" To put God's Word together, it must be rightly divided"


The people we refer to as Celtic (Kel´-tik) were known in antiquity by 3 names: "Celtae", "Galatae", and "Galli". Galatae was introduced in the 3rd century B.C. by the Greeks. The Romans generally designated these people "Galli".

History- 390 B.C. - They migrate eastward from the Rhine and sack Rome, advancing southward several generations later into Greece (Macedonia, Thessaly).

           279 B.C. - The invasion of Greece is terminated at Delphi, as a large portion of the people refused to take part. This group migrated and overran Asia Minor, forcing the Syrian kings to pay tribute.

          230 B.C. - Their many enemies unite, and they are totally defeated by Prince Attalus the First. They were confined to what we now know as Galatia, in the interior of Asia Minor, a strip about 200 mil. long. They split into 3 tribes and became mercenaries.

         189 B.C. - Galatian troops fighting on the side of Antiochus at the battle of Magnesia draws the attention of the Romans. Consul Manlius completely subdues them in a single campaign. The Romans continued to allow them to govern themselves, and even granted them more territory on occasion.

         25 B.C. - After a century and a half of Romans rule, Prince Amyntas of Galatia dies and Augustus declares Galatia to be a Roman province, including the areas of Lyconia (Derbe, & Lystra), Isauria, SE district of Phrygia and a portion of Pisidia.

   *This explains some confusion over what geographic area is meant by "Galatia"

Character - By now the Galatians were a mixed race. The original people were mostly the lower class.Their conquerors formed the upper class with Greek settlers still there from the time of Alexander. By the time Paul arrived, this mix of Phrygians, Gauls, and Greeks was joined by Romans and a large influx of Jews. (Antiochus settled 2,0000 Jewish families in Lydia and Phrygia) who took advantage of commercial opportunities afforded by climate, soil, and rivers as well as being close to caravan routes. This led to a large Jewish influence on the culture, but the Gauls of Asia Minor retained their language and somewhat aggressive character. The Gauls were typically inconstant and quarrelsome, treacherous in dealings, avaricious for wealth, easily disheartened by failure, given to drunken revelling, and highly impressionable to the point of being fickle.

Religion -The Gauls were often superstitious and given to rituals. These rituals appealed to the senses and passions rather than the heart and mind. Many of the rites were cruel and often involved a slavish obedience to priestly authority. They adopted religious practices which suited their history - mutilations, orgies, and wild ceremonies. Even after the Gospel was preached to them, the old leaven remained. Their long-time religious temperament prompted them to seek a more external, ritualistic system. In the Book of Galatians, we find them still seeking some "other gospel" with more passion and activity for their restless flesh. Curiously, the idea of Man being redeemed by blood, probably was quite appealing to them. Combined with Paul’s passion, this led to many eager converts. However, much of this enthusiasm was short-lived, and many sought the structure of the law.

The Jewish establishment took the position of having "taught" Paul all that he knew and thereby having more authority. This led to an attempt to lead the Galatians back to the Law, particularly circumcision. The establishment countered their own position by sometimes denying Paul’s apostleship altogether. They would claim or disown him as it suited their purpose. Paul preached salvation through God’s grace by the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, not through obedience to the Law.

Galatians is unlike any of the other epistles because of its severity. The opening contains no mention of "saints in Christ", or "faithful brethren." Paul has no words of congratulations or praise, as he had even for the Corinthians. There is a tone of chastisement. The Galatians have erred like children, and must be addressed accordingly. Paul goes from reason to rebuke to establish that justification is by faith.



