without spot or wrinkle that it should become holy and without blemish (Gr. “amomos” = “faultless” same as in Jude 24) for the marriage to the king (See Esther 2:8-13) will take place during this time. See Malachi 3:2-4 for clarity. “Without spot or wrinkle” refers to being laundered (“fullers’ sope”). Purification is done by refiners.
          The total of 75 days (30 + 45) is tied to the Psalms just as the 69 weeks of Daniel 9:25 connect to Psalm 69.
                   Psalm 30 - The dedication (Rev 19:1-6)
               +  Psalm 45 - The marriage (Rev 19:7-9)
               =  Psalm 75 - Judgment (Rev 20:11-15)                This all originates from Psalm 20 - The 1260 days of Jacob's trouble.

    - “of the house of David” - Therefore, not the temple built by Solomon later (1 Ki 8:54-63), but the tabernacle (tent). See 2 Sa 7:1,2

1 - “lifted…up” - as out of a pit.

     - “my foes” - See the “rest” of 2 Sa 7:1.

2 - “LORD”, “God” =  Heb. “Jehovah”, “Elohim” = “My God, my Creator”. Most often translated as “LORD God”

     - “healed” = Heb. “rapha” = “cured”. Indicating some serious illness.

3 - “from the grave” - from a near-death condition.

     - “cried unto Thee” - Followed by a long pause in the text.

     - “that I should not go down” = “brought me out from among (those going down to)” - A natural example of 1 Pe 2:9, being saved to “shew forth (His) praises” as David mentions in v.9.

     - “pit” = Heb. “bor” = “sepulchre”

4 - “Sing” = “Sing praises”

     - “saints” - Literally, “favored ones”. Favored with God’s grace.

5 - IMPORTANT: “In”, “life” = “for a lifetime” - God’s anger does not remove nor negate His favor. In fact, understand Heb 12:5-11. Unconditional (agape) love cannot be lost! Ro 8:35-39.

     - “endure” = “lodge” - Short-term as a motel, not “abide”.

     - “cometh” - As a replacement, or new tenant.

6 - The first “I” is emphatic leading to an unwritten “But” to begin the next verse.

7 - “by Thy favour” - In contrast to “I”.

     - “my mountain” = Zion. Taken by David in 2 Sa 5:4-10.

     - “hide Thy face” - During the period of David’s illness.

8,9 - “is there” = “will there be”

       - “blood” = “soul” See Lev 17:11

       - “the pit” = Heb. “Shachath” = “destruction” (Ps 55:23; 103:4), “corruption” (Ps 16:10; 49:9) and “pits” (Jer 2:6).    

       - “Shall the dust…” - See Ps 6:5; 88:11; 115:17; 118:17 and Isa 38:18.

10 - “helper” = Heb. “’azar” - That which surrounds to protect

11 - Fully illustrated in Esther 3 - 9:22.

      - “turned” = Heb. “haphak” = “reversed”, “converted”

      - “put off” = “torn off”

      - “girded” - Same as “helper” in verb form.

12 - “my glory” = “myself”, i.e., praising with mind, heart and tongue.

      - “To the chief Musician” - Turned over for public use in subsequent dedications.

                                                                                                                                                     INDEX

Psalm 31 - The People’s prayer and praise pursuant to Ps 20.

1-6 - Prayer

(1)  - “in Thee…trust” = “To Thee  do I flee for refuge”

          - “never” - A covenant word.

          - “in Thy righteousness” – NOT “for my righteousness”

  (2) - “Bow down” - From heaven to earth.

          - “deliver” = “rescue”

          - “rock” = Heb. “zur” The never moved rock.

  (3,4) - “rock” = Heb. “sela” = “fortress”

            - “fortress” = Heb. “metsudah” = “net” for capture

            - “lead”, “guide”, “Pull” - All preceded by “Thou wilt”. Certainty tied to “Thy name’s sake”.

  (5,6) - “Into…” - Quoted in Lk 23:46 

            - “commit” = “will commit”

            - “redeemed” = Heb. “padah” = “delivered by power”.

            - “LORD GOD (Heb. “Jehovah El”) of truth” - The Almighty Covenant God, the immovable rock, the fortress cannot lie (Titus 1:2). Hence, David’s “trust” and confidence in contrast to “lying vanities” (“idols”).

7,8 - Praise

  (7) - “I will be” - Future praise for past benefits.

          - “mercy” = Heb. “hesed” = “lovingkindness”

          - “considered” = “looked upon”

  (8) - “not shut up”, “large room” - Indications of rest and peace. The opposite of “in a tight spot”. See Ps 18:19; 118:5

9-18 - Prayer

   NOTE: Scripturally speaking, David is “in the press”. He acknowledges the situation in prayer (vv.9-18) and addresses it with praise (vv. 19-24).

  (9,10) - “Have mercy upon” = “Show favor to”

               - “eye”, “soul”, “belly”, “life”, “years” - David’s entire being “consumed” and “spent” with “grief” and “sighing”

               - “because of mine” - Words of confession. 1 Jn 1:9.

  (11) - “reproach” = “object of derision”

            - “my neighbors” = “those close to me” See David’s wife 2 Sa 6:16, 20

            - “a fear” = “one to be shunned”

  (12) - “am” = “became”

            - “broken” should be “missing”, therefore “out of mind”.

  (13) - David’s past is prophetic concerning the Messiah’s future.

  (14) - “But” - The operative word. Understand Ps 126:5,6

            - “Thou” = Emphatic. 

  (15) - “times” = All the affairs of life.

            - “enemies” - Physical opponents.

            - “them that persecute” - Verbal opponents.

  (16) - “Make Thy face to shine” = “Manifest Thy favor”  See Nu 6:25

            - “for…sake” = “in thy lovingkindness”

  (17,18) - “…not…ashamed” - Connected to the “hope” of v.24 by trial. Understand Ro 5:1-5.

              - “Let the wicked be ashamed” - For trusting in their powerless idols. 1 Kings 18:17-40

19-24 - Praise

  (19) - “Oh how great…” - Isa 64:4 (1 Co 2:9). See Phil 3:7,8.

  (20) - “pride” = “conspiracy” See Gen 6:5; Jn 3:19

            - “pavilion” = “tent” or “booth”

  (21) - “strong” = “fortified” as Zion was at that time.

  (22) - The immediate reaction of flesh is to feel forsaken or neglected. It is a trick of the enemy.

            - “Nevertheless…” - When true power is sought. 2 Co 10:3,4

  (23) - “saints” = “favored ones”

            - “rewardeth” - See Mk 10:28-30

            - “proud” = Heb. “ga`avah” = “without shame”  See v.17 and Lk 9:23-26

  (24) - “hope” = “wait for” in anticipation. See Neh 8:10                                                                                                   INDEX