 Vital Stats - Heb. name Saul.  Born at Tarsus in Cilicia, Asia Minor. Date ?
 Heritage - Ro 11:1, Phil 3:5,6
 Citizenship - Rome (Ac 16:37, 22:25-28)
 Occupation - Tentmaker (Ac 18:1-3)
Paul learned of his Jewish heritage as a child in the synagogues of Tarsus, but was later formally educated in Jerusalem under Rabbi Gamliel (Ac 22:3, 5:27-40), and became a Pharisee, (Ac 26:4,5, 23:6). When Christianity first came to prominence, Paul devoted himself to its eradication (Ac 9:1,2; 1 Co 15:9; Gal 1:13) and was present at the stoning of Stephen (Ac 7:58-8:1). While en route to Damascus in pursuit of Christians who had fled, Paul had a remarkable experience (Ac 1-19, Ac 21:37-33:21) and received his mission. 20 years later Paul compared his experience to that of the disciples seeing Jesus after His Resurrection (1 Co 15:1-10).
From this point on, Paul devoted himself to missionary work throughout Asia Minor and Greece and took advantage of the highway system built by the Romans to go on at least three extended tours through the territory. His mission was to take the Gospel to the Gentiles, but he would usually go to the local synagogue first because he felt it was important to proclaim the Gospel to the Jews as well (Ac 13:46-48; Ro 1:16, Chaps 9-11). However, there is no doubt about the focus of his efforts (Gal 2:7-9). Paul endured numerous hardships (2 Co 11:21-33) and was eventually executed by Nero.
 Background - Tarsus had a typical Greek culture for its day. Multiethnic population and a variety of religions. Known for its interest in philosophy, it was home to many Stoics. Paul was well acquainted with their thinking and debating style and makes several references to their writers, but the only specific Scriptural reference to the Stoics is found in Ac 17:17-34.

Note: Ac 14:19, 20 with 2 Co 12:1-10, and the paradox of v. 11

Ch.1:1 - A defense of authority (A Direct Commission from God)

              -"Apostle" - one who is sent Lk 9:1,2,10 Jn 20:20-22

              - "Not of men" (source) "Neither by man" (channel)

Note: this separates Paul from the false apostles, links him with the Twelve.

 - "But" - The Divine source and channel of his Commission 1 Co 9:1,2     Outward investiture Ac 9:15-17, 13:2,3

              - "Who raised…" "- The power of a risen and glorified Lord is with him.

2 - His fellow travelers at this point included Timothy.

     -"churches" - The only epistle addressed to a group. Indicating the problem.

3 - The omission of any praise in addressing the Galatians shows the extent of the problem (Ro 1:7,8 1 Co 1:4 Phil 1:3-5, etc).

   - "From" connects to "By" on v.1

4 - The only grounds for acceptance by God. The Galatians practically ignored Christ’s atoning death (see Gal 2:21-3:4).

     -"deliver" = "rescue" from a state of bondage

     -"present evil world" - Read: "the dominion of the evil one"

     -"will of God…" - NOT OUR OWN EFFORTS

    - "God and our Father" = "our God and Father" (see Jn 20:17)

5 - The expression of God’s grace and mercy flows into praise for God’s glory

       see (Jn 17:5) (Mt 6:13)

      -"for ever and ever" in contrast to the "present" of v.4.

6-9 (6) - "soon" = "readily" or "easily"  "to remove from" = "to desert"

(This indignant surprise replaces the thanksgiving of the other letters). ANOTHER GOSPEL - A different gospel is not gospel at all.

      (7) - There cannot be two gospels. A gospel of works cannot be gospel due to the calling in v.6

Important: "pervert" = Gr. "metastrepho" = to reverse, to change to the opposite

     (8) - This is not interpretation, it is demonic. Remember that Satan himself is "an angel from heaven" 1 Th 5:21

       v. 8 is hypothetical, and unlikely. v. 9 was occurring.

     (9) - Reality. "accursed" = Gr. "anathema" 1 Co 16:22

      Accursed = devoted to destruction, alienated from God by sin. Much stronger than simple excommunication or shunning by man.

10 - Paul responds to charges of inconsistency (based on his past)

     - "now" At this time, in this epistle - after the strength of v.9, an uncompromising statement (accursed).

     - "If  I…" Mt 6:24 Jn 2:23-25, note Gen 15:12-17 and the furnace/lamp-wilderness/promised land-suffering/glory

We cannot be menpleasers to avoid the sufferings and persecutions of serving God without also giving up the rewards and glory. God has bound them together inextricably.

Ro 8:16-18   Heb 2:9,10 12:1-12    Menpleasers don’t endure 2 Co 11:23-31

Isa 53 connected to Mt 20:20-23    Compare Mk 10:17-30 1 Jn 5:21

11 - "But" = "To the contrary"

     - "I certify you" - to emphasize like the "verily, verily" in John. See 1 Co 12:1

12 - The learned apostle discredits his knowledge, acquired through his efforts and study. Wisdom was transmitted to him, revealed to him by Jesus Christ. 1 Co 1:17-31.God may either reveal Himself (His Word) or blind us to the truth. 2 Co 4:3,4

13-14 - Paul uses his past as evidence this his "conversion" was not of man, nor could have been.He was established, passionate, successful, and COMPLETELY UNMOTIVATED TO CHANGE….

15 - BUT When it pleased God, Who is sovereign Isa 49:1,5 Jer 1:4,5

    Important -There is a progression in God’s plan for our lives

Separation before birth Eph 1:4-14

Calling Isa 6:1, 8-10 Eze 1:3 Mt 4:18,20

Sanctification (setting apart) Ac 13:2,3 Gen 17:10,11

Note the 4 named by God before birth on the O.T., - Isaac (Gen 17:19), Solomon (1 Chr 22:9) Josiah (1 Ki 13:2) Cyrus (Isa 45:1 ([137 yrs before birth]), Sanctification is for God’s purpose, whatever it may be: see "My servant" in Jer 25:9.

    - "by His grace" - there is no other way Eph 2:8-10

16 - "to reveal" - The purpose of God’s call Jn 1:7 + Mt 5:14-16

       "flesh and blood" - compare to Mt 16:13-17

       Note Mk 1:21,22

17 - Paul firmly re-emphasizes his point. 

18 -20  (18) - "after" = after his conversion. Paul spent two weeks with Peter, but the visit was cut short (Ac 9:26-30)

             (19) - "Other" = aside from the Twelve he met in Ac 9:27

             (20) - Affirmation of truth in response to his accusers.

21-24 (21) - Syria and Cilicia - see Ac 9:30, 11:25,26

           (22) - "of Judea" not Jerusalem, where he was probably known.

           (23) - "had heard" "Kept hearing" about his conversion.

           (24) - Paul became an example of Gods’ power. He remains so.

Ch 2:1 - "After" = after his conversion (11 yrs. after 1:18). This is Paul’s THIRD visit to Jerusalem. The SECOND - Ac 11:27-30, 12:25 (Read Ac 12)

             We will read Gal 2:1-10 then Ac 15:1-35

              Gal 2:11-17 is between Ac 15:35 and 36

                     Ac 15:36-41

2 - Once again, "by revelation", not by man

   - "privately" - Paul had a private session with the Apostles to prevent his efforts from being thwarted by misunderstanding or outside opposition (Ac 2:1)

3 - "Neither" = "not even" "with me" from Ac 15:2

Significant for an uncircumcised Greek to be sanctioned by the Apostles.

4, 5 - The Judaizers sent spies to undermine the gospel. Paul says "We didn’t give them the time of day" 2 Ti 2:15,16 Titus 3:8-10

6 - Those who had status impressed neither Paul nor God (Ps 40:4) Jas 2:1-10

note Ex 23:3, Lev 19:15

7-10 - After recognizing that Paul’s calling was Divine, they welcomed his ministry to the Gentiles while they continued their mission to the Jews. As always, caring for the Lord’s poor was a priority. "Poor" meaning those suffering deprivation, destitute, or in need. (Mt 5)

11-13 - Peter is castigated by Paul for what he did AND for causing others to stumble (Ro 14)

14 - "before them all" 1 Ti 5:19.20 Ro 15:14

15-17 - We are ambassadors for Christ (2 Co 5:20)

          - We should look like our Father (Ro 8:28, 29)

          - Ministers have a higher standard (Jas 3:1,2)

18 - "make myself…" = "I prove myself to have been a transgressor"

         Lk 9:62 Heb 6:4-6 1 Co 10:4 Nu 20:11

19 - "through" = read "having passed through"

20 - "am" = "have been" see 1:1

21 - "frustrate" = "negate", "to count as nothing" often translated in the Bible as "despise" (Gr. "atheteo")

Ch. 3: Having stated his case and answering his accusers, Paul begins to scold the Galatians like a stern schoolmaster.

1 - What have you been smoking? Have you lost all focus on the meaning of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion? See 1:6

2 - The 2nd rhetorical question

3 - Questions #3 and #4

4 - Question #5

5 - Question #6 - A reference to God’s Word/Jesus Christ (Ro 10:14-17)

       (6 is the number of man, i.e. flesh)

6 - continues a discussion of faith and works introduced by v. 5  Gen 15:1-6

     "believed" = Heb. "aman" = Eng. "amen" 1st in Scripture

     Answers many questions about salvation for O.T. saints

7 - Answers and eliminates many questions of genealogy (see Rev 7:4-8, 1 Ti 1:4,

          Titus 3:9 ahead to Gal 3:26-29)

IMPORTANT - V.8 - Unique in the N.T. - The Personification of Scripture.

The Scripture is a prophet. The promise to Abraham anticipates the gospels. The Greek tense denotes the certainty of God’s actions and the accomplishment of His purpose as if it were actually present. We commonly call it "the prophetic future" tense. Compare the virgin birth forecasting of Gen 3:15 ("her Seed")

           "all nations" - Salvation of the Gentiles through Jesus Christ

9 - Jn 1:12,13 and Jn 3:16

10 - From Deu 27:26 Failure condemns. What saves? See v. 11

11 - From Hab 2:4 "live" = eternally live

12 - From Lev 18:5 "live" = continually live i.e., rule-keeping perpetuates itself for those who remain under the law and thereby are subject to v. 10.

13 - Redeemed = Paid for, Ransomed (think of a pawnshop)

      - "curse of the law" - Ro 3:19-23 Ro 8:1-4

       - "made a curse" - Jesus literally became a sin offering

               Quote is from Deut 21:22,23 Note: "accursed"

14 - Sums up the reason for v. 13

        - "promise of the Spirit" - The promise of Gen 15. Note the equation of "the Spirit" of this verse with "the Lord of" Gen 15.

        - "through faith" - The ONLY way to receive the promise Heb 11:6

15 - "Let me put it in worldly terms. Even a natural man’s will, once ratified, cannot be canceled or amended. How much less can we alter or frustrate God’s will."

16 - Paul strictly interprets and explains Gen 21:12 as referring individually to Jesus Christ, who was born almost 1900 years later.

17 - The fact that the law was subsequent to the covenant (promise) doesn’t matter. The covenant is not canceled.

CRITICAL - "Four Hundred and Thirty Years" Gal 3:17

1 - The "400 years" and "430 years" of sojourning are not "approximations". They refer to different starting points. It was 430 years to the "selfsame day" from the promise to Abram in Gen 15 to Ex 12:40,41 when the Israelites AND the mixed multitude (Ex 12:38) left Egypt.

2 - The 400 years is reckoned from the "official" recognition of Isaac in Gen 21:12 when Isaac was 5 years old.

Note: The number "5" is stamped all over Abraham by God. It was the 5th letter of the Hebrew alphabet which was used to change the names of Abram (Abraham) and Sarai (Sarah).


     - Called at age 50, Abram did not actually leave until his father died 25 years later (Gen 12:4) - at age 75.

     - At age 85 (Gen 16:3) Abram begat Ishmael (not the firstborn of promise)

     At age 86, (Gen 16:16) Ishmael was born (not a multiple of "5", not of God)

     -At age 99 (Gen 17:1), after the name change (Gen 17:5) Abraham begat Isaac, born when Abraham was 100 (Gen 21:5). Since Abraham had now sojourned 25 years, (not 30), we know that at Gen 21:8, Abraham is 105, Sarah is 95, Ishmael is 19 (despite the word "child" in Gen 21:14,15), and Isaac is 5.

IMPORTANT - The Israelites were NOT in bondage for 400 years, but SOJOURNING. The period in Egypt was 215 years, EXACTLY half of the time between Abram's call and the Exodus. This is marked by Gen 47:9 which gives Jacob's age as 130. Based on Gen 25:19, Isaac married at age 40 (Abraham was 140). Jacob was born 20 years later when Isaac was 60 (Gen 25:26) and Abraham was 160. So, since Abraham started out at age 75: 160 - 75 = 85 years of sojourning at Jacob's birth. 85 + 130 = 215 years of sojourning + 215 years of dwelling in Egypt = 430 years.

18 - The inheritance (our salvation) was never based on the law, but a promise from God. Heb 6:10-20

19 - What was the law for if we had this promise? To show us, and keep us on the right path until the fulfillment of the promise. Ro 4:13-17

     "mediator" = "Moses" (middleman)

20 - When a mediator is used, we do not deal directly. The promise was given directly by God. 1 Ti 2:5;Heb 8:6, 9:15, 12:24

                  John 10:30 makes God His own mediator

21 - The law did not, could not negate the promise. The law could not save. If so, the promise would have been unnecessary.

22 - The Scripture Ro 3:19-23 1 Jn 1:8-10

23 - "kept" = "kept in custody" - God used the law to supervise and protect us while His plan unfolded.

24,25 - "schoolmaster" Gr "paidagogos" (eng. "pedagogue") - A person, usually a trusted slave, who was responsible for the boys in the family, taking them to school, etc. Acting as a guardian, leader and mentor. Escorting and watching over them.God led us, protected us, and taught us until, v. 25 (Mt 5:17,18)

26 - We are children "by faith" Ro 8:23 "adoption" Eph 1:5

27 - We are baptized "into Christ", dressed in the fulfillment of God’s promise, Jesus Christ, in whom we abide. 2 Co 5:1-5

28 - NO DIVISIONS IN THE FAMILY! We are equal, we are one, we are NOT the same. 1 Co 12:4-14

                                     All prejudice is UNGODLY.

29 - The seed of Abraham is not determined by genealogy. Note the words of Jesus contrasting "physical" seed with "spiritual". Jn 8:33-47

Ch. 4 - Paul continues with imagery of children under tutelage.

1 - child = infant (before speaking age) "heir" in this context does not require that the father be deceased.

2 - An infant, regardless of future status, is subject to guardians and stewards until a designated time. (v. 4) Heb 11:3

3 - Under the Law, we were subject to worldly rules (literally "elementary instructions") dealing with physical things.

4 - At God’s pre-ordained time. When the Law had (negatively) convicted us to make us (positively) more able to comprehend the Messiah.

    "sent forth" = Gr. "exapostello" (To be sent forth away from one’s home)

5 - The fulfillment of the Law.(Being rescued from bondage was a REQUIRED prior condition for our sonship).

Note: Although we were always God’s children (4:1) we were only slaves (4:3), without the privileges of sons. We are sons by grace not nature. This requires that we be adopted. Once adopted, we cannot be disowned. (Ro 8:31-39)

    "redeemed" - from bondage (v.3) Lev 25 47-49,55

6 - Jas 1:18 "Abba" = Aramaic word roughly equivalent to "Daddy"

7 - We have reached the appointed time of v.2 "through Christ" - NOT by birth or by our own merits.

8 - You were once idolaters through ignorance for centuries, yet…..

9 - Refer back to Gal 1:6,7 and Gal 4:3

       "known of God" = "acknowledged by God" (as heirs)

10 - NOT a reference to celebrating birthdays, etc. The observers of times are superstitious fortune tellers basing decisions on cloud formations, days of the week, etc.  Ex: Don’t travel on Friday…..

11 - "I’m afraid my hard work on your behalf may have been in vain."

The spiritual aspects of the Law were absorbed into the New Covenant, leaving behind only rules and ritual - the elements of heathenism.

10 - 12 - "…become as I am, because I was as you are…": "You treated me well, back then."

13,14 - "through" = "because of"

IMPORTANT:  "my" should be "your". Paul’s infirmity was a test for the Galatians! They passed with flying colors. 2 Co 10:10

15,16 - What happened to the joy, the satisfaction? Truth?

17 - "They pump you up, shutting you off from grace, to pump themselves up."

18 - Gal 6:9 "I("adult") shouldn’t have to be present for you ("children") to act right."

19 - Paul continues as a parent of Christ within them as well as the Galatians themselves (note "again"). A double birthing.

20 - Paul expresses frustration at having to write instead of being present AND for the tone he is forced to take

21-24 - Hagar/Ishmael = Old covenant

           Sarah/Isaac = New covenant

   Note: Sarah is the only woman whose age is given, 127 (Gen 23:1,2). The 127 years corresponds to the time from her death to God’s covenant with Jacob/Israel    (Gen 35:1-15).

       v. 23. "born" = "begotten"

      v. 24. "these" = Hagar and Sarah

25 - "Hagar" is the Arabic name for Mt. Sinai. Both children were Abraham’s by flesh, only one by promise

      "answereth to" Lit. "belongs in the same column with"

26 - Heavenly Jerusalem (Rev 21:10) (Heb 11:13-16)

27 - Quote from Isa 54:1 (note Isa 1:7,8) (1 Sa 1:1,2,10,11,20, 2:21)

28 - "The seed of Abraham"

29 - Mk 10:28-31 Jn 17:12-16

30 - Quote from Gen 21:9,10

31 - "So then" should be "wherefore"

Ch. 5:1 - "Stand fast" - To be stationary; To persevere

            "again" - from the slavery of Heathenism to the slavery of Judaism.

2 - "be circumcised" = "agree to become circumcised (emphatic "I" vv.2,10,11)

3 - "testify" = "called as a witness", not "bearing witness" Note: "again"

Circumcision is the seal of the Law. To enter into contract with the law resigns you to that mode of justification, excluding grace.

4 - "Christ is…" - Literally "You were severed from Christ (when you were cut)

5 - The Spirit - the other seal Eph 1:3-14

       "wait" = "to expect fully", "to anticipate eagerly and/or patiently"

       "hope" - Titus 2:13 Heb 6:11:20

6 - It is not the physical circumcision or uncircumcision, but the heart which attends it that makes the difference

    Note: vv:5,6 contain the combination of faith, love, and hope (Col 1:4,5 1 Th 1:3)

7 -You were doing so well. Who got you off course? (Mt 7:13,14)

8,9 - The change didn’t come from God, and even if it’s only a few of you, it will spread. (Hag 2:11-3) (1 Co 5:6-8)

   Note:God can use leaven, via fermentation, to purify. God can turn evil to good.

10 - The 2nd emphatic "I" of this chapter. Paul expresses confidence in them, but has a warning for others (Gal 1:6,7)

11 - Paul responds to his critics. "If I’m preaching circumcision, why are they upset about me?"

   - "offense (stumbling block) of the cross" see 1 Co 1:23,24

      Note: His enemies would refer to the events of Ac 16:1-3. The response is Gal 5:6, and 1 Co 9:19-23

12 - "I wish they would go ahead and dismember themselves". A reference to a practice in the worship of Cybele. Pessinus, one of the chief Galatian towns, was the home of the worship of Cybele. This has been part of pagan history (self-mutilation) 1 Ki 18:25-28

13 - 1 Pe 2:13-17 Liberty is prevented from degenerating into license by placing ourselves in bondage to love (Eph 3:1, 4:1)

14 - Mt 22:34-40

15 - A parenthetical warning    Mk 3:24,25

16 - "in the Spirit" = "by the Spirit"

      "fulfill" = to consummate, bring to full end. Lust of the flesh cannot be  eliminated, it must be controlled. (2 Co 10:3-5) (Jas 1:12-15)

17 - "against" = Gr. "kata" denotes vertical motion downward from a higher plane; in the Accusative, (2nd occurrence) it denotes a horizontal motion against. That is, the flesh tries to bring down the Spirit. The Spirit pushes flesh aside.

     "contrary" = In direct opposition; adversarial

     "cannot" = "may not" - Following your desires, feelings, and emotions will put you in conflict with the Spirit (Gen 6:3)

18 - One or the other - not both see 5:4

19 - "Works…manifest" - Will be brought to light (2 Sa 12:12) (1 Co 3:13)

Works of the flesh produce thorns (Gen 3:17,18). Works by the Spirit will yield fruit. Note the process in 1 Co 3:6.

     "which" = "such as" (the list is not all inclusive, there are others)

IMPORTANT - "Adultery" is not in the text. By the Spirit’s reckoning, it is included in "Fornication" = Gr. "Porneia" - includes harlotry, adultery, incest, idolatry, any indulgence in unlawful lust either PHYSICAL or SPIRITUAL. Why is it listed first? It is indicative of Satan’s greatest stronghold.


         1 Co 2:7-14 Ro 12:1-2 1 Pe 4:17,18 Mk 10:1-12 Mk 12:18-25

  B. GOD’S DESIGN AND INTENTION Gen 1:27,28 Gen 2:23-25

                           Eph 5:30-32 1 Co 6:15-20 Heb 13:4

                          Note how God established His covenant Gen 17:10,11

                          How solemn oaths were made  Gen 24:2,3


                  2 Co 11:2,3 (Gen 3) - Rape, Adultery    Gen 4:19 - Polygamy

                 Gen 6:2 - Unnatural Relations   Lev 18:24, (vs. 6-23 Incest, Homosexuality, Bestiality)

We have been deceived into believing in "holy matrimony" while referring to its expression with words like "premarital" and "casual".

19 (cont)  - WORKS OF THE FLESH - Carnal Passions

              - uncleanness (Gr. akatharsia) = Impurity. Used in Ro 1:24. Defined by

                       2 Co 7:1 (flesh and spirit) Mk 7:1-16 (Things are defiled by sin)

             - lasciviousness (Gr. aselgeia) = Indulgence of carnal desires; lustfulness; a disregard for decency. Mk 7:17-23 Jas 1:14,15 1 Pe 1:13-16

20 - WORKS OF THE FLESH - Spiritual Violations

        - idolatry (Gr. eidololatres) = The open recognition of false gods.   Violation of 1st and 2nd commandments (Ex 20:1-6) note Mt 22:34-40

       - witchcraft - (Gr. pharmakeia) = The secret tampering with the powers of evil; sorcery. More specifically, magical incantations by means of drugs. Ex 22:18 1 Sa 15:22,23 Paired w/idolatry Nu 24:1 2 Ki 9:22

    - WORKS OF THE FLESH - Violations of Brotherly Love   (ascending order)

       - hatred - (Gr. echtra) - Hostility leading to opposition, usually translated "enmity" (Ro 8:7) Breaching charity in feeling or act

       - variance (Gr. eris) = Quarreling; Dissension; Discord, translated "contentions" 1 Co 1:11 and Titus 3:9

       - emulations (Gr. zelos) = Jealousy with a desire to depress another (Phil 2:3)

       - wrath (Gr. thumos) = The effects or manifestation of anger or indignation. Ro 1:18 Jas 1:20

      - strife - (Gr. eritheia) = Contention in anger or enmity for superiority, resulting from division and in division 1 Co 1:10,11; 3:3

      - seditions (Gr. dichostasis) = The formal divisions of factions which develop from strife (Gal 5:15)

      - heresies (Gr. hairesis) = Sect; Party; Denomination, or the doctrines of any such group. Fundamental errors in doctrine. Mk 12:18,24

21 - envyings (Gr. phthonos) = Ill will; Spite; the desire to deprive another of what they have (accompanied by malice)

     - murders (Gr. phonos) = The ultimate expression of envy by depriving another of life Gen 9:6 1 Jn 3:11-15

    - WORKS OF THE FLESH - Intemperate excesses 

     - drunkenness (Gr. methe) = Habitual intoxication Ro 13:12-14 Lk 21:34

      - revellings (Gr. komos) (Heb. chemosh) Literally, Comus banquets -Feasts including idolatry, witchcraft, pagan practices 2 Ki 23:1-14

       "…and such like" = The list is not all inclusive

      Important: "do" = "practice" - This is not about individual stumbles, but everyday behavior (our walk). Compare 1 Co 6:9-11

     - "kingdom of God" - The subject of Revelation. All of God’s sovereignty

22 - "But" = contrast "of the Spirit" = generated by the Spirit

       - "fruit" = What is produced. The effect and consequence of what is produced. The advantage or profit that is derived.

      Note Mt 7:16 Flesh = Thorns, Thistles producing no fruits

Fruit is singular, because the 9 (3x3) items are components, not individual entities. They are arranged in three groups.

  GROUP 1 - Habits of mind and attitude

        - Love (Gr. agape) - The foundation (1 Co 13:1-3 with Mt 7:24-27) Love is the skin or rind. If removed, the other components spoil quickly.

        - Joy (Gr. chara) - The superstructure - A state inspired by glory and triumph or its anticipation. Heb 12:2 Jas 1:2-4

        - Peace (Gr. eirene) - The crown - Spiritual well-being. Freedom from fear, terror, and anxiety. Phil 4:6,7 2 Ti 1:6,7 1 Jn 4:18

  GROUP 2 - Habits of Fellowship

       - Longsuffering (Gr. makrothumes) - Passive - Patient endurance under affliction or provocation. Eph 4:1-3 Isa 53:7

       - Gentleness (Gr. chrestotes) - Neutral - Mildness of temper, disposition, or manners. Outward kindness. Mt 11:28-30

       - Goodness (Gr. agathosune) - Active - The performance of moral and righteous works Ps 34:11-16 Lk 10:30-35

  GROUP 3 - Habits of Conduct

       -Faith (Gr. pistis) - Fidelity (Tit 2:10) Adherence to duty; Fulfillment of promises; Sincerity; Credibility Mt 5:37 1 Pe 2:11,12 Col 3:22-24

23 - Meekness (Gr. praotes) - Humility; Submission to Divine will without complaint or murmuring. Opposite to pride, arrogance and obstinance. Mt 11:29 Note Nu 12:3 (Heb. anah) To endure with submission what could be avoided. Col 3:12,13

    - Temperance (Gr. enkrateia) - Self control; Moderation of indulgence. Opposite to excess. In Eph 5:18 "excess" = Gr. "asotia" = without salvation, i.e. acting unsaved. 1 Pe 4:1-4 Mt 23:25

       - "against such…" - The law exists to restrain and control. This is not necessary for the Spirit (1 Ti 1:9-11). Gal 5:18 1 Th 5:19

24 - Explained fully in Col 2:20-3:17      "mortify" = put to death. We no longer live according to emotions/feelings/passions.

25 - If we have our life through the Spirit, we should do our living according to the Spirit. Jas 1:18-27 Pr 3:5,6

26 - 3 words used nowhere else in Scripture.

       - "desirous of vainglory" = Gr. kenodoxos - Prone to empty pride and boasting with undue elation over one’s own performance or achievement. It is always exclusive, not inclusive.

       - "provoking" = Gr. prokaleomai - To incite or induce anger or resentment. Leading another to stumble by rousing the "affections and lusts" of Gal 5:24. Often done indirectly through gossip.

       - "envying" = Gr. phthoneo - Ill will resulting from a spirit of competition instead of cooperation. Adversarial relationships  Read:2 Co 10:12   Lk 15:25-32    Mt 20:1-16

Ch. 6:1 - Addressed to "Brethren" (in Christ). What to do if…? For background: 1 Co 5:1-6 AND 2 Co 2:1-11.

       Who - Those who are spiritual, based on Gal 5:16-25

       Why - To correct and restore.

       Warning - The next time, it may be you who stumbles.

 2 - "burdens" - Gr. "baros" - Situations calling for help, sympathy, mercy.

         1 Th 5:11-15 Phil 2:1-4

         "Law of Christ" - The 11th commandment Jn 13:34,35

 3 - 1 Co 13:2 1 Co 3:6,7 1 Co 15:9,10 2 Co 3:5 Pr 15:33

 Mt 23:11,12 Jas 4:10

 4 - "prove…" - 2 Pe 1:10 (read 4-11) 2 Co 10:12

 5 - "burden" = Gr. "phortion" - This is the cross of Mt 10:38, 16:24

 This is individual. This is one’s divine calling. This does not mean we cannot receive assistance (Mt 27:31,32) 1 Co 12:14-20

6 - Hearers of the Word must support the ministers of the Word

      1 Co 9:13,14 Note the correlation of the following verses to 2 Co 9

(7-10) - (7) - "mocked" = Gr "mukterizomai" = to turn up the nose at" see Mal 3:8

                            God is sovereign - Gen 8:22

              (8) - "his" = "his own" - Indicates a lack of sacrifice. Note "works" of the flesh" (5:19) vs. "fruit of the Spirit" (5:22) 1 Co 15:50

              (9) - Mt 6:19-21

             (10) - Paul indicates that v. 6 does not exclude others, it is a priority.  Mt 25:34-40

 11 - Paul used large writing for emphasis. Common before the printing press (note John Hancock’s famous signature). Nothing to do with eyesight.

             Note 2 Th 3:17

 12,13 - Paul returns to the doctrinal correction at the beginning of the epistle. Note Mt 23:15

14 - See v. 3 2 Co 12:6-11 "is" = "has been"

15 - "creature" = "creation" 2 Co 5:14-17

16 - "according to…" = "by this line" referring to a carpenter’s or surveyor’s line. Ps 37:23

17 - "marks" = Gr. "stigma" - Slaves were branded (Eph 3:1, 4:1)

18 - Benediction.   Omit "Lord"